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Cibrarjp  of ^he  theological  ^tminavy 


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The  Rev.  John  M.  Krebs 
Class  of  1832 

BX  9070  .C34  1842  v. 2 
Calderwood,  David,  1575- 

The  history  of  the  Kirk  of 




















Eiiixniur.ri  i-rtxtinu  comi-axy,  soitii  st  david  s.xurHT. 





Ambassadors  sent  from  France  to  England  to  treat  of  peace,      .  1 
Terms  of  the  agreement,        ....  2 
Peace  proclaimed  between  France,  England,  and  Scotland,         .  10 
Departure  of  the  French  and  English  troops  from  Scotland,         .  ib. 
Public  thanksgiving  ordered  by  the  Congregation  for  their  deliver- 
ance,              .                .                 .                                 .  11 
Appointment  of  superintendents  and  ministers  to  several  charges,  ib. 
Opposition  of  certain  members  of  the  Parliament  to  the  Reforma- 
tion,       .                                 .                 .                 .                .12 
Address  of  the  Barons,  Gentlemen,  Burgesses,  &c.,  to  the  Parlia- 
ment, craving  the  reform  of  religious  abuses,                .  t6. 
A  Confession  of  Faith  drawn  up  in  consequence,      .                 .  15 
Preface  to  the  Confession,        .                .                -  16 
Articles  of  the  Confession,                 .                 .                 .17 

1.  Of  God,               ....  ib. 

2.  Of  the  Creation  of  Man,            .                .                 .  ib. 

3.  Of  Original  Sin,                 ...  18 

4.  Of  the  revelation  of  the  Promises,            .                .  ib. 

5.  The  continuance,   increase,   and  preservation  of  the 

Church,            ....  19 

6.  Of  the  Incarnation  of  Christ  Jesus,          .                .  Uf. 
VOL.  II.                                                                                              b 



7.  Why  it  behoved  the  Mediator  to  be  very  God  and  very 

Man,  ....  20 

8.  Of  Election,  .  .  .  .  ib. 

9.  Of  Christ's^Death,  Passion,  and  Burial,  .  21 

10.  Resurrection,  .  .  .  .  ib. 

11.  Ascension,  ....  22 

12.  Of  Faith  in  the  Holy  Ghost,      .  .  .23 

13.  The  cause  of  Good  Works,  .  .  ib. 

14.  What  Works  are  reputed  good  before  God,  .  24 

15.  The  perfection  of  the  Law,  and  imperfection  of  Man,  26 

16.  Of  the  Kirk,      ....  ib. 

17.  Of  the  Immortality  of  the  Soul,         .  .  27 

1 8.  Of  the  Notes  by  which  the  True  Kirk  is  discerned  from 

the  False,  and  who  shall  be  judge  of  the  Doctrine,  28 

19.  Of  the  Authority  of  the  Scriptures,  .  .  30 

20.  Of  General  Councils  ;  of  their  Power,  Authority,  and 

Cause  of  their  convocation,  .  .  ib. 

21.  Of  the  Sacraments,  .  .  .31 

22.  Of  the  right  administration  of  the  Sacraments,  33 

23.  To  whom  the  Sacraments  appertain,  .  .  35 

24.  Of  the  Civil  Magistrate,  .  .  ib. 

25.  Of  the  Gifts  freely  given  to  the  Church,                    .  36 
The  Confession  of  Faith  ratified  by  the  three  Estates,         .  37 
The  Mass  and  the  Pope's  jurisdiction  proscribed  by  Acts  of  Par- 
liament,                 •                 •                 •                 •                 .38 

Sir  James  Sandilands  sent  to  France  to  obtain  ratification  of  these 

Acts,  .....  39 

His  mission  is  unsuccessful,  .  .  .  .40 

Sudden  death  of  the  King  of  France,  .  .  ib. 

The  late  Parliament  proven  to  be  lawful  and  valid,     .  .  ib. 

Form  of  Church  Policy  appointed  to  be  drawn  up,  ,  41 

The  Book  of  Discipline  published,  and  objected  to  by  many,     .  42 

The  Earl  of  Arran  proposed  in  marriage  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  ib. 

Prospects  of  a  new  invasion  from  France,  .  .  43 

The  invasion  frustrated  by  the  sudden  death  of  the  French  king,  44 

The  First  General  Assembly,  .  .  .  ib. 

Names  of  the  ministers  and  commissioners  who  attended,  ib. 

Names  of  those  who  were  thought  qualified  to  be  appointed 

ministers  and  readers,  ...  45 

Restalrig  united  to  Leith,  .  .  .46 

Acts  of  the  First  Assembly,       .  .  .  ib. 



Petitions  of  the  First  Assembly,        .                 .  .47 
Lord  James  sent  by  the  Convention  to  the  Queen,      .  .         ib. 
A  disputation  before  the  Convention  upon  the  Mass  as  a  propitia- 
tory sacrifice,                   ....  -48 
The  Popish  respondents  refuted  and  silenced,               .  .         49 
The  Book  of  Discipline  subscribed  by  the  members  of  the  Conven- 
tion,           ...                    .                 .  50 
Of  the  Ministers.    Their  election  and  admission.    What  things 
are  chiefly  required  in  the  ministers,             .                 .  51 
Of  their  office  and  duty,                     .                 .  .52 
The  manner  of  electing  pastors  or  ministers,              .  ih. 
Of  the  elders  ;  and  their  office  and  election,      .  .         53 
Of  the  deacons  ;  and  their  office  and  election,            .  54 
The  weekly  assembly  of  the  ministers,  elders,  and  deacons,      55 
Interpretation  of  the  Scriptures,        .                 .  .56 
Form  and  order  of  the  election  of  a  superintendent,  appli- 
cable also  to  the  election  of  all  other  ministers,         .  ib. 
The  Order  of  Ecclesiastical  Discipline. 

The  Necessity  of  Discipline,              .                 .  .62 

What  Discipline  is,             .                 .                 .  .         ib. 

For  what  cause  it  ought  to  be  used,           .                 •  63 

The  order  of  proceeding  in  Private  Discipline,  .         ib. 

What  things  are  to  be  observed  in  Private  Discipline,  64 

Of  Public  Discipline,  and  the  end  of  it,            .  .         ib. 

Excommunication  the  last  resource,          .                 .  ib. 

Rigour  in  punishment  to  be  avoided,                 .  .         65 

God's  Word  the  only  rule  of  Discipline,                     .  ib. 
The  Order  of  Excommunication  and  Public  Repentance. 

Preface  to  the  Reader,       .                 .                 .  .         ib. 
The  Crimes  of  Excommunication,                               .  66 
The  Form,                                           .                 .  .68 
The  Confession  of  the  Penitent,                 *                 .  70 
Offences  that  deserve  Public  Repentance,  and  Order  to  pro- 
ceed in  it,       .                .                 •                 •  .71 
The  Form  and  Order  of  Public  Repentance,              •  74 
The  Form  of  Excommunication,       .                 .  .80 
The  Order  to  receive  the  Excommunicated  again  to  the  So- 
ciety of  the  Church,                 ...  90 
Form  OF  the  Visitation  OF  the  Sick,      .                .  .94 
Form  of  Burial,                               .                .                 •  ^^ 



The  Order  of  Baptism,  .  .  .  .100 

The  Manner  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  .  .  HI 

The  Form  of  Marriage,  ....         117 

An  Adulterer  in  Edinburgli  rescued  from  the  Magistrates,  .  121 
Queen  Mary  retires   to  Lorraine  on   the  death  of  the   King  of 

France,         .  •  .  .  .  ih. 

Advised  to  arrest  Lord  James,  .  .  .         122 

Deliberation  in  France  whether  Mary  should  return  to  Scotland,  ib. 
Defence  of  the  Queen's  interests  in  her  absence  by  the  Reformers,  123 
Insurrection  in  Edinburgh  about  the  play  of  Robin  Hood,         .  ib. 

The  Second  General  Assembly,        .  .  .  126 

Articles  presented  by  this  Assembly  to  the  Lords  of  Secret 

Council,  .  .  .  .  .         ih. 

Supplication,  ....  127 

Attempts  to  assassinate  Lord  James  in  Paris,  .  .128 

The  Queen  writes  to  the  Lords  recommending  quietness  till  her 

return,  .....  129 

Their  answer  to  the  French  Ambassador,  who  instigates  them  to 

break  the  league  with  England,  .  .  ib 

Monasteries  demolished  by  an  act  of  the  lords,  .  .130 

Queen  Mary,  before  her  voyage,  betrays  her  purposes  to  suppress 

the  Reformation,  ....  ib. 

She  requests  a  safe  passage  to  Scotland  from  Elizabeth,  .         131 

Elizabeth  refuses,  ....  ib. 

Throgmorton's  letter  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  describing  his  inter- 
view with  Mary,  .  .  .  .  ib. 
Elizabeth  incensed  at  Mary's  usurpation  of  the  Arms  of  England,  136 
Elizabeth's  letter  to  the  Scottish  nobles,  complaining  of  the  non- 
fulfilment  of  the  treaty  of  Leith,  .  .  137 
Their  answer,  .....  140 
Queen  Mary's  voyage  homeward,  .  .  .  141 
Her  landing  at  Leith,  ....  142 
She  pardons  the  Edinburgh  rioters,  .  .  143 
The  Reformers  take  offence  at  her  private  Mass,  .  .  ib. 
Disturbance  in  the  Palace  in  consequence,  .  .  ib. 
Act  made  for  the  future  protection  of  her  followers  and  servants,  144 
The  Earl  of  Arran's  protest  against  the  act,  .  145 
The  zeal  of  the  professors  cooled  by  the  Queen's  blandishments,  147 
Knox  objects  to  the  toleration  of  the  Queen's  Mass,  .  ib. 
He  is  summoned  to  the  presence  of  the  Queen,  .  .  148 
He  defends  before  her  his  writing  "  The  First  Blast,"  &c.                 149 



Professes  his  willingness  to  obey  a  female  sovereign,          .  150 

Advocates  the  right  of  resistance  to  unjust  rulers,               .  151 
Offers  to  dispute  with  the  ablest  of  the  Papists  on  the  ground  of 

their  faith,            .                 .                .                 .  .152 
His  dismission  ;  and  his  opinion  of  the  Queen,                   .  15."} 
Mary's  public  entry  into  Edinburgh,              .              .  .         154 
She  changes  the  magistrates,               .                 .                 .  155 
Knox's  letter  on  the  Queen's  Mass,             .                 .  •         15G 
His  debates  against  it  with  the  lords,      .             .                 .  157 
Lord  James's  services  on  the  borders,         .                 .  .       •    ih. 
Pretended  fray  in  Holyrood  House,  and  its  purpose,         .  158 
Mary  complains  of  Scottish  gravity,            .                 .  •         159 
The  Third  General  Assembly,         ...  ih. 
The  right  of  holding  Assemblies  without  the  Queen's  per- 
mission, debated,               .             .                 .  .           ib. 
The  ratification  of  the  Book  of  Discipline  refused,              .  100 
The  barons  therefore  demand  provision  to  be  made  for 

ministers,                 .                 .               .                 .  161 

A  riot  in  Edinburgh  by  certain  profligate  nobles,  .         162 

Proclamation  of  the  Assembly  upon  the  subject,       .  ih. 

The  Q,ueen's  apology  for  the  rioters,                 .  .164 

The  Earl  of  Bothwell  attempts  a  fresh  riot,             .  t'^. 

Act  concerning  the  two  parts  and  thirds  of  benefices,  .         165 

Lethington  sent  ambassador  to  England,             .                 .  167 

Queen  Elizabeth  refuses  to  proclaim  Mary  her  successor,  .         168 


Commission  given  to  receive  the  rentals  of  benefices,          .  1 69 
Factors  and  chamberlains  appointed  to  intromit  with  the  fruits 

of  the  benefices,            .                 .                 .               . .  ih. 

An  ordinance  for  the  thirds,        .                 .                 .  .170 

Knox's  appeal  against  the  inadequate  provision  for  ministers,  171 

Scanty  salaries  dealt  out  to  the  clergy,                 .                 .  172 

Their  complaints  on  tlie  occasion,                 .                 .  .         ih. 

Lord  James  created  Earl  of  Murrey,                   .                 .  173 

The  Earl  of  Arran  reconciled  witli  Bothwell,              .  .         174 

Arran  accuses  Bothwell  of  treason,                      .                 •  175 

He  is  imprisoned,                     .                 .                     .  .177 

Knox's  second  conference  with  the  Queen,          .                 .  179' 

Interview  between  Mary  and  Elizabeth  disappointed,  .         182 

Fourth  General  Assembly,                .                 .                 •  18.» 

Acts  of  First  Session,             .           .                .  '?'• 



Acts  of  Second  Session,           .                .                 .  184 

„     Third         „         .                .                .  185 

„      Fourth        „                 .                 .                 .  186 

„      Fifth           „             .               .                 .  .        ib. 

Supplication  of  the  Assembly  to  the  Queen,             ,  187 

The  supplication  censured  by  some  courtiers,  .         193 

Lethington  draws  it  up  anew,                   .                 .  194 

The  Queen's  journey  to  the  north,                 .                 .  ,         ib. 

The  Earl  of  Huntly  rebels,                  ...  195 

Battle  of  Corrichie,                      .                 .                 .  .198 

Defeat  and  death  of  the  Earl  of  Huntly,             .                 .  199 

Knox  preaches  in  Kyle,  ....        201 

Band  of  the  barons  and  gentlemen,  in  consequence,             .  ib. 

Knox  assists  in  restoring  order  in  the  south,              .  .         202 

Debates  with  the  Abbot  of  Crossraguel,               .                 .  203 

Lethington  suspected  of  scheming  a  marriage  between  the  Queen 

and  Darnley,          .                .                 .                 .  .         ib. 

Knox  denounces  the  courtiers  for  calling  the  preachers  railers,  204 

Fifth  General  Assembly,                  .                .                .  205 

Trial  of  superintendents,                  .                 .  .          ib. 

Trial  of  the  entry  of  ministers,                 .                 .  206 

Leets  for  a  superintendent  to  the  north,          .  .          ib. 

Leets  for  a  superintendent  to  Galloway,  &c.            .  207 

Fmna  against  Paul  Methven  to  be  investigated,  .           ib. 

Acts  for  superintendents,          .                 .                 .  208 

Commissioners,                 ....  ib. 

Nomination  of  superintendents,                .                 .  ib. 

Acts,                .                 .                 .                 .  .209 

Complaints,                 ....  ib. 


Paul  Methven  found  guilty  and  excommunicated,         .  .         210 

Chatelat  beheaded,               .                 .                .                .  211 

Knox's  third  conference  with  the  Queen,                  .  .         212 

Letters  from  Queen  Mary  to  the  Council  of  Trent,             .  215 

Sayers  of  mass  imprisoned,          .                 .                 .             '  .          ib. 

The  Lords  defer  the  reformation  of  abuses  from  selfish  motives,         216 

Coldness  between  Knox  and  Murrey,  in  consequence,  .         217 

Compromisment  of  the  lords,                 .                 .                 .  ib. 

Knox's  admonition  to  them  from  the  pulpit,               .  .         218 

Is  called  before  the  Queen  to  answer  for  his  rebukes,         .  220 



He  justifies  his  sentiments  about  her  rumoured  marriage,          .  220 
His  conversation  with  the  ladies  in  the  antechamber  of  Holy- 

roodhouse,                  •.                   ...  222 

Lethington's  practices  in  procuring  friends,                .                •  223 

The  Sixth  General  Assembly,           .                                 •  *^- 

Trial  of  superintendents  and  commissioners,       .             .  *&• 

Commissioners  of  provinces  appointed,         .             .  224 

Powers  of  these  commissioners,          .                ,               .  ib* 

Acts,         .....  225 

Articles  for  petitions,         ....  226 

Commissioners  for  trial  of  superintendents,              .  227 

Sentence  against  Hamilton  of  Kincavel  pronounced  null,  228 

The  Queen's  progress  through  the  west  country,  and  her  masses,  229 

Death  of  Lord  Coldingham,                  .                 .                 .  i^- 

Disturbance  in  Holyrood  House,  occasioned  by  a  mass  in  the 

Queen's  absence,                  ....  230 
Knox's  letter  to  the  Protestants,  enjoyningthem  to  protect  their 

brethren  in  this  matter,                 .                 .                 .  231 
Variance  between  Knox  and  the  Master  of  Maxwell,  on  account 

of  this  letter,                  .                   ...  233 

The  advocate's  opiuion  on  the  subject,                 .                 .  234 

Conference  of  Murrey  and  the  Secretary  with  Knox,                  .  235 

They  advise  him  to  submit  to  the  Queen  ;  he  refuses,         .  ib. 

Knox  accused  before  the  Queen  and  Council,                 .             .  23G 

He  defends  before  them  his  letter  to  the  Protestants,         .  237 

Refutes  the  charge  of  treason,         .             .                 .                 .  238 

Is  pronounced  innocent  by  the  council,               .                  .  240 

The  courtiers  endeavour  to  procure  his  submission,       .             .  241 

The  Seventh  General  Assembly,          .             .                .  ib. 
Contention   between   the   nobles   and  the   clergy   about 

stipends,                   .                       ...  242 
Knox  justified  by  the  Assembly  for  his  letter  to  the  Pro- 
testants,                 ....  243 
Trial  of  superintendents  and  commissioners,                   .  244 
Commissioners  of  provinces  appointed,                      .  245 
Acts,                  .                 .                 .                 .                 .  ib. 
Supplications,            ....  240 
Book  of  Discipline  to  be  revised,                   .                   .  247 
Ministers  censured,           ....  ib. 
Friendly  banqueting  between  the  Queen  and  the  lords,              .  248 



Craig's  rebuke  of  the  hypocrisy  of  the  times,      .  .  248 

Knox  declaims  in  the  pulpit  against  the  mass,  and  its  toleration,        249 

The  Eighth  General  Assembly,  .  .  •        250 

Conference  between  the  ministers  and  the  court  lords,  ib. 

The  latter  blame  Knox's  boldness  in  the  pulpit,  .         252 

His  prayer  for  the  Queen  objected  to  by  Lethington,  253 

Debate  between  Knox  and  Lethington  on  this  subject,  ib. 

Articles  and  petitions  of  this  Assembly,  .         .  280 

Acts,  .  .  .  .  .281 

Commission  appointed  to  confer  upon  ecclesiastical  causes,       ib. 

Complaint  of  the  husbandmen  on  the  rigorous  exaction  of 

tithes,    .....  282 

The  Ninth  General  Assembly, 

Trial  of  superintendents  and  commissioners,  .  i6. 

Articles  and  petition,       ....         183 
Acts,         .....  284 

Commission  for  visitation  of  kirks,  .  .  ib. 

Answer  to  Paul  Methven's  supplication  to  be  received  into 
the  kirk,  ....  ib. 

Lord  Darnley  arrives  in  Scotland,  .  .  .         285 

Rizio's  rise  at  court,  ....  ib. 

Darnley  and  Rizio  plot  the  assassination  of  Murrey,  .         286 

The  Tenth  General  Assembly,         .  .  .  287 

Petitions,  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Act  depending  upon  the  petitions,  .  .  289 

Questions  decided,  ....         290 

Offences  for  which  ministers  were  to  be  censured,  291 

The  Queen  married  to  Darnley,  ...  ib. 

Several  of  the  nobility  take  up  arms  on  account  of  the  marriage,       292 
They  are  obliged  to  fly  to  England,  .  .  .  ib. 

The  Eleventh  General  Assembly,  .  .  294 

Trial  of  superintendents  and  commissioners,  .  .  ib. 

The  Queen's  answers  to  the  petitions  of  the  former  Assembly,  295 
Replies  of  this  Assembly  to  her  answers,  .  296 

Petitions,         .  .  .  .  .300 

Acts,         .....  ib. 

Questions  decided,  .  .  .  .301 

Ministers  censured,  .  .  .  303 

Ministers   appointed   to   try  the  complaint   of  a  superin- 
tendent,        .  .  .  .  ,  ib. 



Public  Fast  proclaimed,  .  .  .  303 

Causes  of  it  announced,  .  .  .         304 

Knox's  letter,  in  name  of  the  Assembly,  to  encourage  super- 
intendents, ministers,  &c.,  .  .  306 
Rizio  introduces  a  guard  of  Italians,  .  .  .310 
Supplants  Darnley  in  the  Queen's  favour,  .  .  ih. 
Labours  to  obtain  a  Scottish  earldom,  .  .  .311 
Darnley  plots  to  assassinate  him,  .  .  .  312 
Death  of  Rizio,  .....  313 
Murrey  returns  to  Scotland  on  the  death  of  Rizio,  .  315 
The  conspirators  escape  to  England,  .  .  .  316 
Knox's  Preface  to  the  Fourth  Book  of  his  History,  explaining  the 

condition  of  Scotland  at  this  time,  .  .  317 

Birth  of  King  James  the  Sixth,  .  .  .         321 

The  Twelfth  General  Assembly,  .  .  ib. 

Trial  of  superintendents,  .  .  .         322 

Petitions,  ....  ib. 

Order  of  Paul  Methven's  repentance  appointed,  .  ib. 

Questions  decided,  .  .  .  323 

A  fast  decreed,  ....         324 

Bothwell  grows  in  favour  with  the  Queen,  .  .  ib. 

He  is  wounded,  and  is  visited  by  the  Queen,  .  .         325 

Mary  declares  her  intention  to  be  rid  of  her  husband,        .  326 

Baptism  of  the  prince,  ....         327 

Darnley 's  life  attempted  by  poison,      .  .  .  328 

The  Thirteenth  General  Assembly,        .  .  .  ib. 

A  shew  of  relief  offered  to  the  clergy  by  the  Queen  and 

council,  ....  329 

Judgements  of  the  Assembly  concerning  the  tithes,        .  ib. 

Questions  decided,  .  .  .  330 

A  reader  censured,  ....         331 

A  book  appointed  to  be  revised,  .  .  ib. 

The  Confession  of  the  Helvetian  Church  approved  of,  ib. 

Knox  appointed  to  write  to  tlie   Bishops  of  England  in 

favour  of  those  who  objected  to  the  clerical  vestments,        332 
His  letter  on  the  occasion,  .  .  .  ib. 

Supplication  to  recal  the  commission  granted  to  the  Bishop 

of  St  Andrews,      .  ,  .     "  .  335 

Knox's  letter  on  the  danger  that  might  arise  from  the  Hi- 
shop's  commission,        ....         337 



He  is  permitted  bj  the  Assembly  to  visit  England, 
Mary  visits  her  husband  at  Glasgow, 
Her  letter  to  Bothwell  describing  the  interview, 
Darnley  transported  to  Edinburgh, 
He  is  lodged  in  the  Kirk  of  Field, 
His  assassination, 

Murrey  and  Morton  aspersed  as  his  murderers, 
Unceremonious  burial  of  Darnley, 
The  Queen's  brief  mourning. 
Slight  inquest  to  discover  the  murderers, 
Bothwell  accused  of  the  crime  anonymously, 
Acquitted  by  a  mock  trial,  .... 

He  offers  the  combat  to  prove  his  innocence. 
His  defiance  answered  by  an  anonymous  appellant, 
BothweU  obtains  the  subscriptions  of  the  Lords  to  his  marriage  with 

the  Queen,  .... 

Copy  of  the  band  subscribed,  .... 
Assurance  of  indemnity  given  by  the  Queen  to  the  subscribers, 
Bothwell  divorced  from  his  lady, 

Mary  endeavours  in  vain  to  obtain  possession  of  the  infant  prince, 
Bothwell  takes  the  Queen  prisoner. 
He  leads  her  to  Edinburgh, 
Marriage  of  the  Queen  and  Bothwell, 
Band  between  the  Queen,  Bothwell,  and  several  lords, 
Murray  refuses  to  sign  it,  . 

The  Queen  and  Bothwell  set  themselves  against  the  non-subscribers, 
Mary  and  Bothwell  obliged  to  fly  to  Dunbar, 
Edinburgh  castle  surrendered  to  the  confederates,     . 
The  Queen  and  Bothwell  muster  their  forces. 
They  occupy  Carberrie  Hill,       .... 
Bothwell  offers  the  combat  to  his  opponents, 
The  Queen  surrenders  to  the  confederates. 
She  is  brought  to  Edinburgh, 
Imprisoned  in  Lochleven  Castle, 
Bishop  of  Dumblane's  reception  at  the  French  Court, 
Bothwell's  casket  of  letters  intercepted. 
Fourteenth  General  Assembly, 

Their  circular  to  the  nobles  requesting  their  attendance 

and  aid,         ..... 
Questions  decided, 




















The  Lords  divided  into  two  factions,          .                .                .  371 

Letliington  deserts  from  the  Confederates  to  the  Queen,    .  ib. 

Mary's  resignation  of  the  crown,                  .                 .                 .  372 

Appoints  regents  during  her  son's  minority,       .                 .  375 

Fifteenth  General  Assembly,                   .                 .                 .  377 

Conference  appointed,               ...  ib. 

Argile  and  Abernethy  excuse  their  absence,  .                 .  ib. 

Articles  subscribed  at  this  Assembly,      .                .  378 

Stipends  of  the  66th  year  modified,          .                 .  383 

Coronation  of  the  Prince,            ....  384 

The  Earl  of  Murrey  returns  to  Scotland,             .                 .  ib. 

He  is  proclaimed  Regent,            ....  385 

Conventions  of  the  two  parties,           .                .                 .  386 

The  king's  authority  acknowledged,            .                 .                 .  387 

A  parliament  held,               ....  388 

Its  acts  in  favour  of  religion  and  the  kirk,                   .                 .  ib. 

The  Sixteenth  General  Assembly,                    .                .  392 

Trial  of  Superintendents,                  .                 .                 .  ib. 

Craig's  account  of  his  proceedings  in  the  marriage  of  the 

Queen  and  Bothwell,             .                 .                 .  394 

Commission  to  treat  upon  the  jurisdiction  of  the  kirk,  306 

Ministers  censured,          ....  397 

Argile  and  his  lady  censured,                    .                 .  ib. 

Collectors  of  the  thirds  appointed  by  the  Assembly,       .  ib. 

Letter  requesting  Willock  to  return  to  Scotland,  399 

Execution  of  the  murderers  of  Darnley,              .                 .  401 

Knox's  letter  to  a  friend  in  England,          .                  .                 .  402 

The  Queen  escapes  from  Lochleven,                    .                 .  403 

Murrey  assembles  his  forces,       ....  404 

Issues  a  proclamation,          ....  405 
Mutual  band  between  the  captain  of  the  castle  and  city  of  Edin- 
burgh,                                                                      .                 .412 

Battle  of  Langside,               ....  ib. 

The  Queen's  forces  routed,          ....  416 

Iloddom  Raid,     .....  417 
A  parliament,              .                .                 .                 •                 .418 

Argile 's  contrivances  to  prevent  ita  meeting,      .                .  419 

The  Seventeenth  General  Assembly,      .                 .                ,  421 

Trial  of  the  Superintendent  of  Fife,         .                 .  t6. 

Acts,                  .                 .                 .                                  .  ib. 



Books  to  be  revised  and  corrected,           .                .  423 

Bishops  of  Galloway  and  Orkney  tried  and  censured,  424 

The  treatise  of  excommunication  to  be  revised,  .          ib. 

Subjects  of  memorial  to  be  presented  to  the  Regent,  ih. 

The  Regent's  answer,               .                 .                .  426 

Knox's  letter  on  the  apprehension  of  invasion,            .  .        427 

Mary  repairs  to  England,                     .                 .                 .  428 

Murrey  summoned  to  England  to  justify  his  proceedings,  .         429 

Meeting  of  the  English  and  Scotch  commissioners  at  York,  430 

Their  preliminary  proceedings,            .                 .                 .  431 

Complaint  presented  by  Mary's  commissioners,          .  .         433 

Murrey's  answer,                   ....  435 

Rejoinder  of  Mary's  commissioners,            .                 .  .         439 

Lethington's  duplicity  during  the  trial,                .                 .  447 

The  trial  transferred  from  York  to  London,                .  .         449 

The  Regent's  Eeke  to  his  former  answer,  in  which  he  accuses  Mary 

as  accessary  to  Darnley's  murder,  .  .  451 
Protest  of  the  Regent  on  presenting  the  Eeke,  .  .  453 
Answer  to  the  Eeke  by  Lord  Herries,  .  .  455 
Mary's  Commissioners  demand  a  personal  interview  for  their  mis- 
tress with  Elizabeth,  .  .  .  .  ib, 
Elizabeth  refuses,  ....  456 
The  tenour  of  her  answer,  ....  457 
Articles  proposed  by  the  Bishop  of  Ross  in  behalf  of  Mary,  460 
Elizabeth's  answer,  .....  461 
Mary's  answer  to  the  Regent's  Eeke,  .  .  462 
The  Regent  produces  the  silver  casket  and  its  contents,  .  466 
The  Bishop  of  Ross  endeavours  to  prove  them  invalid,  .  467 
Letter  written  by  one  in  London  about  this  trial,  .  .  468 
The  General  Assembly  continued,                     .                 .  470 


The  Regent  cleared  of  calumnies,               .                 .  .         472 

Mary's  missives  to  Scotland  misrepresenting  the   designs  of  the 

Regent,         .....  473 

Elizabeth's  auswer,      .....        474 

Murrey  returns  to  Scotland,                 .                 .                 .  476 

Preparations  in  Scotland  for  civil  war,       .                  .  .         477 

The  Eigiiteextii  General  Assembly,                 .                 .  .     ^^. 

Superintendents  tried,                       .                 .  .         478 

A  Minister  censured,                ...  ib. 

An  Act,             .                 .                 .                 •  .           ib. 





A  Commission  to  proceed  against  the  Earl  of  Huntlj, 

Letter  from  the  Duke  of  Chattelerault  to  this  Assembly, 

Commission  given  to  deal  with  him, 

Superintendent  of  Lothian's  circular  (penned  by  Knox)  to 
the  professors  in  Scotland, 

Petitions,  .... 

Order  of  the  public  Fast, 
The  Duke  of  Chattelerault's  transactions  with  the  Regent, 
The  Duke  committed  to  ward, 
Argile  and  Huntly  summoned  ;  the  latter  disobeys, 
Lethington  plots  for  the  Queen, 
Queen  Elizabeth's  three  proposals  to  the  Scottish  convention  in 

half  of  Mary,       .... 
The  Nineteenth  General  Assembly, 

Trial  of  Superintendents  and  Commissioners, 

Acts,         ..... 

The  Principal  and  Regents  of  Aberdeen  deposed  for 
pery,  .  . 

Commissions,  .... 

Enactments,     .... 

Act  for  assignation  of  Stipends, 

The  Regent's  answer, 

His  letter  to  the  Assembly, 

Heads  proposed  in  his  name  to  the  Assembly,  and  their 
answers,        .... 
Answer  to  Queen  Elizabeth's  three  demands,     . 
Grange  rescues  Lethington  from  an  arrest. 
The  Regent  makes  an  inroad  upon  the  borders, 
Lethington's  day  of  trial  prorogued. 
The  Duke  of  Norfolk's  purposed  marriage  with  the  Queen 

Scots,  ..... 

His  design  detected, 

The  Earls  of  Northumberland  and  Westmoreland  rebel,    . 
The  Earls  are  defeated,  and  escape  to  Scotland, 
Northumberland  apprehended  by  the  Regent, 

The  assassination  of  the  Regent  Murrey, 
His  character,      ..... 
Intrigues  of  the  Hamiltons  upon  the  occasion, 
Knox's  conference  with"  the  Abbot  of  Kilwinning, 
Balcleuche  and  Phairnihirst  invade  the  English  borders. 




















Knox's  prajer  on  the  death  of  the  Regent,           .                .  513 
Forged  conference  between  the  Regent  and  his  friends,  about 

the  former  usurping  the  crown,  .  .  .515 

Knox  denounces  the  forgery  and  its  author,        .                 .  525 

Burial  of  the  Regent,                   .                  .                 .                 ,  ib. 

Deliberation  to  revenge  the  Regent's  murder,         .             .     ~  526 

Election  of  a  new  Regent  delayed,              .                 .                 .  527 
Elizabeth's  demand  that  her  rebels  should  be  delivered  up  to 

her,                .....  528 
Pretended  readiness  of  Mary's  party  to  revenge  the  Regent's 

murder,                  ,                 .                 .                 .                 .  ib. 

The  Twentieth  General  Assembly,                  .                 .  529 

Order  of  the  Assembly's  proceedings,               .                 .  ib. 
The  Bishop  of  Orkney's  answers  to  offences  laid  to  his 

charge,                  ....  530 

Requests  of  the  late  Regent,  and  answers  to  them,         .  535 
Articles  presented  to  the  Lords  of  Session,  and  answers 

to  them,                ....  536 

Acts,  .  .  .  .  .538 

Questions  decided,                   .                   .                 .  540 

Ministers  and  abusers  censured,         .              .                 .  543 

Commission,              ....  ib. 

Convention  at  Edinburgh  of  the  lords  of  the  Queen's  party,      .  544 

Deliberation  about  the  choice  of  a  Regent,         .                 .  545 

Lamentations  of  good  men  for  the  Regent's  death,     .                 .  546 

Letter  of  Mary's  partizans  to  the  Queen  of  England,         .  547 

An  ambassador  sent  to  them  from  France,          .                 .  550 

They  make  proclamation  of  their  purposes,                 .                .  551 

They  hold  a  convention  at  Linlithgo,                  .                .  553 

They  convene  at  Edinburgh,  and  quarrel  with  the  magistrates,  555 

Queen  Elizabeth  resolves  to  send  an  army  to  the  borders,         .  ib. 

Assures  the  Scots  that  it  is  only  to  apprehend  her  rebels,  556 

A  day  appointed  for  conference  between  both  parties,  which  is 

not  kept,               .....  557 

Treachery  of  Kircaldy  of  Grange,       .                 .                 .  558 

The  lords  of  the  Queen's  party  leave  Edinburgh  in  fear,            ,  ib. 
Proceedings  of  two  conventions  of  the  lords  in  opposition  to  each 

other,                 .....  560 
The  lords  of  the  Queen's  party  demand  that  Edinburgh  should 

be  open  to  them,  .  .  .  .561 

They  are  refused,                 ....  ib. 



Castles  taken  or  demolished  by  the  English,  .  .  562 
The  Hamiltons  assail  the  castle  of  Glasgow  in  vain,  .  ib. 
The  English  march  towards  Glasgow,  .  .  .  563 
They  take  the  castle  of  Hammilton,  .  .  564 
The  Earl  of  Lennox  appointed  lieutenant  for  twenty  days,  .  566 
Elizabeth's  answer  to  the  Scottish  lords  who  desired  a  settled  go- 
vernment, .....  567 
The  Earl  of  Lennox  proclaimed  Regent,                     .  .          ib. 


Declaration  of  the    Lords    proclaimed   at  Dumfries   against  the 

Queen's  proceedings,  anno  1565,  .  .  569 

Act  of  the  Lords  of  Secret  Council  in  1567,  proclaiming  Bothwell 

guilty  of  murdering  Darnley  and  ravishing  the  Queen,  576 

Bothw  ell's  testament  and  latter  will,  .  578 






Before  the  death  of  the  queene  regent,  the  Frenche  king  not  be- 
ing able  to  send  an  armie  in  time,  for  succour  of  his  companeis  ly- 
ing at  Leith,  sent  two  ambassaders,  Monsieur  Randon  and  Mon- 
sieur Monlucke,  Bishop  of  Valence.  Their  commission  was,  to 
treat  Avith  the  Queen  of  England  upon  peace ;  for  the  Frenche 
king  thought  it  an  indignitie  to  send  to  the  Scotish  nobilitie,  his 
subjects.  The  Queene  of  England  sent  her  principall  secretarie, 
Sir  William  Cecill,  Knight,  and  Doctor  Wotton,  Deane  of  Yorke. 
The  English  and  Scots  fearing  deceate,  sought,  by  all  meanes,  to 
have  the  contract  sui'c.  The  Frenche,  to  gratifie  those  who  sent 
them,  protracted  the  time  till  these  within  Leith  were  skarse  of 
victuall ;  and  the  Frenche  within  Inchekeith  had  almost  perished, 
if  by  some  stratageme  they  had  not  gottin  a  shippe  with  victualls, 
and  some  munitioun,  upon  Midsommer  Eve,  Avherof  they  triumphed 
not  a  little.  Yitt  in  end,^peace  was  concluded  upon  the  *  *  of  Julie 
1560,  as  followcth  : — 

vol.  II.  A 

('Al.DEiaV()OD'.S  I118TOK1E  15G0. 


"  In  the  first,  upon  the  complaint  and  petition  of  the  said  nobi- 
lltie  and  the  people  of  this  countrie,  anent  the  number  of  men  of 
warrc  susteaned  by  their  majesteis  in  these  parts  in  time  of  peace  : 
It  is  humblie  requested  to  the  said  deputeis,  that  they  Avould  pro- 
vide opportune  remedie  therupon,  to  the  solace  and  releefe  of  the 
countrie.  The  saids  deputeis  considering  the  said  desire  to  be  just, 
and  conforme  to  reasoun,  consented,  concorded,  and  affirmed,  that 
the  king  and  queene  sail  procure  no  Frenche  men  of  warre,  nor  no 
other  natiouu,  to  come  to  thir  parts  in  time  comming.  But  if 
strangers  Avould  pretend  to  enter  into  this  realme  with  an  armic  or 
navie,  to  occupie  the  same,  in  the  which  case  provisioun  sail  be 
made  by  their  majesteis,  the  judgement  and  counsell  of  the  estats 
of  the  realme  being  had  therunto ;  and  that  the  Frenche  men  of 
warre  being  now  in  the  toun  of  Leith,  sail  be  sent  to  France,  the 
same  time  that  the  armie  and  navie  of  Englishmen  and  Scotishraen 
sail  be  skailled  both  by  sea  and  land ;  the  Avhich  sail  be  done  in  the 
best  maner  may  be,  as  at  more  lenth  eonsideratioun  sail  be  had 
therupon.  And  as  to  the  bands  of  Scotish  men  of  warre  being  in 
the  said  place,  they  saU  be  brokin,  and  the  men  of  warre  licentiat 
to  depart.  Moreover,  as  to  the  forts  of  Dumbar  and  Inchekeith, 
there  sail  remaine  in  them  a  hundreth  and  twentie  Frenche  men 
allenarlie,  which  sail  be  parted  and  distributed  in  thir  two  places. 
And  there  sail  remaine  no  moe  in  Dumbar  but  sixtie  men  of  warre, 
so  it  be  not  affirmed  by  the  captans  chosin  to  that  effect  by  both  the 
parteis,  that  for  the  keeping  of  the  same  anie  greater  number  is 
not  needfull :  also  to  depart  when  the  estats  of  the  realme  can  find 

l.5()0.  OF  THE  KIUK  OF  SCOTLAND,  3 

uuic  gootl  imil  rfure  remedie,  upon  tlio  expenses  made  in  the  same 
[)laces,  to  keepe  the  same  from  perell  of  invasion,  or  dcprivatiomi 
tlierof  frome  them  that  Avould  [)retend  to  occupie  tlie  same :  they 
sail  innnediatlie  shew  the  same  unto  their*  majesteis  als  hastilie  as 
may  be  done  ;  and  in  the  meane  time,  the  number  of  the  said  men 
of  warre  sail  not  be  augmented.  xVnd,  in  like  maner,  it  sail  not  be 
lawfull  to  anie  of  the  said  men  of  warre  to  doe  anie  injureis  to  anie 
persoun,  nor  yitt  to  mainteane  and  defend  anie  Scotish  man  of 
what  qualitie  so  ever  he  be  of,  against  the  will  and  authoritie  of  the 
magistrats  of  the  realme  ;  nor  to  rcccave  them  in  the  said  place, 
that  the  minister  of  justice  may  not  putt  hands  in  them  ;  nor  yitt 
sail  intromett  with  them  anie  maner  of  way  with  the  querrells  and 
discords  of  the  lords,  and  other  particular  men  of  this  realme  ;  but 
they  themselves  sail  be  bound,  in  cases  of  anie  querrell,  to  be  pun- 
ished after  the  lawes  and  constitutions  of  this  realme,  and  to  an- 
swere  for  themselves  before  the  judges  ordinarie  of  the  same.  Last 
of  all,  that  frome  hencefurth  they  be  not  compelled  to  tak  on  cre- 
dite,  they  sail  be  everie  moneth  satisfeid  of  their  wages,  so  that  two 
Scotish  lords,  chosin  by  the  counsell,  may  present  it  at  weapon- 
showing  and  musters  of  the  said  men  of  warre ;  and  also  to  visite 
the  said  forts,  to  see  if  the  number  of  them  be  eeked.  And  it  sail 
not  be  lawfull  for  the  saids  men  of  warre  to  tak  anie  victualls  for 
their  sustentatioun,  for  munitioun  of  the  said  places,  but  by  pay- 
ment of  readie  money  munerat,  and  with  the  pleasure  of  them  that 
deliver  the  same  to  them.  And,  therefore,  the  said  lords  oblishe 
them  to  give  them  so  muche  as  is  needfull  unto  them,  they  having 
to  pay  therefore. 

"  Item,  Upon  the  petition  presented  unto  the  saids  lords  deputeis, 
anent  the  demolitioun  of  the  fortifications,  the  said  deputeis  consent, 
concord,  and  affirme,  that  the  fortificatioun  of  Leith  sail  be  demo- 
lished, and  that  two,  three,  or  foure  captans  sail  be  chosin  by  both 
the  parteis,  to  visite  the  castell  of  Dumbar.  And  if  it  be  found  by 
them  that  the  reparatioun,  amplificatioun,  and  fortifeing  made  tlier- 
of now  after  the  peace,  greater  number  of  men  to  the  keeping  ther- 
of  is  required,  tiie  reparatioun  and  fortificatioun  therof  sail  be  de- 


niolished  so  soone  as  may  be  done ;  and  sail  remain  onlie  imtuiclied 
that  thing  which  may  make  the  castell  more  sure,  and  in  least  dan- 
ger from  invasioun,  providing  notthelesse,  that  no  greater  number 
of  men  therin  be  required  for  keeping  of  the  same.  Moreover,  in 
times  comming,  the  king  and  queene  sail  mak  no  moe  new  forts 
within  the  realme  ;  and  sail  not  augment  them  that  are  elles  made  ; 
and  sail  not  repair  them  that  are  demolished,  without  counsell  and 
consent  of  the  estats ;  nor  yitt  sail  transport  to  their  parts  anie  ar- 
tillerie,  munitioun  of  warre,  powder,  or  victuals,  but  so  muche  as 
may  serve  for  keeping  of  the  said  places  by  the  space  of  six  moneths, 
or  a  yeere. 

"  Item,  Anent  the  petitioun  made  auent  the  debts  conti-acted  by 
the  Frenche  men  of  warre  in  this  countrie,  the  saids  lords  concorded, 
that  the  king  and  queene  sail  caus  restore  all  that  which  happeneth 
to  be  found,  given,  and  granted  to  the  king's  lieutenants,  and  his 
captans,  and  others  officers,  for  the  nourishment,  sustentatioun,  and 
maintenance  of  the  said  Frenche  men,  or  that  which  is  found  ought 
to  be  the  lieutenant's,  for  service  of  his  majestie,  that  may  appeare 
by  writting  and  confessioun  of  parteis. 

"  Item,  Upon  the  petitioun  made  anent  the  conventioun  of  estats 
in  this  realme,  the  saids  deputeis  consent,  concord,  &c.,  that  the 
estats  of  this  realme  may  conveene,  and  hold  pai-liament  the  20th 
day  of  the  moneth  of  Julie  nixt  to  come;  upon  the  Avhieh  day  the 
parliament  sail  be  continued,  as  use  is,  unto  the  first  day  of  the 
moneth  of  August  following.  Providing  alwise,  that  before  they 
beginne  to  treate  of  anie  thing  in  the  said  parliament,  all  tumult 
of  warre  be  discharged  and  ceasse,  that  they  that  are  present  may 
be  free,  without  feare  of  men  of  warre  or  others ;  and  that  in  this 
mcane  time  a  messinger  be  sent  by  the  said  deputeis  to  the  king 
and  queene,  to  certifie  them  of  the  things  agreed,  treated,  and  con- 
corded,  requesting  their  majesteis  humblie  to  be  content  Avith  the 
same.  And  the  said  conventioun  sail  be  als  lawfull  in  all  respects 
as  the  same  had  beene  ordeaned  and  done  by  expresse  commande- 
mcnt  of  their  majesteis,  providing  that  no  mater  be  treated  therin 
before  the  said  first  dav  of  August. 

1560.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND,  5 

"  Item,  Upon  the  article  presented  anent  warre  and  peace,  the 
saids  deputeis  consented,  concorded,  &c.,  that  tlie  king  and  queene 
neither  make  peace  nor  warre  in  thlr  ])arts,  but  by  the  counsell, 
judgement,  and  consent  of  the  estats,  according  to  the  ordinance  of 
the  countrie,  and  as  was  observed  by  their  predecessors. 

"  Item,  Upon  the  petitioun  presented  to  the  said  deputeis,  concern- 
ing the  governement  and  regiment  of  the  policie,  they  have  con- 
sented, &c.,  tliat  tAventie-foure  Avorthie  men  of  this  reahnc  be  chosin 
by  the  three  estats,  of  the  which  the  king  and  queene  sail  choose 
seven,  and  the  estats  five,  which,  in  their  majesteis  absence,  sail  tak 
order,  and  mak  an  ordinarle  counsell,  for  the  administratioun  fore- 
said ;  so  that  no  man,  of  Avhatsoever  qualitie  he  be,  sail  have  the 
power  to  order  anle  thing  to  be  done  tuiching  the  said  bussinesse, 
without  the  mediatioun,  authoritie,  and  consent  of  them  ;  so  that 
the  said  counsellers  sail  conveene  together  als  oft  as  they  may. 
But  they  sail  conveene  no  lesse  than  six  together ;  and  when  anic 
mater  of  importance  occurreth,  they  sail  be  called  to  consult,  or 
tak  order,  by  them,  or  the  most  j)art  of  tliem,  if  need  be.  And  if 
it  happin  anie  of  the  said  seven,  chosin  by  the  king  and  queene,  to 
dcceassc,  their  majesteis  sail  choose  another  furth  of  the  said  niun- 
ber  of  twentie-foure,  in  place  of  him  that  deceased.  And  if  anie  of 
the  said  five  chosin  by  the  estats  dieth,  the  remnant  foure  chosin 
by  them  sail  name  another,  of  the  number  of  twentie-foure.  iMore- 
over,  if  it  be  thought  expedient  to  the  said  estats,  that  otlier  two 
be  augmented  to  the  said  number  of  twelve,  then,  and  in  that  case, 
llie  king  and  queene  sail  choose  one,  and  the  estats  another." 
(And  so  was  this  article  agreed  under  conditioun  ;  that  is  to  say, 
that  the  same  be  no  prejudice  in  times  comming  to  the  king  and 
([uccne,  and  the  rightes  of  the  crowne.  And  the  said  deputeis  of- 
i'ercd  their  labours  to  make  mediatioun  to  tlic  king  and  queene, 
for  maintcauing  pcnsiouiis  and  ex[)cnses  of  the  said  counsellers,  and 
ordinarie  officers  of  the  said  counsell,  to  be  prmldcd  ol'  tlie  rculs 
and  revenues  of  the  crowne.) 

"  Item,  Upon  the  petitioun  made  to  the  saids  deputeis,  anent  the 
oflicers  of  this  roahno,  they  consented  and  concor«led,  &c.,  that  in 


time  to  come,  the  king  and  qiieene  sail  not  depute  anic  stranger  in  the 
administratioun  of  the  civlU  and  commoun  justice,  and  likewise  in  the 
office  of  chancerie,  keeper  of  the  seale,  treasurer,  comptroler,  and 
other  like  offices ;  and  sail  not  use  them,  but  sail  be  content  with  their 
owne  subjects,  borne  in  the  realme.  Moreover,  it  sail  not  be  law- 
full  to  putt  the  office  of  treasurie,  comptroller,  in  the  hands  of  anie 
churcheman,  or  other  which  are  not  able  to  exercise  the  said  offices ; 
the  which  treasurer  and  comptroller  sail  be  provided  of  sufficient 
commissioun  to  use  the  said  offices.  But  it  sail  not  be  lawfuU  to 
them  to  dispone  or  sell  wards  of  mariagcs,  or  other  casualteis,  or 
anie  other  things  Avhatsoever  they  be  perteaning  to  their  offices, 
without  counsell  or  consent  of  the  said  counsell  to  that  effect,  that 
the  counsell  may  know  that  all  things  be  done  to  the  profite  of  the 
king  and  queene.  And  yitt  they  will  not  bind  nor  astrict  the  king 
or  queene  to  this  article,  that  they  may  not  give  when  they  think 

'■'  Item,  They  coucorded,  that  in  the  first  conventiouu  and  parlia- 
ment of  the  estats  of  this  realme,  there  sail  be  constituted,  or- 
deaned,  and  established,  a  laAv  of  oblivioun,  which  afterward  sail 
be  confirmed  by  the  king  and  queen's  majesteis,  by  the  which  all 
remembrance  of  bearing  of  armour,  and  other  things  which  have 
beene  done,  sail  be  bureid  and  forgottin,  frome  the  sixt  day  of  the 
moneth  of  Marche,  in  the  yeere  of  our  Lord  1558  yeeres.  And 
l)y  the  same  law,  they  which  have  gainsaid  the  la wes  of  the  realme, 
sail  be  excused  and  free  of  all  paines  conteaned  therin,  suche  like 
as  if  it  never  had  beene  gainsaid,  providing  that  the  priviiedges  of 
the  said  law  be  not  extended  to  them  which  the  estats  of  the  realme 
sail  judge  unAvorthie  therof. 

"  Item,  It  is  agreed  and  concluded,  that  in  the  said  conventiouu 
or  parliament,  the  estats  of  the  realme,  as  the  use  is,  and  of  the 
maner  is  required,  sail  be  called,  in  the  which  all  they  that  have 
u.sed  to  convecne  and  be  present  may  come  without  all  feare,  or 
force  done,  or  to  be  done  to  them,  by  any  persoun ;  so  that  the 
said  estats  sail  oblishc  them,  that  where,  in  time  comming,  anie  sc- 
ditioun  oi-  conventioun  of  men  <>f  wane  sail  ha)>pin  to  be,  without 

loGO.  OF  THE  K[IMv  Ob'  SCOTL.VNl).  7 

command  of"  the  couiisell,  being  of  the  number  of  twelve,  the  realmc 
and  countrie  sail  repute  the  causers  therof,  and  they  that  conveene, 
as  rebells  ;  and  sail  persue  them  as  suche  like,  that  they  may  be 
punished  by  the  lawes  of  tlic  rcalme  ;  so  that  the  king  and  queeue 
sail  not  be  compelled,  in  time  comming,  to  send  anie  men  of  warre, 
strangers,  in  thir  parts,  for  obteaning  the  due  obedience  of  their 

"  Item,  They  offered,  concorded,  and  agreed,  that  there  sail  be  a 
generall  peace  and  rcconciliatioun  amongst  all  lords  and  subjects 
of  this  realnie,  so  that  they  that  are  called  of  the  Congregatioun, 
and  they  which  are  not  of  the  same,  sail  putt  no  reproche  to  others 
for  the  things  Avhich  are  done  frome  the  said  sixt  day  of  Marche, 

"  Ileni,  They  offered,  concorded,  and  afhrmed,  that  the  king 
-and  (pieene  sail  not  persue,  revenge,  nor  mak  anie  persecutioun  for 
the  things  that  have  beene  done  ;  nor  yitt  sail  they  suffer  the  same 
to  be  done  by  their  subjects,  Frenchemcn ;  but  sail  have  all  things 
in  oblivioun,  as  the  same  had  never  beene  done.  And  suche  like 
the  lords  of  this  realme  of  Scotland  sail  doe,  of  all  bussinesse  be- 
twixt them  and  the  Frenchemcn,  on  their  parts.  And  if  by  sini- 
ster informatioun,  or  anie  other  occasioun,  their  majesteis  have  eon- 
ceaved  evill  opinioun  against  their  subjects,  they  sail  utterlie  for- 
gett  and  change  the  same ;  nor  they  sail  not  deprive  anie  of  them, 
nor  denude  anie  of  them,  or  of  their  subjects,  of  the  offices,  benefices, 
or  cstats  which  they  have  bruiked  in  the  said  realme  before,  by 
reasoim  of  anie  things  they  have  medled  with,  frome  the  said  (>th  day 
of  Marche,  1558.  And  further,  sail  make  no  occasioun  of  depriva- 
tiouu  nor  dcpouning  of  them  by  anie  other  colour,  without  cans  ; 
but  rather  they  sail  esteeme  and  treat  them,  in  time  comming,  as 
good  and  obedient  subjects,  providing  that  the  saids  lords  and  other 
subjects,  on  their  part,  make  to  their  majesteis  all  obedience,  suche 
like  as  other  faithfull  and  naturall  subjects  owe  to  their  soverans. 

"  Item,  It  is  concorded  and  agreed,  that  it  sail  be  lawfull  to  non«^ 
of  the  lords  of  the  nobilitie  of  Scotland,  or  anie  other,  to  make  con- 
Yocatinuu  of  men  of  warre,  but    in  the    nrdinario  caus   ;ipprove<l 

8  calderwood's  historie  1560. 

by  the  law  and  custome  of  the  reahne ;  and  yitt,  none  of  them  sail 
caus  anie  men  of  warre,  strangers,  to  come  to  thir  parts,  and 
muche  lesse  saU  attempt  to  doe  anie  thing  against  the  king  and 
queene,  or  against  the  authoritie  of  the  counsell  or  other  magi- 
strats  of  the  realme ;  and  they  who  have  presented  the  petitioun 
sail  be  bound  therunto.  And  in  cace  anie  of  them,  or  others,  find 
occasioun  to  invade,  or  tak  armour  against  anie  man,  as  he  pre- 
tendeth,  after  that  he  hath  communicated  the  mater  with  the  coun- 
sell of  the  realme,  he  sail  present  his  complaint  to  their  majesteis. 
And,  generaUie,  they  sail  oblishe  them,  under  the  said  pains,  to 
doe  the  things  which  perteane  to  good  and  faithfiJl  subjects,  for 
the  quietnesse  and  tranquillitie  of  the  realme,  and  rights  of  their 

"  Item,  It  is  agreed,  that  if  anie  bishops,  abbots,  or  other  church- 
men, sail  find  or  alledge  them  to  have  receaved  anie  injureis,  either 
in  their  persons  or  in  their  goods,  the  plaint  saU  be  scene  and  con- 
sidered by  the  estats  of  the  said  conventioun  and  parliament ;  and 
there  sail  be  made  redresse,  as  they  sail  find,  according  to  reasoun  : 
and,  in  the  meane  time,  no  man  sail  stoppe  them,  but  they  sail  brooke 
their  goods ;  nor  sail  doe  anie  hurt,  injurie,  or  violence  to  them. 
And  if  anie  doth  controveen  this  article,  he  sail  be  persued  by  the 
lords,  as  a  perturber  of  a  good  comrnoun  weale. 

"  Item,  It  is  concorded,  &c.,  that  the  saids  lords  sail  bind  them 
to  observe,  and  caus  to  be  observed,  all  and  sundrie  points  and  ar- 
ticles agreed  in  this  treatie.  And  if  it  happen  that  anie  of  them, 
or  anie  other,  would  gainsay  the  same,  the  remanent  lords  and  re- 
sidue of  the  whole  people  sail  be  enemeis  to  him,  and  sail  persue 
him,  tiU  he  be  chastised  and  punished  according  to  his  demerits. 

"  Item,  It  is  concluded,  &c.,  that  all  the  whole  realme  may  know, 
that  the  king  and  queene  are  not  willing  to  keepe  anie  remembrance 
of  the  troubles  and  differences  past ;  and  so  farre  as  concerneth  the 
nobilitie  and  other  subjects  of  this  realme,  that  their  majesteis  de- 
sire to  treate  them  humanelie,  and  to  be  favourable  unto  them,  the 
said  deputcis  have  promised  and  concorded,  that  the  Duke  of  Cbat- 
tclcrault,  and  all  other  noblemen  of  Scotland,  sail  be  remitted,  and 

1560.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTL^VND.  9 

putt  again  in  all  their  goods  and  benefices  which  they  had  and  in- 
joyed  in  France,  that  they  may  brooke  and  injoy  the  same,  in  the 
same  maner  as  they  did  before  these  debates,  the  said  sixt  day  of 
Marche,  and  yeere  aforesaid,  even  as  the  said  controverseis  had 
never  chanced.  And  also,  that  all  capitulatiouns  and  articles  agreed 
upon  in  times  past,  and  speciallie  these  that  were  appointed  in  the 
king  and  queen's  contract,  sail  be  observed  and  kecped,  als  AveUl 
for  the  part  of  their  majesteis,  as  for  the  part  of  the  nobilitic  and 
people  of  Scotland.  And  as  concerning  David,  sonne  to  the  said 
Duke  of  Chattelerault,  now  being  in  Brys  de  Vincent,  libertie  sail 
be  granted  to  him  to  retume  to  Scotland,  and  doc  as  he  pleaseth. 

"Moreover,  Avhen  the  said  deputeis  exponed,  that  some  time  it 
might  chance,  that  the  king  might  misse  of  his  great  gunnes  and 
artillerie  in  France,  the  said  lords  having  consideration  therof, 
concorded,  that  no  other  artillerie  be  translated  out  of  this  realme, 
but  these  which  were  sent  and  brought  in,  frome  the  day  of  the 
deceasse  of  Francis,  King  of  France,  of  good  memorie,  to  these 
parts ;  and  that  all  other  artillerie  and  munitioun  be  reponed  into 
the  places  where  they  were  taken  furth  of,  and  in  speciall,  that 
have  the  armes  of  Scotland,  sail  be  putt  in  the  place  where  they 
Avere  takin  furth  of,  &c.,  and  there  sail  be  noblemen  of  Scotland 
appomted  therefore  ;  and  two,  for  the  part  of  the  king's  majestic,  are 
to  be  deputed  to  cognosce  the  saminc,  before  the  shipping  therof. 

"  And,  moreover,  that  where  for  the  part  of  the  nobilitic  and 
people  of  Scotland,  ccrtan  articles  concerning  religioun  and  other 
points  Avcre  presented,  which  the  said  deputeis  would  not  tiiicho, 
but  considering  the  weight  and  importance  of  them,  remitted  the 
same  to  be  acknowledged  and  decided  by  their  majesteis  ;  the  saids 
lords  and  nobilitic  doe  promise,  that  a  certan  number  of  noblemen 
sould  be  chosin  in  the  nixt  conventioun  and  parliament,  to  be  sent 
to  their  majesteis,  which  sail  cxpone  to  their  llighnesse  these  things 
that  sail  be  thought  needfull  for  the  estate  of  their  bussinesse  ;  and 
for  the  fore-mentioned,  and  other  articles  and  points  undecided  by  the 
said  deputeis,  to  the  effect  that  they  may  knoAV  their  majesteis'  in- 
tcntioun  and  benevolence  upon  these  tilings,  wliich  sail  be  exponed 

10  CALDETlWOOlVs  niSTOKIE  1560. 

for  the  part  of  the  countrie.  Tlie  whicli  also  sail  liavc  with  them 
a  confumatioun  and  ratificatioun  by  the  estats  of  the  rcahne,  of 
these  articles  Avhich  arc  concorded  and  agreed  by  the  said  depu- 
teis ;  to  whom  also  the  same  time,  or  l^efore,  sail  be  givin  and  de- 
livered like  confimiatiomi  and  ratificatioun  made  by  their  mnjes- 
teis,  so  being,  that  the  said  estats  send  their  ratificatioun  a.foresaid." 


"  To  the  loving  of  the  most  puissant,  and  comfort  of  all  Christians : 
The  most  puissant  prince  and  princessc,  and  most  Christian  King 
and  Queene  of  France,  Francis  and  Marie,  by  the  grace  of  God 
King  and  Queene  of  France  and  Scotland,  and  by  the  most  puis- 
sant princesse  Elizabeth,  by  the  same  grace,  Queene  of  England 
and  Ireland,  &c.,  it  is  concorded,  and  reconciliatioun  of  peace  and 
amitie  made,  which  is  to  be  observed  inviolablie  amongst  them, 
their  subjects,  realms,  and  countreis.  Forasmuche  as  in  name 
of  the  said  prince  and  princesse  it  is  commanded,  and  straitlie 
charged  to  all  maner  of  persons  under  their  obedience,  or  being  in 
their  service,  fronie  hencefurth  to  desist  from  idl  hostilitie  both  by 
sea  and  land,  and  to  keepe  good  peace  one  witii  tlic  other ;  and 
with  charge  to  the  breakers  under  their  great  perell." 


Peace  being  proclaimed,  as  said  is,  the  most  })'.nt  of  the  Frenche 
wci"e  transported  to  France,  in  English  vessells.  They  carcid  with 
them  the  whole  spoilc  of  Leith.  That  was  the  secund  benefite 
Lcith  receaved  of  their  promised  libertie.  The  English  arniie  de- 
parted by  land  the  IGth  of  Julie.  The  most  part  of  the  noblemen, 
professors  of  the  true  religioun,  convoyed  them  honorablic. 

1560.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  11 


After  the  return  of  the  lords  from  tlic  convoy  of  the  English, 
the  connsell  beganne  to  consult  upon  the  affaires  of  the  coinmoun 
Avealth,  speciallie  the  establishement  of  religioun,  and  to  ])repare 
and  order  things  needftill  for  tlie  parliament.  The  preachers  ex- 
horted them  to  be  thankfull  to  God  for  their  deliverance ;  nixt,  to 
see  ministers  placed  in  the  countrie,  as  neeessitie  required. 


A  day  Avas  appointed,  wherin  the  whole  nobilitie,  and  the  great- 
est part  of  the  Congregatioun,  assembled  in  the  Great  Kirk  of 
Edinburgh,  where,  after  sermoun  made  for  the  purpose,  thanks 
were  givin  to  God  for  his  mercifull  deliverance  frome  the  tyrannic 
of  the  Frenchc,  the  substance  wherof  is  extant  in  some  prayers, 
and  fonnes  of  thanksgiving  prefixed  before  the  Psalmes.  Com- 
missioners of  burghes,  with  some  of  the  nobilitie  and  barons,  Avere 
appointed  to  see  ministers  placed,  who  for  the  time  were  in  Edin- 
burgh, for  the  most  part.  Mr  Knox  Avas  appointed  minister  in 
Edinburgh  ;  Christopher  Gudman,  Avho  for  the  most  part  remained 
in  Air,  in  the  time  of  the  troubles,  was  placed  in  Sanct  AndrcAvcs ; 
Adam  Heriot  in  Aberdeen ;  Mr  Johne  Koav  in  Sanct  Johnstoun  ; 
Paul  Methven  in  Jedburgh;  William  Christcsone  in  Dundie;  David 
Fergusone  in  Dumfcrmline  ;  Mr  David  Lindsay  in  Leith.  JMr 
Johne  Spotswood  Avas  nominated  to  be  superintendent  of  Lothiane, 
Mr  Johne  Wynrame  of  Fife,  Mr  Johne  Willocke  for  GlasgOAV  and 
the  Avest,  the  Laird  of  Dun  for  Angus  and  Mernes,  i\Ir  Johne 
CarsAvell  for  Argile  and  the  Isles ;  unlcsse  the  covmtreis  whereto 
they  were  appointed  could,  in  the  meane  time,  find  out  men  more 
able  and  sufficient,  or  ellcs  shew  suche  causes  as  might  make  them 
unable  for  that  diirnitic. 

12  C'ALDEmVOOD's  HISTORIE  15(iO. 


The  i)arliament  ap[)roacliing,  all  that  by  law  or  ancient  custonie 
had,  or  might  clame  place  therin,  were  advertised  by  the  counsell. 
The  assemblie  was  great,  notwithstanding  some,  as  weill  of  these 
that  be  called  spirituall,  as  of  these  that  be  called  temporall  lords, 
absented  themselves  contemptuonslie.  Yitt  the  Bishop  of  Sanct 
AndrcAvcs,  Dumblane,  and  Dunkeld,  with  some  other  of  inferior 
sort  of  the  Popish  factioun,  presented  themselves.  The  Bishop  of 
Galloway,  the  Abbots  of  Lindores,  Culrosse,  Sanct  Colme's  Inch, 
Newbottle,  Halyrudhous,  the  Pryonr  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  Colding- 
hame,  Sanct  Marie  He,  the  Sub-pryour  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  and 
di^'crse  others  who  had  renounced  Poperie,  were  present  also. 

In  time  of  parliament,  Mr  Knox  taught  publicklie  upon  the  pro- 
phccie  of  Haggec.  He  was  fervent  in  applicatioun.  William  Mat- 
lane  of  Lethington  said  in  mockage,  "  We  must  now  forgett  our- 
selves, and  beare  the  barrow,  to  build  the  hous  of  God."  IIoAvbeit 
some  mocked,  yitt  others  were  moved,  and  assembled  together, 
to  consult  what  things  were  to  be  proponned  to  the  present  par- 
liament. After  deliberation,  this  subsequent  supplicatioun  was  pre- 
sented : — 

"  The  Barons,  Gentlemen,  Burgesses,  and  others,  true  subjects 
of  this  realme,  professing  the  Lord  Jesus  within  the  same, 
to  the  Nobilitic  and  States  of  Parliament  prescntlie  assem- 
bled within  the  said  realme,  desire  grace,  mercie,  and 
peace,  from  God,  the  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
with  the  encreasse  of  his  Holie  Spirit. 

"  I'lcasc  your  honours  to  reduce  to  your  remembrance,  how  di- 
verse and  sundrie  times  we,  with  some  of  your  selves,  most  hum- 
blie  desired,  at  the  feete  of  the  late  quccne  regent,  fi-cedonie  and 
libcrtlc  of  conscience,  Avith  n  godlic  rcformatioun  of  abu(.-ics,  Avliicli, 

1500.  OF  TIIK  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  13 

l)y  the  malice  of  Satan  and  negligence  of  men,  arc  creepcd  in  into 
the  rcligioun  of  God,  and  are  mainteaned  by  suche  as  tak  upon 
them  the  name  of  clergie.  And  albeit  that  our  godlie  and  most 
reasonable  sute  Avas  then  disdainfullie  rejected,  wherof  no  small 
trnbles  have  ensued,  as  your  honours  weill  know,  yitt  seing 
that  the  same  necessitie  yitt  reraaineth  that  then  moved  us ;  and, 
moreover,  that  God  of  his  mercie  hath  now  putt  into  your  hands 
suche  order  as  God  thereby  may  be  glorifeid,  this  commoun  wealth 
quietted,  and  the  policie  therof  established,  we  cannot  ceasse  to 
crave  of  your  honours  the  redresse  of  suche  enormiteis  as  mani- 
fcstlie  are,  and  of  long  time  have  beene  committed  by  the  place- 
holders of  the  ministrie,  and  others  of  the  clergie  within  this  realme. 
And  first,  seing  that  God  of  his  great  mercie  hath,  by  the  light  of 
his  Word,  manifested  to  no  small  number  of  this  realme,  that  the 
doctrine  of  the  Roman  church  receaved  by  the  said  clergie,  and 
mainteaned  through  their  tyrannic  by  fire  and  sword,  conteaneth 
in  itself  manie  pestiferous  erroiu's,  Avhich  cannot  but  bring  damna- 
tioun  to  the  soules  of  suche  as  therewith  sail  be  infected  ;  suche  as 
are  the  doctrine  of  transubstantiation  ;  of  the  adoratioun  of  Christ's 
bodie  under  the  forme  of  bread,  as  they  teniie  it ;  of  the  merits  of 
works,  and  justificatioun  that  they  aUedge  cometh  thereby ;  to- 
gether with  the  doctrine  of  the  Papisticall  indulgences,  purgatorie, 
pilgrimage,  and  praying  to  sancts  departed,  which  all  either  re- 
pugne  to  the  plaine  Scriptures,  or  elles  have  no  ground  of  the  doc- 
trine of  our  Master,  Jesus  Christ,  his  prophets,  nor  apostles  :  We 
humblie  therefore  crave  of  your  honoiu's,  that  suche  doctrine  and 
idolatrie,  as  by  God's  Word  are  both  condemned,  so  may  they  be 
abolished  by  act  of  this  present  parliament,  and  punishement  ap- 
pointed for  the  transgressers.  Secundarilie,  seing  that  the  Sacra- 
ments of  Jesus  Christ  are  most  shamfullie  abused  and  profaned  by 
that  Roman  harlott,  and  her  swoi*ne  vassalls,  and  also,  becaus  that 
the  true  discipline  of  the  ancient  church  is  utterlie  now  among  that 
sect  extinguished ;  for  who  within  the  realme  are  more  corrupt  in 
life  and  maners  than  are  they  that  are  called  the  clergie,  living  in 
whoordom,  adulterie,  deflouring   virgins,  c-orrnpting  matrons,   and 


doing  all  iiboniinatioiin  without  feiire  of  pimishement  ? — ^ve  lium- 
blie,  therefore,  desire  your  honours  to  find  remedie  against  the  one 
and  the  other.  Thridlie,  becaus  that  Man  of  Sinne  most  falslie 
clameth  unto  himself  the  titles  of  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  the  Succes- 
sour  of  Peter,  the  Head  of  the  Church ;  that  he  cannot  erre,  that 
all  power  is  graunted  unto  him,  &c.,  by  the  which  usurped  autho- 
ritie,  he  taketh  upon  him  the  distributioun  and  possessioun  of  the 
whole  patrimonie  of  the  church,  wherby  the  true  ministrie  of  the 
Word  of  God  long  time  hath  altogether  beene  neglected,  godlie 
learning  despised,  the  schooles  not  provided,  and  the  poore  not 
onlie  defrauded  of  their  portioun,  but  also  most  tyrannouslie  op- 
pressed, we  liliewise  heerof  desire  remedie.  And  least  that  your 
honours  sould  doubt  in  anie  of  these  premisses,  we  offer  om-selves 
evidentlie  to  prove,  that  in  all  the  rable  of  the  clergie  there  is  not 
one  lawfull  minister,  if  God's  Word,  the  practises  of  the  apostles, 
the  sinceritie  of  the  primitive  church,  and  their  owne  ancient  lawes, 
sail  judge  of  lawfuU  electioun.  We  further  offer  ourselves  to  prove 
them  all  theeves  and  murtherers,  yea,  rebells  and  tratours  to  the 
lawfull  authoritie  of  emperours,  kings,  and  princes  ;  and,  therefore, 
unworthie  to  be  suffered  in  anie  commoun  wealth.  How  malicious- 
lie  they  have  murthered  our  brethrein,  for  no  other  cans,  but  for 
that  they  have  offered  to  us  the  light  of  God's  Word,  your  honours 
cannot  be  ignorant ;  and  into  what  hazard  their  tyrannic  hath 
brought  this  whole  realme,  the  ages  after  will  consider.  If  yec 
looke  for  anie  other  fruict  of  them  in  times  to  come,  than  yee  have 
scene  in  them  whom  we  accuse,  we  are  assm'ed  yee  sail  be  de- 
ceavcd.  Now  hath  God,  beyond  all  expectatioun  of  man,  made 
yourselves,  who  sometime  were  suppliants  with  us  for  reformatioun, 
judges,  as  it  were,  in  the  cans  of  God :  at  least,  he  hath  subdued 
your  cnemeis  unto  you,  that  by  violence  they  arc  not  able  to  sup- 
prcssc  the  Veritie,  as  heeretoforc  they  have  done.  We,  therefore,  in 
the  bowells  of  Jesus  Christ,  crave  of  your  honours,  that  cither  they 
may  be  compelled  to  answerc  to  our  former  accusatiouns,  and  unto 
suche  others  as  justlle  we  have  to  lay  to  their  charges,  or  ellcs,  that 
all  affectioun  layed  aside,  yec  pronounce  them  suche  by  censiu'c  of 

15()0.  OF  THE  KIRK  Ol-   SCOTLAND.  15 

this  parliament,  and  cans  them  to  be  so  reputed,  as  by  us  most 
justlie  they  are  accused :  especiallie,  that  they  may  be  decerned 
imworthie  of  honour,  authoritie,  charge,  or  cux'C  within  the  Church 
of  God,  and  so  frome  hencefurth  never  to  injoy  vote  in  parhament. 
AVhich,  if  yee  doe  not  then  in  the  feare  of  God,  and  by  the  assur- 
ance of  liis  Word,  we  forewarne  you,  as  yee  leave  a  greevous  yoke 
and  burthein  intolerable  upon  the  Kirk  of  God  within  this  realme, 
so  sail  they  be  thornes  in  your  eyes,  and  [)rickes  in  your  sides, 
whom  after,  when  yee  Avould,  yee  sail  have  no  poAver  to  remove. 
God,  the  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  give  you  upright  hearts, 
seeking  his  glorie ;  and  true  undei'standing  what  this  day  He  Avho 
hath  delivered  you  frome  boundage,  both  spirituall  and  temporall, 
craveth  of  you  by  his  servants.  And  your  honours'  answere  most 
humblie  we  require." 

This  supplicatioun  being  read  in  audience  of  the  Avhole  assemblic, 
as  some  favom'ed  uprightlie  the  cans  of  God,  so  were  there  manie 
that  for  worldlie  respects  abhorred  a  perfyte  reformatioun.  Yitt 
Avere  the  barons  and  ministers  called,  and  commandement  givin 
to  them,  to  draw,  in  plaine  and  severall  heads,  the  summe  of  that 
doctrine  which  they  Avould  raainteane,  and  desire  the  parliament  to 
establlshe.  This  was  gladelie  undertaken,  and  Avithin  foure  dayes 
after,  this  Confessioun  folloAving  Avas  presented  : — 





"  And  this  glade,  tklivgs  of  the  kbujdome  sail  be  preached  tJirough- 
out  the  whole  world,  for  a  tvitnessc  unto  all  nations.  And  then 
sail  the  end  comer — IMatt.  xxiv. 

16  calderwood's  iiistopje  15()(). 


"  The  Estats  of  Scotland,  witli  the  Inhabitants  of  the  same, 
professing  Christ  Jesus  his  holie  Gospell,  to  their  naturall 
countrie  men,  and  unto  all  other  realmes  and  nations  pro- 
fessing the  same  Lord  Jesus  with  them,  wishe  grace,  mer- 
cie,  and  peace  from  God,  the  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  with  the  spirit  of  righteous  judgment,  for  saluta- 

"  Long  have  we  thristed,  deere  brethrein,  to  have  notifeid  unto 
the  world  the  summe  of  that  doctrine  which  we  professe,  and  for 
which  we  susteaned  infamie  and  danger.  But  suche  hath  beene 
the  rage  of  Satan  against  us,  and  against  Christ  Jesus  his  eternall 
Veritie,  latelie  borne  amongst  us,  that  to  this  day  no  time  hath 
beene  granted  unto  us  to  cleare  our  consciences,  as  most  gladelie 
we  would  have  done.  For  how  we  have  beene  tossed  a  whole  yeere 
past,  the  most  part  of  Europ  (as  we  doe  suppose)  doth  understand. 
But  seing  that  of  the  infinite  goodnesse  of  our  God,  (who  never 
sufFereth  his  afflicted  utterlie  to  be  confounded,)  above  expecta- 
tioun  have  we  obteaned  some  rest  and  libertie,  we  would  not  but 
sett  furth  this  breefe  and  plaine  confessioun  of  suche  doctrine  as  is 
propouned  unto  us,  and  as  we  beleeve  and  professe,  partlie  for  sa- 
tisfactioun  of  our  brethrein,  whose  hearts  (we  doubt  not)  have  beene, 
and  yitt  are  wounded  by  the  dispitefull  railing  of  suche  as  yitt 
have  not  learned  to  spceke  weill,  and  partlie  for  stopping  of  the 
mouths  of  impudent  blasphemers,  who  boldlie  condemne  that  which 
they  neither  heard  nor  understood.  Not  that  we  judge,  that  the 
cankered  malice  of  suche  is  able  to  be  cured  by  this  simple  confes- 
sioun :  no,  Ave  know  that  the  swcete  savour  of  the  Gospell  is  and 
sail  be  death  unto  the  sonnes  of  perditioun.  But  we  have  cheefe 
respect  to  our  weakc  and  infirme  brethrein,  to  whome  we  would 
communicat  the  bottom  of  our  hearts,  least  that  they  be  troubled, 
or  careid  awav  with  diversitie   of  rumors  which  Satan  sparseth 

1560.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  17 

against  us,  to  the  defacing  of  this  our  godlie  enterprise  ;  protesting, 
that  if  anie  man  Avill  note  in  this  our  confessioun,  anie  articles  or  sen- 
tence repugning  to  God's  holie  Word,  that  it  would  please  him  of  his 
gentlenesse,  and  for  Christian  charitie's  sake,  to  adnionishe  us  of  the 
same  in  writting,  and  we  of  our  honours  and  fidelitie  doe  promise 
unto  him  satisfactioun  frome  the  mouth  of  God,  that  is,  fi'ome  the 
Holie  Scripture,  or  elles  reformatioun  of  that  Avhich  he  saU  prove 
to  be  amisse.  For  God  we  take  to  i-ecord  in  our  consciences, 
that  from  our  hearts  we  abhorre  all  sects  of  heresie,  and  all  teachers 
of  erroneous  doctrine  ;  and  that  with  all  humiUtie  we  embrace  the 
puritie  of  Christ's  Gosi^ell,  which  is  tlie  onlie  food  of  our  soules, 
and,  therefore,  so  precious  unto  us,  tliat  we  are  determined  to  suf- 
fer the  extremitie  of  Avorldlie  dangei',  rather  than  tliat  Ave  saU  suf- 
fer ourselves  to  be  defrauded  of  the  same.  For  heerof  we  are  most 
certanlie  perswaded,  that  Avhosoever  denyeth  Christ  Jesus,  or  is 
ashamed  of  him  in  presence  of  men,  sail  be  denyed  before  the  Fa- 
ther, and  before  his  holie  angels.  And,  therefore,  by  the  assistance 
of  the  mightie  Spirit  of  the  same  our  Lord  Jesus,  Ave  firmelie  pur- 
pose to  abide  to  the  end  in  tlie  confessioun  of  this  our  faith, 

"1.   Of  God. 

"  We  confesse  and  acknoAvledge  one  onlie  God,  to  Avhome  we 
must  cleaA'e,  Avhom  onlie  Ave  must  Avorship,  and  in  Avhom  onlie  we 
put  our  trust ;  AA^ho  is  eternall,  infinite,  immeasurable,  incompre- 
hensible, omnipotent,  invisible,  one  in  substance,  and  yitt  distinct  in 
three  persons,  the  Father,  the  Sonne,  and  the  Ilolic  Ghost ;  by  Avhom 
Ave  confesse  and  beleeve  all  things  in  hcaA'cn  and  earth,  as  AveiU  vi- 
sible as  invisible,  to  haA^e  beene  created,  to  be  reteaned  in  their  being, 
and  to  be  ruled  and  guided  by  his  inscrutable  providence,  to  suche 
end  as  his  eternall  Avisdome,  goodncsse,  and  justice,  hath  appointed 
them,  to  the  manifcstatioun  of  his  OAvne  glorie. 

"  2.    Of  the  Creation  of  Man. 

"  We  confesse  and  acknoAAdedgc  this  our  God  to  have  created 
man,  (to  Avitt,  our  first  father  Adam,)  of  Avhom  also  God  formed 
VOL.  II.  B 

18  calderayood's  historie  1560. 

the  Avoman,  to  his  owne  image  and  similitude ;  to  whom  he  gave 
wisdome,  lordship,  justice,  free-will,  and  cleere  knowledge  of  him- 
self, so  that  in  the  whole  nature  of  man  there  could  be  noted  no 
imperfectioun  :  from  which  honour  and  perfectioun  man  and  avo- 
man  did  both  fall,  the  Avoman  being  decea\'ed  by  the  serpent,  and 
man  obeying  the  voice  of  the  woman ;  both  conspiring  against 
the  soverane  majestic  of  God,  who,  in  expresse  words,  had  be- 
fore threatned  death,  if  they  presumed  to  eate  of  the  forbiddin 

"  3.    Of  Originall  Siniie. 

"  By  Avhich  transgressioun,  connnounlie  called  Originall  Sinne, 
Avas  the  image  of  God  utterlie  defaced  in  man,  and  he  and  his  pos- 
teritie,  of  nature,  become  enemeis  to  God,  slaves  to  Satan,  and  ser- 
vants to  sinne,  in  so  muche,  that  death  everlasting  hath  had,  and 
sail  have,  poAver  and  dominioun  OA^er  all  that  have  not  beene,  are 
not,  or  sail  not  be  regenerated  fi'om  above ;  which  regeneration  is 
Avrought  by  the  power  of  the  Holie  Ghost  Avorking  in  the  hearts  of 
the  elect  of  God  an  assured  faith  in  the  promises  of  God  reveeled 
to  us  in  his  Word,  by  Avliich  faith  they  apprehend  Christ  Jesus, 
with  the  graces  and  benefits  promised  in  him. 

"  4.    Of  the  Revelation  of  the  Promises. 

"  For  this  we  constantlie  beleeve,  that  God,  after  the  feareflill 
and  horrible  defection  of  man  from  his  obedience,  did  seeke  Adam 
again,  call  upon  him,  rebooke  his  sinne,  convict  him  of  the  same,  and 
in  the  end  made  unto  him  a  most  joyful  promise,  to  Avitt,  that  the  seed 
of  the  Avoman  sould  breake  doun  the  serpent's  head ;  that  is,  he 
sould  destroy  the  works  of  the  devill.  Which  promise,  as  it  was 
repeated  and  made  more  cleere  frome  time  to  time,  so  Avas  it  em- 
braced Avitli  joy,  and  most  constantlie  reteaned  of  all  the  faithfull 
frome  Adam  to  Noah,  frome  Noah  to  Abraham,  and  from  Abraham 
to  David,  and  so  furth  to  the  incarnation  of  Jesus  Clu-ist,  who  all 
(avc  meane  the  faitlifull  fathers  under  the  laAv)  did  see  the  joyftill 
dayes  of  Christ  Jesus,  and  did  rejoice. 

15(30.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  19 

"  5.    The  Continuance^  Increasse,  and  Preservation  of  the  Church. 

"  We  most  constantlie  beleeve,  that  God  preserved,  instructed, 
multiplied,  honoured,  decored,  and  from  death  called  to  life  his 
church  in  all  ages,  from  Adam  till  the  comming  of  Christ  Jesus  in 
the  flesh.  For  Abraham  he  called  from  his  father's  countrle  ;  him 
he  instructed,  his  seed  he  midtipleid,  the  same  he  mervellouslie 
preserved,  and  more  mervellouslie  delivered  frome  the  boundage 
and  tyrannic  of  Pharaoh ;  to  them  he  gave  his  lawes,  constitutions, 
and  ceremoneis  ;  them  he  possessed  in  the  land  of  Canaan ;  to  them, 
after  judges,  and  after  Saul,  he  gave  David  to  be  king,  to  whom  he 
made  promise,  that  of  the  fruict  of  his  loynes  sould  one  sitt  for  ever 
upon  his  royaU  seate.  To  this  same  people  frome  time  to  time  he 
sent  prophets,  to  reduce  them  to  the  right  way  of  their  God,  frome 
which  often  times  they  declynned  by  idolatrie.  And,  albeit  that 
for  their  stubborne  contempt  of  justice,  he  was  compelled  to  give 
them  in  the  hands  of  their  enemeis,  as  before  Avas  tlu'catned  by  the 
mouth  of  Moses,  in  so  muche  that  the  holie  citie  Avas  destroyed, 
the  temple  burnt  Avith  fire,  and  the  Avhole  land  left  desolate  the  space 
of  seventic  yeeres,  yitt  of  mercie  did  he  reduce  them  againe  to  Je- 
rusalem, when  the  citie  and  temple  Avere  re-edifeid,  and  they,  against 
all  tentations  and  assaults  of  Satan,  did  abide,  till  the  Messias  came, 
according  to  the  promise. 

"6.   Of  the  Incarnation  of  Christ  Jesus. 

"  When  the  fulnesse  of  time  came,  God  sent  his  Sonne,  his  Eter- 
nall  Wisdome,  the  substance  of  his  OAvne  glorie,  into  this  Avorld, 
Avho  tooke  the  nature  of  manhcad,  of  the  substance  of  a  Avoman,  to 
Avitt,  of  a  virgin,  and  that  by  opcratioun  of  the  Hohe  Ghost ;  and 
so  Avas  borne  the  just  seed  of  David,  the  Angell  of  the  great  coun- 
sell  of  God,  the  veric  Messias  promised  ;  Avhome  Ave  confesse  and 
acknowledge  Immanuel,  verie  God  and  verie  man,  tAvo  perfyte  na- 
tures united  and  joyned  in  one  persoun.  By  Avhich  our  confessioun, 
we  condemne  the  damnable  and  pestilent  hereseis  of  Arrius,  Mar- 
cion,  P^utychcs,  Ncstorius,  and  suchc  others  as  either  did  denic  the 

20  calderwood's  histokie  15 go. 

eteniitie  of  his  Godhead,  or  the  veritie  of  his  humane  nature ;  or 
confounded  them,  or  yitt  divided  them. 

"  7.    Why  it  behoved  the  Mediator  to  he  verie  God  and  verie  Man. 

"  Wee  acknowledge  and  confesse,  that  this  most  wonderous  con- 
junctioun  betwixt  the  Godhead  and  the  manhead  in  Christ  Jesus, 
did  proceed  frome  the  eternall  and  immutable  decree  of  God,  frome 
which  all  our  salvatioun  springeth  and  dependeth. 

"8.  Election. 

"  For  that  same  eternall  God  and  Father,  who  of  meere  grace 
elected  us  in  Christ  Jesus  his  Sonne,  before  the  foundatioun  of  the 
world  was  layed,  appointed  him  to  be  our  Head,  our  Brother,  our 
Pastor,  and  great  Bishop  of  our  soules.  But  becaus  that  the  ini- 
mitie  betwixt  the  justice  of  God  and  our  sinnes  was  suche,  that  no 
fleshe  by  itself  could,  or  might  have  atteaned  unto  God,  it  behoved 
that  the  Sonne  of  God  sould  descend  doun  unto  us,  and  take  liim- 
self  a  bodie  of  our  bodie,  fleshe  of  our  fleshe,  and  bone  of  our  bones, 
and  so  become  the  Mediator  betwixt  God  and  man ;  giving  power 
to  so  manic  as  beleeve  in  him  to  be  the  sonnes  of  God,  as  himself 
doth  witnesse  :  "  I  passe  up  to  my  Father  and  unto  your  Father, 
to  my  God  and  unto  your  God."  By  which  most  holie  fraternitie, 
whatsoever  we  have  lost  in  Adam  is  restored  to  us  again.  And 
for  this  cans  are  we  not  aflrayed  to  call  God  our  Father,  not  so 
muche  becaus  he  hath  created  us,  (which  we  have  commoun  with 
the  reprobat,)  as  for  that  he  hath  givin  unto  us  his  onlie  Sonne  to 
be  our  brother,  and  givin  unto  us  grace  to  acknoAvledge  and  em- 
brace him  for  our  onlie  Mediator,  as  before  is  said.  It  behoved, 
further,  the  Messias  and  Redeemer  to  be  verie  God  and  verie  man, 
becaus  he  Avas  to  underly  the  punishement  due  for  our  transgres- 
siouns  ;  and  to  present  himself  in  the  presence  of  his  Father's 
judgement,  as  in  our  pcrsoun,  to  suffer  for  our  transgressioun  and 
inobediencc,  by  death  to  overcome  him  that  was  the  author  of 
death.  But  becaus  the  onhc  Godhead  coidd  not  suffer  death,  nei- 
ther yitt  could  the  onlie  manhead  overcome  the  saminc,  He  joyned 

1560.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  21 

both  together  in  one  pcrsonn,  that  the  imbecilUtie  of  the  one  soiild 
suffer  and  be  subject  to  death,  which  we  had  deserved,  and  the  in- 
finite and  invincible  power  of  the  other,  to  witt,  of  the  Godhead, 
sould  triumphe,  and  purchase  to  us  life,  libcrtie,  and  perpetuall 
victorie.     And  so  we  confesse,  and  most  undoubtedlic  beleeve. 

"  9.   Chris t^s  Death,  Passion,  and  Buriall. 

"  That  our  Lord  Jesus  offered  himself  a  voluntai'ic  sacrifice  unto 
his  Father  for  us  ;  that  he  suffered  contradictioun  of  sinners ;  that 
he  was  wounded  and  plagued  for  our  transgressions  ;  that  he,  being 
the  cleane  innocent  Lambe  of  God,  Avas  damned  in  the  presence  of 
an  earthlie  judge,  that  we  sould  be  absolved  before  the  tribunal  seate 
of  our  God  ;  that  he  suffered  not  onlie  the  cruell  death  of  the  crosse, 
(which  was  accursed  by  the  sentence  of  God,)  but  also  that  he  suf- 
fered for  a  scasoun  the  wrathe  of  his  Father,  which  sinners  had  de- 
served. But  yitt  we  avow,  that  he  remained  the  onlie  welbeloved 
and  blessed  Sonne  of  his  Father,  even  in  the  middest  of  his  an- 
guishe  and  torment  Avliich  he  suffered  in  bodie  and  soule,  to  mak 
full  satisfactioun  for  the  sinnes  of  the  people  ;  after  the  which,  we 
confesse  and  avow,  that  there  remaineth  no  other  sacrifice  for  sinne. 
Wliich,  if  anie  affirme,  we  nothing  doubt  to  avow,  that  they  are 
blasphemers  against  Christ's  death,  and  the  everlasting  purgatioun 
and  satisfactioun  purchased  to  us  by  the  same. 

''  10.  Resurrection. 

"  Wee  undoubtedlic  beleeve,  that  in  so  muche  as  it  was  impos- 
sible that  the  dolours  of  death  sould  reteane  in  boundage  the  Author 
of  life,  that  our  Lord  Jesus,  crucifei<l,  dead,  and  bureid,  who  de- 
scended into  hell,  did  arise  againe  for  our  justificatioun,  and  de- 
stroying of  him  who  was  the  author  of  death ;  brought  life  againe 
to  us  Avho  were  subject  to  death,  and  to  the  boundage  of  the  same. 
AVe  know  that  his  resurrectioun  was  confirmed  by  the  testimonie 
of  his  verie  enemeis ;  by  tlic  resurrectioun  of  the  dead,  whose  se- 
pulchres did  open,  and  they  did  rise,  and  appeared  to  manic  within 

22  calderwood's  historie  1560. 

the  citie  of  Jerusalem.  It  was  also  confirmed  by  the  testimonie  of 
his  angels,  and  by  the  senses  and  judgements  of  his  apostles,  and 
of  others  who  had  conversatioun,  and  did  eate  and  drinke  with  him 
after  his  resurrectioun. 

"  11.  Ascension. 

"  We  nothing  doubt,  but  the  self-same  bodie  which  was  borne  of 
the  Virgin  was  crucifeid,  dead,  and  bureid;  and  which  did  rise 
again,  did  ascend  unto  the  heavens,  for  the  accomplishment  of  all 
things ;  where,  in  our  names,  and  for  our  comfort.  He  hath  receaved 
all  power  in  heaven  and  earth ;  where  He  sitteth  at  the  right  hand 
of  his  Father,  inaugurat  in  his  kingdom e,  Advocat,  and  onlie  Me- 
diator for  us.  Which  glorie,  honour,  and  prerogative,  He  alone 
amongst  the  brethrein  sail  possesse,  till  that  all  his  enemeis  be  made 
his  footstoole,  as  that  we  undoubedlie  beleeve  they  sail  be,  in  the 
finall  judgement ;  to  the  executioun  wherof  we  certanlie  beleeve, 
that  the  same  our  Lord  Jesus  sail  visiblie  return,  as  that  he  was 
scene  to  ascend.  And  then  we  firmelie  beleeve,  that  the  time  of 
refreshing  and  restitutioun  of  all  things  sail  come,  in  so  muche  that 
these,  who  frome  the  beginning  have  suffered  violence,  injurie,  and 
wrong,  for  righteousnesse'  sake,  sail  inherite  that  blessed  immor- 
talitie  promised  frome  the  beginning.  But  contrariwise,  the  stub- 
borne,  inobedient,  cruell  oppressours,  filthie  persons,  idolaters,  and 
all  suche  sorts  of  unfaithful!,  sail  be  cast  in  the  dungeon  of  utter 
darknesse,  where  the  worme  sail  not  dee,  neither  yitt  the  fire  sail 
be  extinguished.  The  remembrance  of  which  day,  and  of  the 
judgement  to  be  executed  in  the  same,  is  not  onlie  to  us  a  bridle 
whereby  our  camall  lusts  are  refi'ained,  but  also  suche  inestimable 
comfort,  that  neither  may  the  threatning  of  worldlie  princes,  nei- 
ther yitt  the  feare  of  temporal!  death  and  present  danger,  move  us 
to  renounce  and  forsake  that  blessed  societic  which  we,  the  mem- 
bers, have  with  our  Head  and  onlie  Mediator,  Christ  Jesus  ;  wliome 
we  confesse  and  avow  to  be  the  Messias  promised,  the  onlie  Head 
of  his  Kirk,  our  just  Lawgiver,  our  onlie  High  Freest,  Advocat,  and 

1560.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  2li 

Mediator.  In  which  lionours  and  offices,  if  man  or  angell  presume 
to  intruse  themselves,  we  utterhe  detest  them  as  blasphemous  to 
our  Soverane  and  supreme  Governour,  Christ  Jesus. 

"12.  Faith  in  the  Holie  Ghost. 

"  This  our  faith,  and  the  assurance  of  the  same,  proceedeth  not 
from  flesh  and  blood,  that  is  to  say,  frome  naturall  powers  within 
us,  but  is  the  inspiratioun  of  the  Ilolie  Ghost ;  whome  Ave  coufcsse 
God  equall  with  the  Father  and  with  his  Sonne  ;  who  sanctifeith 
us,  and  bringeth  us  into  all  veritie  by  his  owne  operatioun ;  with- 
out whome  we  sould  remaine  for  evermore  enemeis  to  God,  and 
ignorant  of  his  Sonne  Christ  Jesus.  For  of  nature  we  are  so  dead, 
so  blind,  and  so  perverse,  that  neither  can  Ave  feele  when  we  are 
pricked,  see  the  light  Avhen  It  shineth,  nor  assent  unto  the  will  of 
God  Avhcn  it  is  reveeled,  unlesse  the  Spmt  of  the  Lord  Jesus 
quicken  that  which  is  dead,  remove  the  darkenesse  frome  our 
mindes,  and  boAv  our  stubborne  hearts  to  the  obedience  of  his 
blessed  AviU.  And  so,  as  we  confesse  that  God  the  Father  created 
us  Avhen  we  were  not,  as  his  Sonne,  our  Lord  Jesus,  redeemed  us 
Avlien  Ave  were  enemeis  to  him,  so  also  do  Ave  confesse,  that  the 
Holie  Ghost  doth  sanctifie  and  regenerat  us,  AAithout  all  respect  of 
anie  merite  proceeding  of  us,  be  it  before,  or  be  it  after  our  regene- 
ratioun.  To  speeke  this  one  thing  yitt  in  more  plainc  Avords :  as 
Ave  Avillinglie  spoile  our  selves  of  all  honour  and  glorie  of  our  OAvne 
creatioun  and  redemptioun,  so  doe  Ave  also  of  our  regeneratioun 
and  sanctificatioun.  For  of  ourselves  Ave  are  not  sufficient  to  thinke 
a  good  thought ;  but  He  Avho  hath  begunne  the  Avork  in  us,  is  on- 
lie  He  Avho  continueth  us  in  the  same,  to  the  praise  and  glorie  of 
his  undeserved  grace. 

;"  13.    The  cause  of  Good  Works. 

"  So  that  the  caus  of  good  works  we  confesse  to  be,  not  our  frce- 
Avill,  but  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  Avho,  dwelling  in  our  hearts 
by  true  faith,  bringeth  furth  suchc  Avorks  as  God  hath  prci):u-o(l  us 
for  to  Avalk  in.     For  this  Ave  must  boldlie  affirme,  that  blasphcmie 

24  calderwood's  historie  15G(). 

it  is  to  say,  that  Chi'ist  abidetli  in  the  hearts  of  suche  as  in  whonie 
there  is  no  spirit  of  sanctificatioun.  And,  therefore,  we  feare  not 
to  affirme,  that  miu'therers,  oppressors,  cruell  persccntors,  adul- 
terers, whoormongers,  filthie  persons,  idolaters,  di-unkards,  theeves, 
and  all  Avorkers  of  iniquitie,  have  neither  true  faith,  neither  anie 
portioun  of  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  so  long  as  obstinatlie  they 
continue  in  their  wickednesse.  For  how  soone  the  Spirit  of  the 
Lord  Jesus  (wliich  God's  elect  childi-ein  receave  by  true  taith) 
taketh  possessiouu  in  the  heai't  of  anie  man,  so  soone  doth  He  re- 
generat  and  renue  the  same  man ;  so  that  he  beginneth  to  hate 
that  which  before  he  loved,  and  beginnetli  to  love  tliat  which  be- 
fore he  hated.  And  from  thence  commeth  that  continuall  Ijattell 
which  is  betwixt  the  flesli  and  the  Spirit  in  God's  childrein,  whill 
the  flesh  and  naturaU  man,  according  to  the  owne  corruptioun, 
lusteth  for  things  pleasant  and  delectable  to  the  self;  and  grudgeth 
in  adversitie,  is  lifted  up  in  prosperitie,  and  at  everie  moment  is 
prone  and  readie  to  oflend  the  Majestic  of  God.  But  the  Spirit  of 
God,  which  giveth  witnessing  to  our  spirit  that  we  are  the  sonnes 
of  God,  makcth  us  to  resist  filthie  pleasures,  and  to  grone  in  God's 
presence  for  deliverance  frome  this  boundage  of  corruptioun  ;  and 
finallie  to  triumphe  over  sinne,  that  it  raigne  not  in  our  mortall 
bodeis.  This  battell  hath  not  the  carnall  man,  being  destitute  of 
God's  Spirit;  but  doth  foUow  and  obey  sinne  with  greedinesse, 
and  without  repentance,  even  as  the  devill  and  their  corrupt  lusts 
doe  pricke  them.  But  the  sonnes  of  God,  as  before  was  said,  doe 
fight  against  sinne ;  doe  sob  and  mourne,  when  they  pei'ceave  them- 
selves tempted  to  iniquitie ;  and  if  they  fall,  they  rise  againe  with 
earnest  and  unfained  repentance.  And  thir  things  they  doe,  not 
by  their  owne  power,  but  by  the  power  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  with- 
out whom  they  were  able  to  doe  nothing. 

"  14.    Wliat  Works  are  reputed  good  before  God. 
"  AVe  confessc  and  acknowledge,  that  God  hath  givin  to  man 
his  holie  law,  in  which  not  onlie  are  forbiddin  all  suche  works  as 
displease  and  offend  his  godlie  Majestic,  but  also  are  commanded 

1560.  OF  THE  KIUK  OF  SCOTLAXD.  25 

all  suche  as  please  him,  and  as  he  hath  promised  to  reward.  And 
thir  works  be  of  two  sorts.  The  one  are  done  to  the  honour  of 
God,  the  other  to  the  profile  of  our  nighbours ;  and  both  have  the 
reveeled  will  of  God  for  their  assurance.  To  have  one  God,  to 
worship  and  honour  him,  to  call  upon  him  in  all  our  troubles,  reve- 
rence his  holie  name,  to  heare  his  Word,  beleeve  the  same,  com- 
municat  witli  his  holie  Sacraments,  are  the  works  of  the  First 
Table.  To  honour  father  and  mother,  obey  their  charges,  (not  re- 
pugning to  the  commandement  of  God,)  to  save  the  lives  of  inno- 
cents, to  represse  tjT-annie,  to  defend  the  oppressed,  to  keepe  our 
bodeis  cleane  and  holie,  to  live  in  sobernesse  and  temperance,  to 
deale  justlie  Avith  all  men  both  in  word  and  deed,  and,  finallie,  to 
represse  all  appetite  of  our  nighbour's  hurt,  are  the  good  works  of 
the  Secund  Table,  which  are  most  pleasing  and  acceptable  to  God, 
as  these  works  that  are  commanded  by  himself.  The  contrarie 
wherof  is  sinne  most  odious,  which  alwise  displeaseth  him,  and 
provoketh  him  to  anger :  as  not  to  call  upon  him  alone  wlien  we 
have  need,  not  to  heare  his  AVord  with  reverence,  to  contemne  and 
despise  it,  to  have  or  worship  idols,  to  mainteane  and  defend  ido- 
latrie,  lightlie  to  esteeme  the  reverend  name  of  God,  to  profane, 
abuse,  or  contemne,  the  Sacraments  of  Christ  Jesus,  to  disobey  or 
resist  anie  that  God  hath  placed  in  authoritie,  (whill  they  passe 
not  over  the  bounds  of  their  office,)  to  muither  or  to  consent  there- 
to, to  beare  hatred,  or  to  Ictt  innocent  blood  be  shed  if  we  may  with- 
stand it.  And,  finallie,  the  transgi'essioun  of  anie  other  commande- 
ment in  the  First  or  the  Secund  Table,  we  confesse  and  affirme  to 
be  sinne,  by  which  God's  anger  and  displeasm-e  is  kindled  agamst 
the  proud,  unthankfull  Avorld.  So  that  good  works  we  affirme  to 
be  these  onlie  that  are  done  in  faith,  and  at  God's  commandement, 
who  in  his  law  hath  expressed  what  the  things  be  that  please  him. 
And  evill  works  we  affirme  not  onlie  these  that  expreslie  are  done 
against  God's  commandement,  but  these  also  that  in  maters  of  re- 
ligioun  and  worshipping  of  God  have  no  other  assurance  but  the 
invention  and  opinion  of  man,  which  Ciod  frojn  tlic  I)cginning  hath 
ever  rejected ;    as  by  the  prophet  Isay,  and  by  our  Mastei",  Christ 

26  calderwood's  historie  15G0. 

Jesus,  we  are  taught  in  thir  words,  '  In  vaine  doe  they  worship 
me,  teaching  for  doctrins  the  precepts  of  men.' 

"  15.    The  Perfection  of  the  Laiv,  and  Imjjerfection  of  Man. 

"  The  law  of  God  we  confesse  and  acknowledge  most  just,  most 
equall,  most  holie,  and  most  perfyte,  commanding  these  things 
which  being  wrought  in  perfectioun  were  able  to  give  life,  and  able 
to  bring  man  to  eternall  felicitie.  But  our  nature  is  so  corrupt,  so 
weake,  and  so  imperfyte,  that  we  are  never  able  to  fulfill  the  works 
of  the  law  in  perfectioun ;  yea,  if  we  say  we  have  no  sinne  even 
after  we  are  regenerated,  we  deceave  ourselves,  and  the  veritie  of 
God  is  not  in  us.  And,  therefore,  it  behoveth  us  to  apprehend 
Christ  Jesus,  with  his  justice  and  satisfactioun,  who  is  the  end  and 
accomplishment  of  the  law  ;  by  whom  we  are  sett  at  this  libertie, 
that  the  curse  and  maledictioun  of  God  fall  not  upon  us,  albeit  we 
fulfill  not  the  same  in  all  points.  For  God  the  Father,  beholding 
us  in  the  bodie  of  his  Sonne  Christ  Jesus,  accepteth  our  imperfyte 
obedience  as  it  were  perfyte,  and  covereth  our  works,  which  are 
defiled  with  manie  spots,  with  the  justice  of  his  Sonne.  Wc  doe 
not  meane  that  we  are  so  sett  at  libertie,  that  Ave  owe  no  obedience 
to  the  law  ;  (for  that  before  we  have  plainlie  confessed ;)  but  this 
we  afiirme,  that  no  man  in  earth  (Christ  Jesus  onlie  excepted) 
hath  givin,  giveth,  or  sail  give  in  worke,  that  obedience  to  the  law 
which  the  law  requireth.  But  when  we  have  done  all  things,  we 
must  fall  doun,  and  unfainedlie  confesse  that  we  are  unprofitable 
servants.  And,  therefore,  whosoever  boast  themselves  of  the 
merits  of  their  owne  Avorks,  or  putt  their  trust  in  the  works  of  su- 
pererogatioun,  boast  themselves  in  that  which  is  nought,  and  putt 
their  trust  in  damnable  idolatrie. 

"16.  Of  the  Kirk. 

"  As  we  beleeve  in  one  God,  Father,  Sonne,  and  Holie  Ghost, 

so  doe  we  most  constantlie  beleeve,  that  frome  the  beginning  there 

hath  beene,  and  now  is,  and  to  the  end  of  the  Avorld  sail  be,  a  Kirk; 

that  is  to  say,  a  companie  and  multitude  of  men  chosin  of  God, 

1560.  OF  THE  KIUK  OF   SCOTLAND.  27 

who  rightlic  worship  'and  embrace  him  by  true  faith  in  Christ 
Jesus,  who  is  the  onlie  Head  of  the  same  Kirk,  which  also  is  the 
bodie  and  spous  of  Christ  Jesus  :  which  Kirk  is  Catholick,  that  is, 
universal!,  becaus  it  conteaneth  the  elect  of  all  ages,  of  all  reahnes, 
natiouns,  and  tongues,  be  they  of  the  Jewes,  or  be  they  of  the 
Gentiles,  who  have  communioun  and  societie  with  God  the  Father, 
and  with  his  Sonne  Christ  Jesus,  through  the  sanctificatioun  of  his 
Holie  Spirit.  And  therefore  is  it  called  the  communioun,  not  of 
profane  persons,  but  of  sancts,  who,  as  citicens  of  the  heavenlie 
Jerusalem,  have  the  fruitioun  of  the  most  inestimable  benefites  ;  to 
witt,  of  one  God,  of  one  Lord  Jesus,  one  faith,  and  one  baptisme; 
out  of  which  Kirk  there  is  neither  life  nor  etemall  felicitle.  And, 
therefore,  we  utterlie  abhorre  the  blasphemie  of  them  that  affirme, 
that  men  Avho  live  according  to  equitie  and  justice  sail  be  saved, 
what  religioun  that  ever  they  have  professed.  For  as  without 
Christ  Jesus  there  is  neither  life  nor  salvatioun,  so  sail  there  none 
be  participant  thereof,  but  suche  os  the  Father  hath  givin  unto  his 
Sonne  Christ  Jesus,  and  they  that  in  time  come  unto  him,  avow 
his  doctrine,  and  beleeve  into  him :  (we  comprehend  the  childrcin 
with  the  faithftdl  parents.)  This  Ku'k  is  invisible,  knowne  onlie 
to  God,  who  alone  knoweth  whom  he  hath  chosin ;  and  compre- 
hendeth  as  weill,  as  said  is,  the  elect  that  be  departed,  commounlie 
called  the  kirk  triumphant,  as  those  that  yitt  live  and  fight  against 
sinne  and  Satan,  or  sail  live  heerafter. 

"17.    The  Immortalitie  of  the  Soule. 

"  The  elect  departed  are  in  peace,  and  rest  fi'om  their  labours. 
Not  that  they  sleepe,  and  come  to  a  certan  oblivioun,  as  some 
phantasticks  doe  affirme  ;  but  that  they  are  delivered  from  all 
feare  and  torment,  and  all  tentatioun  to  which  we,  and  all  God  his 
elect  are  subject  in  this  life,  and  therefore  doe  bcare  the  name  of 
the  kirk  militant :  as  contrariwise,  the  reprobat  and  unfaithfull  de- 
parted have  anguish,  torment,  and  paine  that  cannot  be  expressed. 
So  that  neither  are  the  one  nor  the  other  in  suche  sleepe,  that  they 
feele  not  joy  or  torment,  as  the  parable  of  Christ  Jesus,  in  the  Kith 


of  Luke,  his  words  to  the  theefe,  and  thir  words  of  the  soules  cry- 
hig  under  the  altar,  '  O  Lord,  thou  art  righteous  and  just :  how 
long  sail  thou  not  revenge  our  blood  upon  these  that  dwell  in  the 
earth,'  doe  declare. 

"  18.    Of  the  Notes  hy  which  the  True  Kirk  is  discerned  from  the 
False,  and  who  sail  be  Judge  of  the  Doctrine. 

"  Becaus  that  Satan  from  the  begrinnino:  hath  laboured  to  decke 
his  pestilent  synagogue  with  the  title  of  the  Kirk  of  God,  and  hath 
inflammed  the  hearts  of  cruell  murtherers  to  persecute,  trouble,  and 
molest  the  true  Kirk  and  members  therof ;  as  Cain  did  Abel,  Is- 
mael  Isaack,  Esau  Jacob,  and  the  whole  priesthood  of  the  Jewes 
Christ  Jesus  himself,  and  his  apostles  after  him,  it  is  a  thing  most 
requisite,  that  the  true  Kirk  be  discerned  frome  the  filthie  syna- 
gogues, by  cleere  and  perfyt  notes,  least  we,  being  deceaved,  re- 
ceave  and  embrace,  to  our  owne  condemnatioun,  the  one  for  the 
other.  The  notes,  signes,.and  sure  tokens  wherby  the  immaculat 
spous  of  Christ  Jesus  is  knowne  frome  the  horrible  harlot,  the  kirk 
malignant,  we  affirme,  are  neither  antiquitie,  title  usurped,  lineall 
descent,  place  appointed,  nor  multitude  of  men  approving  an  errour. 
For  Cain,  in  age  and  title,  was  prefered  to  Abel  and  Seth.  Je- 
rusalem had  prerogative  above  all  places  of  the  earth,  where  also 
were  the  preests  lineallie  descended  from  Aaron.  And  greater 
number  followed  the  scribes,  Pharisees,  and  preests,  than  unfained- 
lle  beleeved  and  approved  Christ  Jesus  and  his  doctrine.  And  yitt, 
as  we  suppose,  no  man  of  sound  judgement  Avill  graunt,  that  anie 
of  the  forenamed  were  the  Kirk  of  God.  The  notes,  therefore,  of 
the  true  Ku-k  of  God,  we  beleeve,  confesse,  and  avow  to  be.  First, 
The  true  preaching  of  the  Word  of  God,  into  the  which  God  hath 
reveeled  himself  unto  us,  as  the  writtings  of  the  prophets  and  apos- 
tles doe  declare:  Secundlie,  The  right  administratioun  of  the  sacra- 
ments of  Christ  Jesus,  which  must  be  annexed  unto  the  Word  and 
promises  of  God,  to  scale  and  confirmc  the  same  in  our  hearts  : 
Last,  Ecclesiasticall  discipline  uprightlic  ministered  as  God  liis 
Word  jn-escribeth,  whereby  vice  is  repressed  and  vertuc  nourished. 

1560.  OF  THE  KllUv  OF  SCOTLAND.  213 

Wheresoever,  then,  these  former  notes  iirc  seene,  and  of  anie  time 
eontiniie,  (be  the  number  never  so  few;  about  two  or  three  ;)  tliere, 
Avithout  all  doubt,  is  the  true  Kirk  of  Christ,  who,  according  to  his 
})romisc,  is  in  the  middest  of  them.  Not  that  universall,  of  Avhich  we 
have  before  spokin  ;  but  particular,  suche  as  was  in  <I^orinthus,  Ga- 
hitia,  Ephesus,  and  other  places  in  wliich  the  ministrie  was  planted 
bv  Paul,  and  were  of  himself  named  the  Kirks  of  God.  And  suche 
kirks  Ave,  the  inhabitants  of  the  realme  of  Scotland,  professors  of 
Christ  Jesus,  professe  our  selves  to  have  in  our  citeis,  touns,  and 
places  reformed.  For  the  doctrine  taught  in  our  kirks  is  conteaned 
in  the  Avrittin  Word  of  God,  to  witt,  in  the  bookes  of  tlie  Okl  and 
New  Testament :  in  these  bookes,  we  meane,  Avhich  of  the  ancients 
have  beene  reputed  canonical!,  in  the  Avhich  we  affirme,  that  all 
things  necessarie  to  be  beleeved  for  the  salvatioun  of  man  are  ex- 
pressed, the  interpretation  Avherof  Ave  confesse,  neither  appcrtean- 
cth  to  privat  nor  publick  persoun,  neither  yitt  to  anie  kirk,  for  anie 
pre-eminence  or  prerogative,  personallie  or  locallie,  Avhicli  one  hath 
above  another ;  but  apperteaneth  to  the  Spirit  of  God,  by  the 
Avhich  also  the  Scripture  Avas  Avrittin.  When  controversie  then 
happeneth,  for  the  right  understanding  of  anie  place  or  sentence  of 
Scripture,  or  for  reformatioun  of  anie  abuse  Avithin  the  Kirk  of  God, 
Ave  ouffht  not  so  muche  to  looke  Avhat  men  before  us  have  said  or 
done,  as  unto  that  Avhich  the  Ilolie  Ghost  uniformelie  specketh 
Avithin  the  bodie  of  the  Scriptures,  and  unto  that  Avhich  Christ  Je- 
sus himself  did,  and  commanded  to  be  done.  For  this  is  a  thing 
univcrsallie  grauntcd,  that  the  Spirit  of  God,  Avliich  is  a  spirit  of 
unitie,  is  in  nothing  contrarious  to  himself  If,  then,  the  interpreta- 
tion, determination,  or  sentence  of  anie  doctor,  kirk,  or  counscU,  re- 
pugne  to  the  plaine  Word  of  God  Avrittin  in  anie  other  place  of 
Scripture,  it  is  a  thing  most  certane,  that  there  is  not  the  true  un- 
derstanding and  meaning  of  the  Ilolie  Ghost,  although  that  coun- 
cels,  realmes,  and  natiouns  have  approved,  and  rcccaved  the  same. 
For  Ave  darre  not  receave  nor  admitt  anie  intcrpretatioun  Avhich  re- 
pugneth  to  anie  principall  point  of  our  faith,  or  to  anie  other  plaine 
text  of  Scripture,  or  yitt  to  the  rule  of  charitie. 

30  calderwood's  iiistorie  loGO. 

"  19.    The  Authoritie  of  the  Scriptures. 

"  As  we  beleeve  and  confesse  the  Scriptures  of  God  sufficient  to 
instruct  and  make  the  man  of  God  perfyte,  so  doe  we  affirme  and 
avow  the  authDritie  of  the  same  to  be  of  God,  and  neither  to  depend 
of  men  nor  angells.  We  affirme,  therefore,  that  suche  as  alledge 
the  same  to  have  no  other  autlioritie  than  that  which  it  hath  receaved 
from  the  kirk,  to  be  blasphemous  against  God,  and  injm'ious  to  the 
true  church,  which  alwayes  heareth  and  obeyeth  the  voice  of  her 
owne  spous  and  pastor,  and  taketh  not  upon  her  to  be  mastresse 
over  the  same. 

"  20.    Of  General  Councels ;  of  their  Power,  Authoritie,  and  Cause  of 

their  Convocation. 

"  As  we  doe  not  rashhe  damne  that  which  godlie  men  assembled 
together  in  generall  councell,  lawfullie  gathered,  have  propouned 
unto  us,  so,  without  just  examination,  darre  we  not  receave  what- 
soever is  obtruded  unto  men  under  the  name  of  generall  councels. 
For  plaine  it  is,  as  they  were  men,  so  have  some  of  them  manifest- 
lie  erred,  and  that  in  maters  of  great  weight  and  importance.  So 
farre,  then,  as  the  counoel  proveth  the  determinatioun  and  com- 
mandement  that  it  giveth  be  the  plaine  Word  of  God,  so  soone  doe 
we  reverence  and  embrace  the  same.  But  if  man,  under  the  name 
of  a  councell,  pretend  to  forge  unto  us  new  articles  of  our  faith,  to 
make  constitutions  repugning  to  the  Word  of  God,  then  utterlie  we 
must  refuse  the  same,  as  the  doctrine  of  devills,  which  draweth  our 
soules  frome  the  voice  of  our  onlie  God,  to  follow  the  doctrins  and 
constitutions  of  men.  The  caus,  then,  why  that  generall  councels 
were  conveened  was,  neither  to  make  anie  perpetuall  law  which 
God  before  had  not  made ;  neither  yitt  to  forge  new  articles  of  our 
beleefe,  nor  to  give  the  Word  of  God  authoritie ;  muche  lesse  to 
make  that  to  be  His  word,  or  yitt  the  true  interpretatioun  of  the 
same,  which  was  not  before  by  his  holie  will  expressed  in  his  Word. 
But  the  caus  of  councels  (we  meane  of  suche  as  merite  the  name  of 
councels)  was  partlie  for  confutatioun  of  hereseis,  and  for  giving 

1560.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  81 

publick  confessioun  of  their  faith  to  the  posteritie  following ;  which 
both  they  did  by  the  authoritie  of  God's  writtin  Word,  and  not  by 
anie  opinioun  or  prerogative,  that  they  could  not  erre,  by  reasoun 
of  theu'  geuerall  assemblie.  And  this  we  judge  to  have  becne  the 
cheefe  caus  of  generall  councels.  The  other  Avas,  for  good  policic 
and  order,  to  be  constituted  and  observed  in  the  kirk,  Avhich,  as  in 
the  hous  of  God,  it  becoraeth  all  things  to  be  done  decentlie  and  in 
order.  Not  that  Ave  thinke  anie  policie,  and  one  order  in  ceremoneis, 
can  be  appointed  for  all  ages,  times,  and  places  :  for  as  ceremoneis, 
suche  as  men  have  devised,  are  but  temporall,  so  may  and  ought 
they  to  be  changed,  Avhen  they  rather  foster  superstitioun,  than 
that  they  edifie  the  ku-k  using  the  same. 

"21.    Of  the  Sacraments. 

"  As  the  fathei's  under  the  laAv,  besides  the  veritie  of  the  sacri- 
fices, had  two  cheefe  sacraments,  to  AA'itt,  Circumcision  and  the  Pass- 
over, the  despisers  and  contemners  wherof  Avere  not  reputed  of 
God's  people,  so  doe  Ave  acknowledge  and  confesse,  that  Ave  now, 
in  the  tune  of  the  Evangell,  have  tAvo  cheefe  sacraments  onlie, 
instituted  by  the  Lord  Jesus,  and  commanded  to  be  used  of  all 
these  that  will  be  reputed  members  of  his  bodie ;  to  Avitt,  Baptisme 
and  the  Supper,  or  Table  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  called  the  Communion 
of  his  bodie  and  blood.  And  thir  sacraments,  as  Aveill  of  Old  as  of 
NcAv  Testament,  now  instituted  of  God,  not  onlie  to  make  a  visi- 
ble difference  betwixt  his  people  and  these  who  were  Avithout  his 
league,  but  also  to  exercise  the  faith  of  his  childrein,  and  by  par- 
ticipation of  the  same  saci'aments,  to  scale  in  their  hearts  the  assui- 
ance  of  liis  promise,  and  of  that  most  blessed  conjunctioun,  unioun, 
and  societie,  Avhich  the  elect  have  Avith  their  head,  Christ  Jesus. 
And  thus,  we  utterlic  damne  the  vanitie  of  them  that  affirme  the 
sacraments  to  be  nothing  elles  but  naked  and  bare  signes.  No ; 
Ave  assuredlie  beleeve,  that  by  baptisme  we  are  ingrafted  in  Christ 
Jesus,  to  be  made  partakers  of  his  justice,  by  Avhich  our  sinnes  are 
covered  and  remitted ;  and  also  that  in  the  Supper,  rightlie  used, 
Christ  Jesus  is   so  joyned  Avith  us,  that  he   becometh  the   verie 

32  caldeuwood's  histouie  15()0. 

nourisliement  and  foode  of  our  soules.  Not  that  we  imagine  anie 
transiibstaiitiatioim  of  bread  into  Christ's  bodie,  and  of  wine  into 
his  naturall  blood,  as  the  Papists  have  perniciouslie  taught,  and 
daranabHe  beleeved ;  but  this  union  and  conjunctioun  which  we 
have  Avith  the  bodie  and  blood  of  Christ  Jesus,  in  the  right  use  of 
the  sacraments,  Avrought  by  the  operatioun  of  the  Holie  Ghost,  Avho, 
by  true  faith,  carieth  us  above  aU  things  that  are  visible,  carnall, 
and  earthhe,  and  maketh  us  to  feede  upon  the  bodie  and  blood  of 
Christ  Jesus,  which  Avas  once  brokin  and  shed  for  us,  which  noAv 
is  in  heaven,  and  appeareth  in  the  presence  of  his  Father  for  us. 
And  yitt,  notAvithstanding  the  farre  distance  of  place,  Avhich  is  be- 
twixt his  bodie  noAv  glorifeid  in  heaA^en,  and  us  now  mortall  in  this 
earth,  yitt  we  must  assuredlie  beleeve,  that  the  bread  which  we 
breake  is  the  communioun  of  Christ's  bodie,  and  tlie  cuppe  Avhich 
we  blesse  is  the  communioun  of  his  blood.  So  that  Ave  confesse  and 
undoubtedlie  beleeve,  that  the  faithfull,  in  the  right  use  of  the 
Lord's  Table,  doe  so  eate  the  bodie  and  drinke  the  blood  of  the 
Lord  Jesus,  that  he  remaineth  in  them,  and  they  in  him  :  yea,  they 
are  so  made  flesh  of  his  flesh,  and  bone  of  his  bones,  that  as  the 
eternall  Godhead  hath  givin  to  the  flesh  of  Christ  Jesus  (Avhich  of 
the  OAvne  conditioun  and  nature  was  mortall  and  corruptible)  life 
and  immortalitie,  so  doth  Christ  Jesus  his  flesh  and  blood,  eatin 
and  drunkin  by  us,  give  unto  us  the  same  prerogatives.  Which, 
albeit  Ave  confesse  are  neither  givin  unto  us  at  that  time  onlie, 
neither  yitt  by  the  proper  poAver  and  virtue  of  tlie  sacrament 
onlie,  yitt  we  affirme,  that  the  fixitlifull,  in  the  right  use  of  the 
Lord's  Table,  have  conjunctioun  with  Christ  Jesus,  as  the  na- 
turall man  cannot  apprehend.  Yea,  and  farther,  avc  affirme,  that 
albeit  the  faithfull,  oppressed  Avith  negligence  and  namelie'  in- 
firmitie,  doe  not  profite  so  muchc  as  they  Avould  in  the  A^erie  in- 
stant actioun  of  the  Supper,  yitt  sail  it  after  bring  furth  fi-uict,  as 
livelie  seede  sowin  in  good  ground  :  for  the  Holie  Spirit,  which 
can  never  be  divided  from  the  right  institutioun  of  the  Lord  Jesus 
Avill  not  frustrate  the  faithfull  of  the  fruict  of  that  mysticall  actioun. 
'  Conspicuous,  noted. 


But  all  thir,  we  say,  come  of  true  faith,  which  apprehencleth  Christ 
Jesus,  who  onlie  maketh  this  sacrament  effectuall  unto  us.  And, 
therefore,  whosoever  slaunders  us  that  we  affirme  or  beleeve  sa- 
craments to  be  naked  and  bare  signes,  doe  injiu'ie  unto  us,  and 
speeke  against  the  manifest  truthe.  But  this  liberallie  and  franke- 
lie  Ave  confesse,  that  we  mak  a  distinctioun  betwixt  Christ  Jesus 
in  his  eternall  substance,  and  betwixt  the  elements  of  the  sacra- 
mentall  signes.  So  that  we  neither  worship  the  signes  in  place  of 
that  Avhich  is  signifeid  by  them,  neither  yitt  doe  we  despise  them 
as  unprofitable  and  vaine,  but  doe  use  them  with  aU  reverence  ;  ex- 
amining ourselves  diligcntlie  before  that  so  we  doe,  becaus  we  are 
assured  by  the  mouth  of  the  apostle,  that  suche  as  eate  of  that  bread, 
and  drinke  of  that  cuppe,  unworthilie,  are  guiltie  of  the  bodie  and 
blood  of  Jesus  Christ. 

"  22.    Of  the  right  Administration  of  the  Sacraments. 

"  That  sacraments  be  rightlie  ministred,  we  judge  two  things  re- 
quisite. The  one,  that  they  be  ministred  by  lawfull  ministers, 
whome  Ave  affirme  to  be  onlie  these  that  are  appointed  to  the  preach- 
ing of  the  Word,  into  Avhose  mouths  God  hath  putt  some  sermoun 
of  exhortatioun,  they  being  men  lawfullie  chosin  therto  by  some 
kirk.  The  other,  that  they  be  ministred  in  suche  elements,  and 
suche  sort,  as  God  hath  appointed,  elles  we  affirme  that  they  ceasse 
to  be  the  right  sacraments  of  Christ  Jesus.  And  therefore  it  is 
that  Ave  flee  the  doctrine  of  the  Papisticall  kirk,  in  participatioun 
of  their  sacraments ;  First,  Becaus  their  ministers  are  no  ministers 
of  Christ  Jesus,  yea,  (Avhich  is  more  horrible,)  they  suffer  Avcomen, 
Avhom  the  Hohe  Ghost  will  not  suffer  to  teache  in  the  congrega- 
tioun,  to  baptize ;  and,  Secundlie,  Becaus  they  have  so  adulterated 
the  one  sacrament  and  the  other  Avith  their  OAvnc  inventiouns,  that 
no  part  of  Christ's  actioun  abideth  in  the  originall  puritie.  For  oyle, 
salt,  spittal,  and  suche  like,  in  baptisme,  are  but  men's  iuA'cntiouns. 
Adoratioun,  veneratioun,  bearing  through  streetes  and  touns,  and 
keeping  of  bread  in  boxes  or  boostes, '  are  profanatioun  of  Christ's 

'    Chests. 
VOL,  11.  C 

34  calderwood's  historie  1560. 

sacraments,  and  no  use  of  the  same.    For  Christ  Jesus  said,  ^  Tak, 
eat,  etc.    Doe  yee  this  in  remembrance  of  me.'    By  which  word  and 
charge,  he  sanctifeid  bread  and  wine  to  the  sacrament  of  his  hoHe 
bodie  and  blood,  to  the  end  that  the  one  sould  be  eaten,  and  that 
all  sould  drinke  of  the  other ;  and  not  that  they  sould  be  keeped 
to  be  worshipped  and  honom^ed  as  God,  as  the  Papists  have  done 
heeretofore,  who  also  committed  sacriledge,  stealing  frome  the  peo- 
ple  the  one  part  of  the  sacrament,   to   witt,  the   blessed  cuppe. 
Moreover,  that  the  sacraments  be  rightlie  used,  it  is  requu-ed,  that 
the  end  and  cans  why  the  sacraments  were  instituted  be  understand 
and  observed,  as  weill  of  the  ministers  as  of  the  receivers.     For  if 
the  opinioun  be  changed  in  the  receaver,  the  right  use  ceasseth ; 
which  is  most  evident  by  the  rejectioun  of  the  sacrifice,  (as  also  if 
the  teacher  plainlie  teach e  false  doctrine,)  Avhich  were  odious  and 
abominable  before  God,  (albeit  they  were  his  owne  ordinance,)  be- 
caus  that  wicked  men  use  them  to  another  end  than  God  hath  or- 
deaned.     The  same  affirme  we  of  the  sacraments  in  the  Papisticall 
kirk,  in  which  we  affirme  the  whole  actioun  of  the  Lord  Jesus  to 
be  adulterated,  as  weill  in  the  externall  forme,  as  in  the  end  and 
opinioun.     What  Christ  did,  and  commanded  to  be  done,  is  evi- 
dent by  the  evangelists,  and  by  Sanct  Paid  :  what  the  preest  doeth 
at  his  altar  we  need  not  to  rehearse.     The  end  and  cans  of  Christ's 
institutioun,  and  why  the  self-same  sould  be  used,  is  expressed  in 
thir  words  :  '  Doe  yee  this  in  remembrance  of  me.     Als  oft  as  yee 
sail  eate  of  this  bread,  and  drinke  of  this  cuppe,  yee  sail  shew  furth 
(that  is,  extoll,  preache,  magnifie,  and  praise)  the  Lord's  death  till 
he  come.'     But  to  what  end,  and  in  Avhat  opinioun,  the  preests  say 
their  masse,  lett  the  word  of  the  same,  their  owne  doctrines,  and 
writtings  witnesse  :  to  Avitt,  that  they,  as  mediators  betAvixt  Christ 
and  his  kirk,  doe  offer  unto  God  the  Father  a  sacrifice  propitiatorie 
for  the  sinnes  of  the  quick  and  the  dead.    Which  doctrine,  as  blas- 
phemous to  Christ  Jesus,  and  making  derogatioun  to  the  sufficien- 
cie  of  his  onlie  sacrifice  once  offered  for  purgation  of  all  these  that 
sail  be  sanctifeid,  Ave  utterlie  abhorre,  detest,  and  renounce. 

15G0.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  35 

"  23.    To  tohom  Sacraments  apperteane. 

"  We  confesse  and  acknowledge,  that  baptisme  apperteans  as 
Weill  to  the  infants  of  the  faithfull,  as  unto  them  that  be  of  age  and 
discretioun.  And  so  Ave  damne  the  errour  of  the  Anabaptists,  who 
denie  baptisme  to  apperteane  to  childrein  before  they  have  faith 
and  understanding.  But  the  Supper  of  the  Lord  we  confesse  onlie 
to  apperteane  to  suche  as  be  of  the  houshold  of  faith,  and  can  trie 
and  examine  themselves,  as  weill  in  their  faith,  as  in  their  duetie  to- 
ward their  nighbour.  Suche  as  eate  or  drinke  at  that  holie  table 
without  faith,  or  being  at  dissensioun  and  divisioun  Avith  their  bre- 
threin,  doe  eate  miAvorthilie.  And  therefore  it  is  that  in  our  kirk 
our  ministers  tak  pubHck  and  particular  examinatioun  of  the  know- 
ledge and  conversatioun  of  suche  as  are  to  be  admitted  to  the  table 
of  the  Lord  Jesus. 

"24.   Of  the  Civill  Magistrat. 

"  We  confesse  and  acknowledge  impyres,  kingdoms,  dominions, 
and  citeis,  to  be  distructed  and  ordcaned  by  God  :  the  powers 
and  authoritie  in  the  same,  be  it  of  emperours  in  their  impyres,  of 
kings  in  their  realmes,  dukes  and  princes  in  their  dominions,  and 
of  other  magistrats  in  citeis,  to  be  God's  holie  ordinance,  ordeaned 
for  manifestatioun  of  his  owue  glorie,  and  for  the  singular  ])rofyte 
and  commoditie  of  mankinde.  So  that  Avhosoever  goeth  about  to 
tak  away,  or  to  confound  the  whole  state  of  civill  policeis  now  long 
established,  we  affirme  the  same  men  not  onlie  to  be  enemeis  to 
mankinde,  but  also  Avickedlie  to  fight  against  God  his  expressed 
will.  We  further  confesse  and  acknowledge,  that  suche  persons  as 
are  placed  in  authoritie  are  to  be  loved,  honoured,  feared,  and 
holdin  in  most  reverend  estimation,  becaus  that  they  are  the  lieu- 
tenants of  God,  in  Avhose  scssiouns  God  himself  doth  sitt  and  judge, 
yea,  even  the  judges  and  princes  themselves,  to  whom,  by  God,  is 
givin  the  sword,  to  the  praise  and  defense  of  good  men,  and  to 
punishe  all  open  malefactors.  Moreover,  to  kings,  princes,  nilers, 
and  magistrats,  we  aflfirme  that  cheeflie,  and  most  principallie,  the 

36  calderwood's  historie  1560. 

conservatioun  and  purgatioun  of  religioun  apperteanetli ;  so  that 
not  onlie  they  are  appointed  for  civill  poUcie,  but  also  for  mainten- 
ance of  true  rehgioun,  and  for  suppressing  of  idolatric  and  supcr- 
stitioun  whatsoever,  as  in  David,  Josephat,  Ezekias,  Josias,  and 
others  highhe  commended  for  their  zeale  in  this  case  may  be  es- 

"25.  The  Gifts  freelie  given  to  the  Kirk. 
"  Albeit  that  the  Word  truelie  preached,  and  the  sacraments 
rightHe  ministred,  and  discipline  executed  according  to  the  Woi'd  of 
God,  be  the  certan  and  infallible  signes  of  the  time  kirk,  we  meane 
not,  that  everie  particidar  persoun  joyned  Avith  suche  companie  is 
an  elect  member  of  Christ  Jesus  :  for  we  acknowledge  and  confesse, 
that  dornell,  cockle,  and  chaife  may  be  sowin,  grow,  and  in  great 
abundance  ly  in  the  middest  of  the  wheat.  That  is,  the  reprobat 
may  be  joyned  in  the  societie  of  the  elect,  and  may  externallie  use 
with  them  the  benefytes  of  the  Word  and  Sacraments.  But  suche 
being  but  temporall  professors  in  mouth,  but  not  in  heart,  doe  fall 
backe,  and  continue  not  unto  the  end ;  and  therefore  have  they  no 
fruict  of  Christ's  death,  resurrectioun,  nor  ascensioun.  But  suche 
as  with  heart  unfainedlie  beleeve,  and  with  mouth  boldlie  confesse 
the  Lord  Jesus,  as  before  we  have  said,  sail  most  assuredlie  receave 
thir  gifts :  First,  In  this  Hfe,  remissioun  of  sinnes,  and  that  by 
onlie  faith  in  Christ's  blood,  in  so  muche,  that  albeit  sinne  remaine, 
and  continuallie  abide  in  thir  our  mortaU  bodeis,  yitt  it  is  not 
imputed  unto  us,  but  remitted,  and  covered  wath  Christ's  justice. 
Secundlie,  In  the  generaU  judgement,  there  sail  be  givin  to  everie 
man  and  woman  resurrectioun  of  the  flesh.  For  the  sea  saU  give 
her  dead,  the  earth  these  that  be  therin  inclosed ;  yea,  the  Eter- 
nall,  our  God,  sail  stretche  out  his  hand  on  the  dust,  and  the  dead 
sail  arise  incorruptible,  and  that  in  the  substance  of  the  self-same 
flesh  that  everie  man  now  beareth,  to  receave,  according  to  their 
works,  gloric  or  punishement.  For  suche  as  now  dellte  in  vanitie, 
crueltie,  filthinessc,  superstitioun,  or  idolatric,  saU  be  adjudged  to 
the  fire  unquenchable,  in  which  they  sail  be  tormented  for  ever,  as 

1560.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTL.^'D.  37 

Weill  in  their  oAvne  bodeis,  as  in  their  soules,  which  now  they  give 
to  serve  the  devill  in  all  abominatioun.  Bnt  suche  as  continue  in 
Weill  doing  to  the  end,  boldlie  professing  the  Lord  Jesus,  we  con- 
stantlie  beleeve  that  they  sail  receave  glorie,  honour,  and  imraor- 
talitie,  to  raigne  for  ever  in  life  everlasting  with  Christ  Jesus,  to 
whose  glorifeid  bodie  all  his  elect  sail  be  made  like,  when  he  sail 
appeare  again  in  judgement,  and  sail  rander  up  the  kingdom c  to 
God  his  Father,  who  then  sail  be,  and  ever  sail  remaine,  in  all 
things,  God,  blessed  for  ever ;  to  whom,  with  the  Sonne,  and  with 
the  Holie  Ghost,  be  all  honour  and  glorie,  now  and  ever.  So 
be  it. 

"  Arise,  O  Lord,  lett  thy  enemeis  be  confounded ;  lett  them  flee 
from  thy  presence  that  hate  thy  godlie  name.  Give  thy  servants 
strenth  to  speeke  thy  words  in  boldnesse,  and  lett  all  nations  cleave 
to  thy  true  knowledge.     Amen." 


These  articles  were  read  in  face  of  parliament,  and  ratifeid  by 
the  three  estats  at  Edinburgh,  the  17th  day  of  Julie,  1560.  The 
Confessioun  was  read  publicklie,  first,  in  audience  of  the  Lords 
of  the  Articles.  The  forcnamed  bishops,  and  some  other  of  the 
temporall  estate,  were  charged  in  the  name  of  God  to  object,  if  they 
could,  anie  thing  against  that  doctrine.  Some  of  the  ministers  were 
present,  standing  upon  their  feete,  readie  to  have  answered.  Whill 
no  objectioun  was  made,  a  day  was  appointed  for  conference.  The 
Confessioun  of  Faith  was  read,  evcrie  article  by  it  self,  and  cvcric 
man's  voice  required  accordinglie.  None  of  the  temporall  estat 
voted  in  the  contrare,  except  the  Eric  of  Atholl,  Lord  Somervell, 
and  Lord  Borthwicke.  "  We  will  beleeve,"  said  they,  "  as  our 
fathers  beleeved."  The  Popish  bishops  spake  nothing.  The  rest 
of  the  three  estats  appi'oved  the  doctrine  by  their  votes ;  manic  the 
rather  becaus  the  bishoi)s  would  not,  nor  durst  say  nothing  in  the 
contrare.     The  Erie  of  Marshall  said,  "  It  is  long  since  I  had  some 

38  calderwood's  historie  1560. 

favour  to  the  truthe  ;  but  praised  be  God,  I  am  this  day  fuUie  re- 
solved: for  seing  my  lord  bishops,  who,  for  their  learning,  can,  and 
for  their  zeale  they  owe  to  the  truthe,  would,  as  I  suppose,  gain- 
say anie  thing  repugning  to  the  same,  yitt  speeke  nothing  against 
the  doctrine  propouned,  I  cannot  but  hold  it  the  verie  truthe  of 
God,  and  the  contrarie  to  be  deceavable  doctrine.  Therefore,  so 
farre  as  in  me  lyeth,  I  approve  the  one,  and  damne  the  other ;  and 
doe  farther  aske  of  God,  that  not  onlie  I,  but  also  my  posteritie, 
may  injoy  the  comfort  of  the  doctrine  that  this  day  our  eares  have 
heard.  Farther,  I  protest,  if  anie  persons  ecclesiasticall  sail  heerafter 
oppone  themselves  to  this  our  Confessioun,  that  they  have  no  place 
nor  credite,  considering  that  time  of  advisement  being  granted  to 
them,  and  they  having  full  knowledge  of  this  our  Confessioun,  none 
is  now  found  in  lawfull,  free,  and  quiett  parliament,  to  oppone 
themselves  to  that  which  we  professe.  And,  therefore,  if  anie 
of  this  generatioun  pretend  to  doe  it  after  this,  I  protest  he  be 
reputed  rather  one  that  loveth  his  owne  commoditie,  and  the 
glorie  of  the  world,  than  the  truthe  of  God,  and  salvatioun  of  men's 


After  the  ratificatioun  of  the  Confessioun  of  Faith,  two  acts  were 
made.  One,  that  no  maner  of  person,  in  time  coming,  administrat 
anie  of  the  sacraments  secreetlie,  or  anie  other  way,  but  onlie  these 
that  are  admitted,  and  have  power  to  that  effect ;  nor  say  masse, 
nor  heare  masse,  nor  be  present  thereat,  under  the  paine  of  confis- 
cation of  all  their  goods,  and  punishing  of  their  bodeis,  at  the  dis- 
cretioun  of  the  magistrats  within  whose  jurisdiction  suche  persons 
happin  to  be  apprehended,  for  the  first  fact ;  banishment  out  of  the 
realme  for  the  sccund  fact;  and  death  for  the  thrid  fact.  Another, 
that  none  of  the  subjects  sute  or  desire  in  time  comming,  title  or 
right  by  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  or  his  sect,  to  anie  thing  within  this 
realme,  under  the  pain  of  baratrie  ;  that  is  to  say,  proscriptioun, 
banishment,  and  never  to. brooke  honour,  office,  nor  dignitie  within 

1560.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  39 

this  realme  :  that  the  controveeuers  be  called  before  the  justice  or 
his  deputs,  or  before  the  Lords  of  the  Sessioun,  and  be  punished 
conforme  to  the  lawes ;  their  furnishers  with  fynings  of  money : 
that  the  purchasers  of  their  title  or  right,  or  mainteaners  and  de- 
fenders of  them,  sail  incurre  the  same  paiues ;  and  that  no  bishop, 
or  other  prelat  witliin  this  realme,  use  anie  jurisdictioun  in  time  to 
come  by  the  said  Bishop  of  Rome's  authoritle,  under  the  paine  fur- 
said.  These  two  acts  and  the  Confessioun  of  Faith  are  extant  in 
print,  in  the  Acts  of  Parliament  I'atifeid  and  confirmed  in  the  yeere 
1567,  James  Erie  of  Murrey  being  regent. 


The  estats  directed  to  France,  to  the  king  and  queene,  Sir  James 
Sandelands,  Lord  of  Sanct  Johne,  with  the  Acts  of  Parliament,  to 
be  ratifeid  by  them,  according  to  the  promises  made  by  their  com- 
missioners in  the  contract  above  mentioned.  He  came  to  France 
in  a  verie  unfitt  time  ;  for  the  Gwisians  ruled  the  court,  and  sought 
the  ruine  of  those  that  mislyked  their  governement.  Whom  they 
could  not  oppresse  under  colour  of  religioun,  they  intended  against 
them  accusatioun  of  treasoun  and  lesemajestie.  The  Eang  of  Na- 
varre was  committed  to  waird,  the  Prince  of  Condie  adjudged  to 
death,  Montmorancy  and  his  sisters  sonnes  were  appointed  for  the 
slaughter.  They  had  the  names  of  ten  thowsand  in  scroll,  whome 
they  purposed  to  vexe  and  oppresse  one  Avay  or  other.  The  toun 
of  Orleancc  was  in  the  meane  time  possessed  by  soiddiours.  Some 
few  courtcours  satt  in  judgement  upon  the  lives,  goods,  andcredite 
of  honest  men.  The  prison  houses  were  filled :  steeples,  turrets, 
blocke-houses,  and  other  places  upon  the  walls,  were,  for  a  time,  con- 
verted into  prisons.  It  was  determined  at  court,  that  als  soonc  as 
the  yce  thowed,  and  the  river  of  Loyr  were  navigable,  the  king 
sould  take  journey  to  Chinon,  and  the  Gwisians,  with  some  few, 
sould  remainc,  to  putt  in  executioun  the  sentences  of  the  judges. 
In  the  meane  time  came  Sir  James  Sandelands  to  court,  not  so 
muche  to  seeke  pardoun  for  anie  by|>ast  offences,  as  to  })urge  his 

40  calderwood's  historie  1560. 

countriemen,  and  to  lay  the  blame  of  the  late  tumults  upon  the 
Frenche.  The  Gwisians  rebooked  him  sharplie,  that  he,  being  a 
Knight  of  the  Holie  Order,^  sould  have  takin  upon  him  anie  mes- 
sage or  instructions  frome  rebells,  for  that  execrable  religioun, 
which  had  beene  latelie  condemned  in  the  Councell  of  Trent  by 
the  consent  of  all  other  Christian  natiouns.  Manic  woundered  that 
the  Scots,  not  sufficientlie  provided  of  munitioun  or  armour,  and 
divided  among  themselves,  durst  provoke  so  mightie  a  king.  Whill 
they  were  thus  freating  and  threatning,  the  king  was  stricken  sud- 
denlie  with  an  aposthume  in  that  deafe  eare  that  never  would  heare 
the  truthe  of  God,  when  he  was  sitting  at  masse,  readie  to  have  de- 
parted out  of  Orleance  immediatlie  therafter :  for  his  hous  in  Or- 
leance  was  brokin  up,  his  beds,  coffers,  tapestrie,  sent  away,  and 
his  bootes  putt  on.  There  was  none  professing  the  truthe  Avithin 
the  toun  that  looked  not  for  extremitie  ;  for  the  walls  and  gates 
were,  night  and  day,  keeped  by  garrisouns  of  the  Gwisians.  Inno- 
cent men  were  daylie  brought  in,  to  suffer  punishement.  None 
were  suffered  to  depart  furth  but  at  the  pleasure  of  the  Duke  of 
Gwise,  the  Cardinall  of  Loran,  and  then'  factioun.  When  all  things 
were  in  readinesse  for  shedding  of  the  blood  of  the  innocent,  the 
Lord  beganne  to  work  as  yee  see.  The  king  was  careid  to  a 
voide  hous,  and  layed  upon  a  palliesse,  till  a  cannabic  was  sett  up 
above  him. 


Sir  James  Sandelands  was  dismissed  frome  the  court  of  France 
soone  after  the  king  was  stricken  in  his  deafe  eare,  without  anie 
ratificatioun  of  the  Acts  and  Confessioun  of  Faith.  The  profess- 
ours  sent  him  not  to  beg  anie  strenth  to  their  religioun,  which 

'  Sir  James  Sandilands  of  Calder,  after  having  resided  some  years  at  Malta,  and 
become  a  Knight  of  the  Order  of  Saint  John,  was,  on  account  of  his  high  I'eputation  and 
talents,  promoted  to  the  Mastership  of  the  Preceptory  of  Torphichen  in  1543,  with 
the  title  of  Lord  Saint  John  of  Jerusalem.  In  consequence,  therefore,  of  the  eccle- 
siastical as  well  as  military  character  of  which  his  office  partook,  his  secession  to  the 
Reformers  was  regarded  by  the  Papists  as  a  double  apostacy. 

1560.  OF  THE  KlliK  OF  SCOTLAND.  41 

needed  not  the  suffrages  of  men,  so  muche  as  to  show  their  obedi- 
ence. Where  as  some  alledge  this  parliament  above  mentioned 
was  but  a  privat  conventioun,  becaus  neither  king  nor  queene  was 
present,  sword,  scepter,  or  crowne  borne,  and  some  principall  lords 
absent,  they  may  be  easilie  answered.  First,  Through  whose  de- 
fault was  the  queene  absent ;  or  who  procured  her  to  be  sent  to 
France,  but  the  Papists  themselves  ?  Nixt,  The  estats  of  the 
realme  were  assembled  in  her  name.  They  had  her  and  her  hus- 
band's full  power  and  commissioun  to  hold  a  parliament,  and  to  doe 
all  which  may  be  done  in  a  lawfull  parliament,  even  as  if  they  had 
beene  there  in  their  proper  persouns.  Wheresoever  the  king's  coim- 
sellers,  with  his  power  and  commissioun,  are  assembled  to  doe  anie 
thing  at  his  commandement,  there  is  the  king's  presence  and  autho- 
ritie.  If  the  power  of  princes  were  to  be  limited  to  their  bodilie 
presence,  kings  soidd  be  compelled  to  be  content  not  onlie  with  one 
realme,  but  also  with  one  citie.  There  was  no  greater  freedome 
in  anie  parliament  holdin  for  an  hundreth  yeere  before  ;  for  in  it 
men's  voices  were  free,  and  givin  of  conscience :  in  others  they  were 
bought,  or  givin  at  the  devotioun  of  the  prince.  The  careing  of 
the  sword,  scepter,  and  crowne,  is  rather  a  glorious  ceremonic 
than  a  substantiall  and  necessar  point.  The  absence  of  some  pre- 
judgeth  not  these  that  were  present,  for  all  were  warned. 


The  parliament  being  dissolved,  consultatioun  was  had  how  a 
good  and  godlie  policie  might  be  established  in  the  church,  which, 
by  the  Papists,  was  altogether  defaced.  Commissioun  and  charge 
were  givin  to  ]\Ir  Knox,  JNIr  Johne  Wynrame,  Subpryour  of  Sanct 
Andrewes,  Mr  Johne  Spotswod,  Mr  Willockes,  Mr  Johne  Dowg- 
las,  Rector  of  the  Universitie  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  and  Mr  Johne 
Kow,  to  draw  a  plat  forme  of  the  church  policie,  as  they  had  done 
of  the  doctrine.  They  obeyed,  and  presented  it  to  the  n()l)ilitic, 
who  perused  it  manie  dayes.     Some  approved  it,  and  wished  it  to 


be  ratifeid  by  law  :  others  perceaving  their  carnall  libertie  to  be  re- 
strained, and  worldlie  commoditie  to  be  somwhat  impaired  there- 
by, grudged,  in  so  muche  that  the  name  of  the  Booke  of  Discipline 
became  odious  unto  them.  What  crossed  their  corrupt  appetites 
was  termed  by  them  in  mockage  a  "devote  imaginatioun,"  Some 
were  licentious,  some  had  gripped  greedilie  to  the  kirk  rents,  others 
thought  they  Avould  not  laike  their  part.  The  Lord  Areskine  was 
the  cheefe  man  among  the  professours  who  refused  to  subscribe  the 
Booke  of  Discipline.  No  wonder ;  for  beside  that  he  had  an  evill 
wife,  if  the  poore,  the  schooles,  and  the  ministrie  had  gottin  their 
owne  competent  part,  his  kitchen  would  have  laiked  two  parts  and 
more  of  that  which  he  possessed.  None  were  more  unmercifuU  to 
the  poore  ministers  than  they  that  had  the  greatest  share  of  the 
kirk  rents.  Yitt  a  great  part  of  the  nobilitie  subscribed  the  Booke 
of  Discipline  in  Januarie  following,  as  we  sail  shew. 


The  Erles  Morton  and  Glencarne,  and  William  Matlane  of  Leth- 
ington,  younger,  were  sent  from  the  counseU,  soone  after  the  par- 
liament, to  England,  to  crave  the  constant  assistance  of  the  Queene 
of  England  against  all  forraine  invasioun ;  and  to  propone  in  mariage 
to  the  queene  the  Erie  of  Arran,  who  then  was  in  no  small  estima- 
tioun  among  the  godlie.  But  the  Queene  of  England  and  her 
counsell  willed  them  not  to  depend  upon  suche  hopes,  for  it  was 
not  her  minde  to  marie  hastilic.  But  before  their  returne,  the 
King  of  France,  Francis  the  Secund,  departed  this  life  about  the 
besrinninir  of  December.  Therefore  the  Erie  of  Arran  did  beare 
the  repulse  the  more  patientlie,  for  he  was  not  altogether  out  of 
hope  that  the  Queene  of  Scotland  careid  some  favour  to  him.  He 
wrote  to  her,  and  sent  for  credite  a  ring,  which  she  knew  verie 
Weill.  She  receaved  both  the  letter  and  the  ring.  After  answere 
returned,  he  pursued  no  farther,  howbeit  he  bare  it  heavilie  in 

15G0,  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  43 


The  castell  of  Sempell  was  besieged  and  takin  soon  after  the 
parHament,  becaus  the  lord  therof  disobeyed  the  lawes  and  ordi- 
nances of  the  counsell ;  speciallie  becaus  he  would  mainteane  the 
masse,  and  had  besett  the  Erie  of  Arran  with  a  great  number  of 
his  freinds,  whill  as  he  was  ryding  out  the  way  with  his  accustomed 


The  Papists  looke  for  a  new  armie  frome  France  at  the  nixt 
spring.  There  was  no  small  appearance  ;  for  France  utterlie  re- 
fused to  confirme  the  peace  contracted  at  Leith,  or  to  ratifie  the 
Acts  of  Parliament,  dismissed  the  Lord  of  Sanct  Johne  without  a 
resolute  answere,  beganne  to  gather  new  bands  of  throtcutters,  and 
to  make  great  preparatioun  for  ships.  The  Gwisians  vowed  to  re- 
venge upon  England  and  Scotland  the  displeasure  of  their  sister. 
Beton,  Bishop  of  Glasgow,  Dime,  Abbot  of  Dumfermline,  Lord 
Seton,  Mr  Johne  Sinclai',  Deanc  of  Restalrig,  and  others  of  the 
Frenche  factioun,  fostered  them  in  their  malice.  They  openlie  re- 
nounced anie  portioun  of  Scotland,  unlesse  it  were  under  the  go- 
vernement  of  the  Frenche  men.  The  Lord  Seton,  who  went  with 
the  Frenche  out  of  Leith,  and  some  other  practisers,  were  sent  be- 
fore to  raise  new  troubles.  Manic  were  affrayed.  Sundrie  feared 
that  England  Avould  not  susteane  so  great  charges  as  they  had 
done  in  former  times  for  their  defence.  The  preachers  assured 
them,  that  God  would  perfyte  his  owne  worke,  for  it  was  not  theirs, 
but  his  owne  ;  exhorted  the  professors  to  proceed  in  reformatioun 
of  abuses,  and  planting  the  ministrie,  and  then  committ  the  successe 
to  God,  who  is  able  to  dispose  of  kingdoms.  The  godlie  had  skarse 
begunne  to  call  for  helpe  at  God,  and  to  shew  some  signes  of  obe- 
dience to  his  AYord,  when  he  sent  a  wonderfull  deliverance.  For 
by  the  death  of  the  King  of  France,  the  faithful!  in  France  were 
delivered,  as  it  were,  frome  present  death ;  and  tlic  professours  in 

44  calderwood's  historie  IdOO. 

Scotland,  who  by  their  foolishnesse  had  made  tliemselves  slaves  to 
strangers,  were  restored  again  to  the  freedorae  and  libertie  of  a 
free  realme.  Mr  Knox  had  receaved  letters  out  of  France  (for  he 
had  intelligence  both  with  the  churches  and  the  court  there)  that 
the  king  was  deadlie  sicke,  and  would  not  recover.  Whill  he  was 
conferring  with  the  duke  and  Lord  James,  in  the  duke's  loodging, 
in  the  Church  of  Feild,  upon  these  newes,  and  was  comforting 
them,  and  they  him  for  the  death  of  his  wife,  Marjorie  Bowes, 
there  came  a  messinger  frome  Berwick,  sent  by  my  Lord  Gray,  to 
certifie  them  of  the  death  of  the  King  of  France.  The  death  of 
this  king  made  great  alteratioun  in  France,  England,  and  Scot- 
land. A  conventioun  of  the  nobilitie  was  appointed  to  be  holdin 
at  Edinburgh,  the  15th  day  of  Januarie  following. 


The  first  Generall  Assemblie  of  the  reformed  Kirk  of  Scotland 
was  holdin  at  Edinburgh,  the  20th  day  of  December.  That  the 
reader  may  perceave  what  raritie  of  pastors  there  was  in  the  in- 
fancie  of  our  kirk,  and  what  were  the  small  beginnings  of  our  As- 
sembleis,  we  will  sett  doun  the  names  of  the  commissioners  and 
members  of  this  first  Assemblie. 


Johne  Knox,  minister ;  James  Baron  and  Edward  Hope,  com- 
missioners for  Edinburgh. 

Christopher  Gudman,  minister ;  David  Spence  and  Mr  Robert 
Kynpont,  for  St  AndrcAves. 

Mr  Johne  Row,  minister,  for  the  kirk  of  Perth. 

William  Daroch  and  William  Norwell,  for  Stirline. 

Charles  Drummond,  proveist,  James  Witherspoone  and  Andrew 
Mill,  for  Linhthquho. 

Hugh  Wallace  of  Carnall,  Johne  Foullarton  of  Dreghorne,  and 
Charles  Campbell  of  Skeldum,  for  the  kirk  of  Kyle. 

15G0.  OF  THE  KIUlv  OF  SCOTLAND.  45 

George  Hume  of  Spott,  for  the  kirks  of  East  Lothiane. 

David  Lindsay,  minister  ;  Andrew  Lambc  and  Patrik  Boyman, 
for  Leith. 

William  HarkiAv,  minister ;  and  Robert  Fairlie  of  Braid,  for  the 
West  Kirk,  beside  Edinburgh. 

William  Christesone,  minister ;  George  Lowell  and  William  Car- 
michaell,  for  Dundie. 

Alexander  Guthrie  of  Hackerton,  and  William  Durhame  of 
Grange,  for  Forfar. 

Johne  Areskine  of  Dun,  and  Andrew  Mill,  for  Montrose. 

The  Lairds  of  Tulyvarde  and  Fethercarne,  for  the  kirks  of  the 

The  Laird  of  Garleis,  younger,  for  the  ku'ks  of  Nithisdaill. 

Mr  David  Wemes,  for  the  kirk  of  Carnbie. 

Mr  Walter  Balfour,  for  the  kirk  of  Linton. 

Johne  Browne,  Thomas  Boyd,  and  James  Polwart,  for  Tor- 

WiUiam  Lambe,  William  Bonkle,  for  Dumbar. 

James  Dowglas,  James  Moir,  for  Calder  comitis. 

Mr  Robert  Wynrame,  for  Ratho. 

Johne  Kincaid,  for  Kirkliston. 


In  Kyle,  for  reading ;  Rankene  Davidsone,  Richard  Bannatyne, 
Robert  Campbell,  Hugh  Wallace,  Andrew  Lokhart,  Andrew  Chal- 
mer,  James  Dalrumpell,  Adam  Landels,  all  readers,  and  Johne 
Chalmer,  apt  to  teache. 

Li  Sanct  Andrewes,  for  ministering  and  teaching ;  INfr  Johne 
Rutherford,  Mr  William  Ramsay,  Mr  Jamep  AN^ilkie,  Mr  Robert 

46  calderavood's  iiistorie  15()0. 

Hammiltoun,  Mr  Patrik  Consteane,  Mr  William  liynde,  Mr  Wil- 
liam Skeene,  Mr  Archibald  Hammiltomi,  Mr  Alexander  Arbuth- 
net,  Mr  James  Kirkaldie,  Mr  David  Collesse,  Mr  William  Scot, 
Mr  David  Wemes,  Mr  Thomas  Buchanan,  Mr  David  Spence,  Mr 
Robert  Kynpont,  Johne  Wynrame  of  Kirknesse,  Mr  Alexander 
Spence,  Mr  Johne  Wood,  Mr  David  Guild,  Mr  Robert  Pater- 

Others  thought  apt  and  able  by  the  ministers  and  commissioners 
foresaid  to  minister  : — Johne  Areskine  of  Dun,  Johne  Foulertone 
of  Kynnaber,  David  Forresse,  Patrik  Kinninmonth,  Mr  James 
Melvill,  Richard  Melvill,  Mr  Johne  Kello,  Mr  Robert  Montgomrie, 
Mr  Johne  Hepburne,  Mr  Thomas  Ilepburne,  Mr  George  Hep- 
burne,  William  Lambe.  Mr  Johne  Ramsay  was  presented  by  Sir 
Johne  Borthwicke  to  serve  at  the  ku'ks  of  Aberdour  and  Fyvie. 


It  was  found  reasonable  and  expedient  that  the  parochiners  of 
Restah'ig  sould  repaire  to  the  kirk  of  Leith,  and  that  the  kh-k  of 
Restabig  be  razed,  and  utterlie  destroyed,  as  a  monument  of  ido- 


Manage  within  the  secund,  thrid,  and  fourth  degrees  of  affinitie 
and  consanguinitie,  and  suche  others  as  are  not  prohibited  expres- 
lie  by  the  Word,  were  approved  as  lawfull.  The  admissioun  of 
ministers,  elders,  and  deacons,  is  ordeaned  to  be  made  publicklie 
in  the  kirk,  and  pre-mentioun  to  be  made  upon  the  Lord's  day  pre- 
ceding. It  was  ordeaned,  that  parteis  for  carnaU  copulatioun  com- 
mitted betwixt  the  promise  and  solemnizatioun  of  mariage,  sail 
make  publick  confessioun  of  their  fault.  It  was  ordeaned,  that 
suche  as  have  borne  office  in  the  Popish  church  sould  be  supported 
with  the  almesse  of  the  kirk,  as  other  poore,  if  their  conversatioun 
were  honest. 



It  was  thought  expedient,  that  earnest  suppllcatioun  sould  be 
made  to  the  estats  in  parliament,  Lords  of  Secreit  Counsel],  that  none 
be  suffered  to  be  Lords  of  the  Sessiouu,  shireffs,  stewarts,  bailiffes, 
or  other  suche  judges  ordinar,  but  suche  as  were  professors  of  the 
reformed  religioun. 

Item,  To  desire  the  estats  in  parliament  to  tak  order,  with  con- 
firmatioun  of  testaments,  that  pupills  and  orphans  be  not  defrauded, 
and  that  lawes  might  be  made  therupon  in  their  favours. 

Item,  To  requeist  the  estats  in  parliament,  and  Lords  of  Secreit 
Counsell,  to  inflict  sharpe  punishement  upon  the  persons  wliose 
names  Avere  to  be  presented  to  them,  and  other  idolaters  and  main- 
teaners  of  idolatrie,  in  contempt  of  God,  his  true  religioun,  and 
acts  of  parliament,  who  say  masse,  or  cans  masse  to  be  said,  or  are 
present  at  the  same  within  the  places  which  were  to  be  named  and 
presented  to  them. 

This  assemblie  was  continued  to  the  15th  day  of  Januarie.  It 
was  appointed,  that  one  commissioner  sould  be  sent,  at  least,  from 
everie  kirk,  for  requiring  suche  things  of  the  parliament  as  sail  be 
thought  profitable  for  the  weale  of  the  chui'ch. 

Item,  That  everie  one  bring  with  him  a  roll  of  the  Avhole  tithes, 
lands,  annuells,  profites,  and  emoluments  of  the  paroche  kirks  nixt 
adjacent  to  them,  and  of  the  names  of  the  tacksmen,  and  what 
duetie  they  payed  for  their  tacks.  Everie  commissioner  present 
promised  to  come,  or  cans  others  to  be  sent  from  the  kirks. 


At  the  conventioun  holdin  at  Edinburgh,  the  15th  day  of  Ja- 
nuar,  1561,  Lord  James  was  appointed  to  goe  to  France,  to  the 
queene,  and  a  parliament  was  appointed  to  beginne  the  20th  day 
of  May,  at  which  time  they  looked  for  his  retumc.     He  was  for- 

48  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

■warned  of  dangers  which  might  befall  him,  and  admonished  not  to 
consent  that  the  queene  sould  have  masse  publicklie  or  privatlie 
within  the  realme  of  Scotland ;  for  if  he  so  did,  he  soidd  betray 
the  caus  of  God,  and  expone  religioun  to  the  uttermost  danger. 
He  answered,  he  would  never  consent  that  she  sould  have  masse 
publicklie,  but  he  could  not  stoppe  her  to  have  masse  in  her  cham- 
ber privatlie.  He  departed  from  Edinburgh  the  18th  of  Marche, 
and  was  at  the  queene  in  Aprile.  Howbeit  he  susteaned  the 
charges  of  his  convoy  upon  his  owne  expenses,  yitt  went  there  no 
man  out  of  this  countrie  so  weill  accompaneid  before. 


At  this  conventioun,  Mr  Alexander  Andersone,  sub-principall  of 
Aberdeen,  a  man  more  subtile  and  craftie  than  either  learned  or 
godlie,  being  called  to  dispute  for  his  faith,  refused,  using  a  place 
of  TertuUian  to  cloke  his  ignorance.  It  was  answered,  that  Ter- 
tullian  must  not  prejudge  the  authoritie  of  the  Holie  Ghost,  who, 
by  the  mouth  of  Peter,  commandeth  us  to  give  a  reasomi  of  our 
faith  to  everie  one  who  requireth  the  same  of  us  :  and  farther,  that 
they  neither  required  him,  nor  anie  other  man,  to  disput  in  anie 
point  concerning  their  faith  which  is  fiillie  expressed  in  the  Scrip- 
tures ;  for  aU  that  they  beleeve  without  controversie.  But  they 
required  of  him,  as  of  all  other  Papists,  that  they  would  suffer  their 
doctrine,  constitutions,  and  ceremoneis  to  come  to  triell ;  and  spe- 
ciallie  the  masse  to  be  layed  to  the  square  rule  of  God's  Word,  and 
to  the  right  institutioun  of  Jesus  Christ.  Mr  Alexander  denied 
that  the  preest  tooke  upon  him  Christ's  office  to  offer  for  sinne,  as 
was  alledged.  A  masse  booke  was  produced,  and  in  the  beginning 
of  the  canon  were  these  words  read,  "  Suscipe,  Sancta  Trinitas, 
hanc  ohlatiojiem,  quam  ccjo,  incUgnus  peccator,  offer o  tibi  vivo  Deo,  vero, 
pro peccatis  meis,  pro  peccatis  totius  ecclesice  vivorum  et  mortuorum" 
Sfc.  "  Now,"  said  the  reasounei',  "  if  to  offer  for  the  sinnes  of  the 
whole  church  was  not  the  office  of  Christ  Jesus,  yea,  that  office 
which  to  him  onlie  might  and  may  apperteane,  lett  the  Scripture 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  49 

judge  :  and  if  a  vile  knave,  whom  yec  call  preest,  proudlie  taketh 
the  same  upon  him,  lett  your  owne  bookes  witnesse."  Mr  Alexan- 
dei'  ansAvered,  that  none  could  offer  the  propitiatorie  sacrifice  but 
onlie  Christ ;  "  but  we,"  said  he,  "  offer  the  remembrance."  It 
w^as  answered,  that  they  praised  God  he  denied  a  sacrifice  propi- 
tiatorie in  the  masse ;  and  offered  to  prove,  that  in  moe  than  an 
hundreth  places,  it  is  affirmed,  by  their  Popish  doctors,  that  the 
masse  is  a  propitiatorie  sacrifice.  Where  he  aUedged  that  they 
offered  Christ  in  remembrance,  it  was  asked,  to  whome  did.  they 
offer  in  remembrance,  and  by  what  authoritie ;  for  in  God  there 
did  fall  no  oblivioun.  And  if  they  would  say,  they  offer  not  as  if 
God  were  forgetfuU,  but  as  willing  to  applie  Christ's  merits  to  his 
church,  it  was  asked,  what  ivarrant  and  commandement  had  they 
so  to  doe  ?  for  there  is  a  commandement  to  tak,  eate,  drinke ;  but 
to  offer  Christ's  bodie  either  for  remembrance  or  applicatioun,  there 
is  none,  and  therefore  they  tooke  upon  them  an  office  which  was 
not  givin.  Mr  Alexander  being  more  than  astonished,  would  have 
shifted ;  but  the  lords  willed  him  to  answere  directlie.  He  said, 
he  was  better  scene  in  phUosophie  then  in  theologie.  Then  Mr 
Johne  Leslie,  then  Parson  of  Une,  after  Abbot  of  Lindores,  at 
lenth  Bishop  of  Rosse,  was  commanded  to  answere  to  the  former 
argument.  He  beganne  to  answere  with  great  gravitie,  "If  our 
Master  have  nothing  to  say  to  it,  I  have  nothing  ;  for  I  know  no- 
thing but  the  cannon  law.  The  greatest  reasoun  that  ever  I  found 
there  is,  Nolumus  and  Volumus."  Yitt  this  man  afterward  was 
the  onlie  patrone  for  the  masse !  No  wounder,  for  he  was  a  preest's 
gctte.  Therefore  the  old  proverb  holdeth  true,  "  Patrem  scquitur 
sua  proles"  The  nobilitie  perceaving  that  neither  the  one  nor  the 
other  would  answere  directlie,  said,  "  We  have  beene  miserablie 
deceaved  heretofore  ;  for,  if  the  masse  may  not  obteane  remissioun 
of  sinnes  to  the  quick  and  the  dead,  wherefore  were  all  the  abba- 
cies doted  so  richclie  with  temporall  lands  ?" 

VOL.  TI.  T> 

50  caldeewood's  historie  1561. 

the  booke  of  discipline  subscribed. 

At  the  same  conventioun,  the  Booke  of  Discipline  was  subscribed 
by  a  great  part  of  the  nobilitie,  to  witt,  the  duke's  Grace,  the 
Erles  of  Arran,  Argile,  Glencarne,  Marshall,  Menteith,  Morton, 
Eothesse ;  Lord  James,  Lord  Tester,  Lord  Lindsay,  Lord  Boyd, 
Lord  Uchiltrie,  the  Master  of  Maxwell,  and  the  Master  of  Lind- 
say ;  Barons  Dumlanrig,  Lochinvar,  Garleis,  Barganie,  and  Mr 
Alexander  Gordoun,  Bishop  of  GaUoway,  Alexander  Campbell, 
Deane  of  Murrey,  with  a  great  number  moe,  in  the  Tolbuith  of 
Edinburgh,  the  27th  day  of  Januarie,  in  the  yeere  of  our  Lord 
1561,  according  to  the  new  accompt  frome  Januarie.  Their  appro- 
batioun  is  signifeid  in  these  words  following : — 

"  We,  which  have  subscrived  these  presents,  having  advised 
with  the  articles  heerin  specifeid,  and  as  is  above  mentiouned  frome 
the  beginning  of  this  booke,  thinke  the  same  good,  and  conforme 
to  God's  Word  in  aU  points,  conforme  to  the  notes  and  additiouns 
thereto  eeked,  and  promitt  to  sett  the  same  fordward  to  the  utter- 
most of  our  powers,  providing  that  the  bishops,  abbots,  pryors,  and 
other  prelats  and  beneficed  men,  which  elles  have  joyned  them- 
selves to  us,  brooke  the  revenues  of  their  benefices  during  their 
lyftyme,  they  susteaning  and  upholding  the  ministrie  and  ministers, 
as  is  heerin  specifeid,  for  preaching  of  the  Word,  and  ministring 
of  the  Sacraments." 

The  preachers  afterward  exhorted  the  professors  to  establishe 
the  Booke  of  Discipline  by  act  and  publick  law,  affirming,  that  if 
they  suiFered  things  to  hang  in  suspense  when  God  had  givin  to 
them  sufficient  power,  they  sould  after  sob  for  it,  but  sould  not  gett 
it.  We  have  thought  expedient  to  insert  the  booke  in  this  part  of 
our  Historie,  that  the  posteriteis  to  come  may  judge  what  world- 
lings refused,  and  what  was  the  godlie  policie  the  ministers  re- 
quired ;  with  this  advertisement,  that  the  penners  wished  the  pos- 
teritie,  if  God  granted  them  occasion  and  libertie,  to  establishe  a 
more  perfyte  discipline,  which  was  done  twentie  yeeres  after,  when 
some  speciall  points  of  this  booke,  speciallie  about  superintendents 

15G1.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  51 

and  readers,  were  altered  and  amended,  as  we  sail  see  in  the  Se- 
cund  Booke  of  Discipline.  The  maner  of  electioun  and  admissioun 
of  ministers,  elders,  and  deacons,  and  of  superintendents  for  the 
time,  the  order  of  discipline,  and  censm'ing  of  offenders,  the  maner 
of  ministratioun  of  the  sacraments,  visitation  of  the  sicke,  order  of 
buriall,  and  how  free  they  were  of  corruptioun  and  superstitioun, 
may  be  gathered  not  onlie  of  the  First  Booke  of  Discipline,  but 
also  out  of  the  Liturgie,  or  maner  of  ministratioun  of  the  sacra- 
ments, and  forme  of  divine  service,  which  is  sett  doirn  before  the 



"   Seing  that  Christ  Jesus  is  he  whome  God  the  Father,"  <tc. 


Their  Electioun  and  Admissioun.     What  things  are  cheefelie 
required  in  the  Ministers. 

Lett  the  church  first  diligentlie  consider,  that  the  minister  which 
is  to  be  chosin  be  not  fomid  ciUpable  of  anie  suche  faults  which 
Sanct  Paul  reprehendeth  in  a  man  of  that  vocatioun ;  but,  con- 
trariwise,* indewed  with  suche  vertues,  that  he  may  be  able  to 
undertake  his  charge,  and  diligentlie  execute  the  same.  Secundhe, 
that  he  distribute  faithfullie  the  Word  of  God,  and  minister  the 
Sacraments ;  ever  carefuU,  not  onlie  to  teache  his  flocke  publicklie, 
but  also  privatlie  to  admonishe  them,  remembring  alwayes,  that 
if  anie  thing  perishe  through  his  default,  the  Lord  will  require  it 
at  his  hands.* 

'  Acts  i.    in,    14  ;    1  Tim,  iii.   2  ;    2  Tim.  ii.  4  ;    Ezcch.   xxxiii'  ;    Jerem.   iii.  ; 

52  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

Of  their  Office  and  Duetie. 

Becaus  the  charge  of  the  Word  of  God  is  of  greater  import- 
ance than  that  anie  man  is  able  to  dispense  therewith,  and  Sanct 
Paul  exhorteth  to  esteeme  them  as  ministers  of  Christ  and  dispo- 
sers of  God's  mystereis,  not  lords  or  rulers,  as  Sanct  Peter  sayeth, 
over  the  flocke  ;  therefore,  the  pastor  or  minister's  cheefe  office 
standeth  in  preaching  the  Word  of  God,  and  ministring  the  Sacra- 
ments ;  so  that  in  consolatiouns,  judgements,  electiouns,  and  other 
politicall  affaires,  his  counsell,  rather  than  authoritie,  taketh  place. 
And  if  so  be  the  congregatioun  upon  just  caus  agree  to  excom- 
municate, then  it  belongeth  to  the  minister,  according  to  their  ge- 
neral! determinatioun,  to  pronounce  the  sentence,  to  the  end  that 
all  things  may  be  done  orderlie,  and  without  confusioun.' 

The  maner  of  electing  the  Pastors  or  Ministers. 

The  ministers  and  elders,  at  suche  times  as  there  wanteth  a 
minister,  assemble  the  Avhole  congregatioun,  exhorting  them  to  ad- 
vise and  consider  who  may  best  serve  in  that  roome  and  office  ; 
and  if  there  be  choise,  the  church  appoint  two  or  three  upoun  some 
certane  day,  to  be  examined  by  the  ministers  and  elders  :^ 

First,  as  tuiching  their  doctrine,  whether  he  that  sould  be 
minister  have  good  and  sound  knowledge  in  the  Holie  Scriptures, 
and  fitt  and  apt  gifts  to  communicate  the  same  to  the  edificatioun 
of  the  people  :  for  the  tryell  wherof,  they  propose  him  a  theame  or 
text,  to  be  treated  privatlie,  whereby  his  abilitie  may  the  more 
manifesthe  appeare  unto  them.'' 

Secundlie,  tliey  inquire  of  his  life  and  conversatioun  ;  if  he  have 
in  times  past  lived  witliout  slaunder,  and  governed  himself  in  suche 
sort,  as  the  Word  of  God  hath  not  heard  evill,  or  beene  slaundered 
through  his  occasioun  ;  which  being  severalHe  done,  they  signifie 

Johne  xxi. ;  Esai  Ixii.  ;  2  Cor.  ix.  ;  2   Tim.  ii. ;   1  Cor.  iv.;  Matt.  xxv.  ;  2  Cor.  i.; 
Acts  XX.  ;   Tim.  iv- ;  Ezech.  iii. 

'  2  Cor.  ix. ;  1  Cor.  ix. ;  Acts  vi.;  Liic.  xii.;  1  Cor.  iv. ;  2  Cor.  iv.;  1  Peter  v.  2; 
Col.  i.  ;  Matt,  xx.;  Matt.xxvi.;  Mai.  ii. ;  1  Pet.  iv.;  Acts  iii.  16;  I  Cor.  i.  15; 
Acts  XX. ;  2  Cor.  iv. ;   1  Cor.  v. ;   1  Cor.  xiv. 

2  Acts  xi.  1  ;   Tit.  i.  a  xit.  i,  9;  Tit-  ii. 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  53 

unto  the  congregatioun,  Avhose  gifts  tliey  found  most  meete  and 
profitable  for  that  ministrie :  appointing  also  by  a  generall  consent 
eight  dayes  at  the  least,  that  everie  man  may  diligentlie  inquire  of 
his  life  and  raaners.^ 

At  the  which  time  the  minister  exhorteth  them  to  humble  them- 
selves to  God  by  fasting  and  prayer,  that  both  their  electioun  may 
be  agreeable  to  his  will,  and  also  profitable  to  the  church.^ 

And  if  in  the  meane  seasoun  anie  thing  be  brought  against 
him,  wherby  he  may  be  found  unworthie  by  lawfull  probatiouns, 
then  is  he  dismissed,  and  some  other  presented.  If  nothing  be  al- 
ledged,  upoun  some  certane  day  one  of  the  ministers  at  the  morn- 
ing sermoun  presenteth  him  againe  to  the  church,  framing  his  ser- 
moun,  or  some  part  thereof,  to  the  setting  furth  of  his  duetie. 

Then,  at  after  noone,  the  sermoun  ended,  the  minister  exhort- 
eth them  to  the  electioun,  with  the  invocatioun  of  God's  name, 
directing  his  prayer  as  God  sail  move  his  heart.  In  like  maner, 
after  the  electioun,  the  minister  giveth  thanks  to  God,  with  re- 
queist  of  suche  things  as  sail  be  necessarie  for  his  office.  After 
that  he  is  appointed  minister,  the  people  sing  a  psalme,  and  depart.^ 

Of  the  Elders,  and  as  tuiching  their  Office  and  Election. 

The  elders  must  be  men  of  good  life  and  godlie  conversatioun ; 
without  blame  and  all  suspicioun ;  carefull  for  the  flockc,  Avise,  and 
above  all  things  fearing  God.  Whose  office  standeth  in  governing 
with  the  rest  of  the  ministers  ;  in  consulting,  admonishing,  correct- 
ing, and  ordering  all  things  appertaining  to  the  state  of  the  con- 
gTcgatioun.  And  they  differ  frome  the  minister,  in  that  they 
preache  not  the  Word,  nor  minister  the  Sacraments.  In  assem- 
bhng  the  people,  neither  they  without  the  ministers,  nor  the  mini- 
sters without  them,  may  attempt  anie  thing.  And  if  anie  of  the 
just  number  want,  the  minister,  by  the  consent  of  the  rest,  warncth 
the  people  therof,   and  finallie  admonisheth  them  to  observe  the 

'  Rom.  ii.  ;  James  i.  ;   1  Sam.  ii.  ;   1  Tim.  v.  ^  Act.s  xiii.  14  ;   Luc  iii. 

»  2  Cor.  X.  ;  Col.  iii.  ;  Mat.  ix.  ;   1  Thcs.  v.  ;   Col.  iv.  ;  Ephcs.  v.  ;   PliiK   1. 

54  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

same  order  which  Avas  used  in  choosing  the  ministers,  as  farre  furth 
as  their  vocatioun  requireth.^ 

Of  the  DeaconSy  and  their  Office  and  Election. 

The  deacons  must  be  men  of  good  estimatioun  and  report, 
descreit,  of  good  conscience,  charitable,  wise ;  and,  finallie,  endued 
with  suche  vertues  as  Sanct  Paid  requireth  in  them.  Their  office 
is  to  gather  the  almes  diligentlie,  and  faithfullie  to  distribute  it, 
with  the  consent  of  the  ministers  and  elders  :  also  to  provide  for 
the  sicke  and  impotent  persouns  ;  having  ever  a  diligent  care,  that 
the  charitie  of  godlie  men  be  not  wasted  upoun  loiterers  and  idle 
vagabounds.  Their  electioun  is,  as  hath  beene  afore  rehearsed,  in 
the  ministers  and  elders. 

We  are  not  ignorant,  that  the  Scriptures  make  mentioun  of  a 
fourth  kinde  of  ministers  left  to  the  Church  of  Christ,  which  also 
are  verie  profitable,  where  time  and  place  doe  permitt. 

These  ministers  are  called  teachers,  or  doctors,  whose  office  is 
to  instruct  and  teache  the  faithfull  in  sound  doctrine ;  providing 
with  all  diligence,  that  the  puritie  of  the  Gospell  be  not  corrupt, 
either  through  ignorance  or  evill  opiniouns.  Notwithstanding, 
considering  the  present  estate  of  things,  we  comprehended  under 
this  title  suche  meanes  as  God  hath  in  his  church  that  it  sould  not 
be  left  desolate,  nor  yitt  his  doctrine  decay  for  default  of  ministers 

Therefore,  to  terme  it  by  a  word  more  usuall  in  these  om'  dayes, 
we  may  call  it  the  order  of  schooles,  wherin  the  highest  degree, 
and  most  annexed  to  the  ministrie  and  goveniement  of  the  church, 
is  the  expos  itioun  of  God's  Word  contained  in  the  Old  and  New 

But  becaus  men  cannot  so  weill  profite  in  that  knowledge  ex- 
cept they  be  first  instructed  in  the  tongues,  and  humane  sciences, 
(for  now  God  worketh  not  commounlie  by  miracles,)  it  is  neces- 
sarie  that  seede  be  sowen  for  the  time  to  come,  to  the  intent  the 

'  Num.  xi. ;   Acts  xiv. 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  55 

church  be  not  left  barren  and  waste  to  our  posteritie  ;  and  that 
schooles  also  be  erected,  and  coUedges  maintained  with  just  and 
sufficient  stipends,  wherin  the  youth  may  be  trained  up  in  the 
knowledge  and  feare  of  God,  that  in  their  ripe  age  they  may  prove 
worthie  members  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  whether  it  be  to  rule 
in  civill  policie,  or  serve  in  the  spirituall  ministrie,  or  elles  to  live 
in  godlie  reverence  and  subjectioun. 

The  Weeklie  Assemhlie  of  the  Ministers,  Eldei's,  and  Deacons. 

To  the  intent  that  the  ministrie  of  God's  Word  may  be  had  in 
reverence,  and  not  brought  to  contempt  tlu'ough  the  evill  conver- 
satioun  of  such  as  are  called  therunto  ;  and  also,  that  faults  and 
vices  may  not  by  long  sufferance  grow  at  lenth  to  extreame  incon- 
veniences, it  is  ordained,  that  everie  Thursday  the  ministers  and 
elders,  in  then'  assemblie  or  consistorie,  diligenthe  examine  all  suche 
faults  and  suspiciouns  as  may  be  espied,  not  onlie  among  others, 
but  cheeflie  among  themselves  ;  least  they  seeme  to  be  culpable  of 
that  which  our  Saviom'  Christ  reproved  in  the  Pharisees,  who  could 
espie  a  mote  in  another  man's  eye,  and  could  not  see  a  beame  in 
their  owne. 

And  becaus  the  eye  ought  to  be  more  cleare  than  the  rest  of 
the  bodie,  the  minister  may  not  be  spotted  with  anie  vice  bot  to 
the  great  slaunder  of  God's  Word,  whose  message  he  beareth. 
Therefore  it  is  to  be  understand,  that  there  be  certane  faults,  which, 
if  they  be  deprehended  in  a  minister,  he  ought  to  be  deposed  ;  as 
heresie,  papistrie,  schisme,  blasphemie,  perjurie,  fornicatioun,  thift, 
drunkennesse,  usurie,  fighting,  unlawfull  games,  with  suche  like. 
Others  are  more  tolerable,  if  so  be  that  after  brotherUe  admoni- 
tiouns  he  amend  his  faidt ;  as  strange  and  unprofitable  fashioun  in 
preaching  the  Scriptures,  curiositie  in  seeking  vaine  questiouns, 
negligence  as  weill  in  his  sermons  and  studeing  the  Scriptures,  as 
in  all  other  things  concerning  his  vocatioun,  scurrilitic,  flattering, 
lieing,  backbiting,  wantoun  words,  deceate,  covetousnes,  taunting, 
dissolutioun  in  apparrell,  gesture,  and  other  his  doings  ;  which 
vices,  as  they  be  odious  in  all  men,  so  in  him  that  ought  to  be  as 

56  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

an  exemple  to  others  of  perfectioun,  in  no  wise  are  to  be  suffered, 
especiallie  if  so  be,  that  according  to  God's  rule,  being  brotherlie 
advertised,  he  acknowledge  not  his  fault  and  amende. 

Interpretation  of  the  Scriptures. 

Everie  weeke  once,  the  congregatioun  assemble,  to  heare  some 
place  of  the  Scriptures  orderlie  expounded.  At  the  which  time,  it 
is  lawfull  for  everie  man  to  speeke  or  inquire,  as  God  sail  move  his 
heart,  and  the  text  minister  occasioun,  so  that  it  be  without  per- 
tinacie  or  disdaine,  as  one  that  rather  seeketh  to  profite  than  con- 
tend. And  if  so  be,  anie  contentioun  arise,  then  suche  as  are  ap- 
pointed moderators,  either  satisfie  the  partie,  or  elles,  if  he  seeme 
to  cavill,  exhort  him  to  keepe  silence,  referring  the  judgement  ther- 
of  to  the  ministers  and  elders,  to  be  detennined  in  their  assemblie 


First  was  made  a  sermoun,  in  the  which  these  heads  were  in- 
treated  :  First,  the  necessitie  of  ministers  and  superintendents  : 
Secund,  the  crimes  and  vices  that  might  unable  them  of  the  mini- 
strie  :  Thrid,  the  vertues  required  in  them  :  Fourth  and  Last, 
whether  suche  as,  by  publick  consent  of  the  church,  were  called  to 
suche  office,  might  refuse  the  same. 

The  sermoun  finished,  it  was  declared  by  the  same  minister, 
maker  therof,  that  the  Lords  of  Secreit  Counsell  had  given  charge 
and  power  to  the  churches  of  Lothiane  to  choose  Mr  Johne 
Spottiswod  superintendent ;  and  that  sufficient  warning  was  made 
by  publick  edict  to  the  churches  of  Edinburgh,  Linlitliquo,  Stir- 
line,  Tranent,  ITadintoun,  and  Dumbar,  as  also  to  erles,  lords,  ba- 
rouns,  gentlemen,  and  others,  that  have,  or  might  claim  to  have, 
voice  in  electioun,  to  be  pi'esent  that  day,  at  the  same  houre.    And 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  57 

therefore  inquisitioun  was  made  who  were  present,  and  who  were 
absent.  After  was  called  the  said  Mr  Johne,  who  answering,  the 
minister  denianndcd  if  anie  man  knew  anie  crime  or  offense  to  the 
said  Mr  Johne,  that  might  unable  him  to  be  called  to  that  office  ; 
and  that  he  demanded  thrise.  Secundarilie,  questioun  was  moved 
to  the  whole  multitude,  if  there  was  anie  other  whome  they  wold 
putt  in  electioun  with  the  said  Mr  Johne.  The  people  were  asked 
if  they  wold  have  the  said  Mr  Johne  superintendent  ?  If  they 
Avoid  honour  and  obey  him  as  Clu'ist's  minister,  and  comfort  and 
assist  him  in  every  thing  pertaining  to  his  charge  ?  Tliey  an- 
swered, "  We  will ;  and  we  doe  promise  unto  him  suche  obedience 
as  becometh  the  sliee2:)e  to  give  to  their  pastor,  so  long  as  he  re- 
maineth  faithfull  in  his  office." 

The  answeres  of  the  people,  and  their  consent  receaved,  these 
questions  were  proponed  to  him  that  was  to  be  elected. 

Question.  "  Seing  that  yee  hear  the  trust  and  desu'c  of  this  peo- 
ple, doe  yee  not  thinke  your  self  bound  in  conscience  before  God 
to  support  them  that  so  earnestlie  call  for  your  comfort,  and  the 
fruict  of  your  labours  ?" 

Ansivere.  "  If  anie  thing  were  in  me  able  to  satisfie  their  desire, 
I  acknowledge  myself  bound  to  obey  God,  calling  by  them." 

Question.  "Doe  yee  seeke  to  be  promoted  to  this  office  and 
charge  for  anie  respect  of  worldlic  commoditie,  richesse,  or  glorie  ?" 

Answere.  "  God  knoweth  the  contrarie." 

Question.  "  Beleeve  yee  not,  that  the  doctrine  of  the  prophets 
and  apostles,  contained  in  the  bookes  of  the  Ncav  and  Old  Testa- 
ment, is  the  onlie  true  and  most  absolute  foundatioun  of  the  uniAcr- 
sall  church  of  Christ  Jesus,  in  so  muche,  that  in  the  same  Scrip- 
ture are  contained  all  things  necessarie  to  be  beleeved  for  the.  sal- 
vatioun  of  mankinde  ?" 

Ansivere.  "  I  verilie  beleeve  the  same ;  and  doe  abhorre  and  ut- 
terlie  refuse  all  doctrine  alledged  necessarie  to  salvatioun,  that  is 
not  cxpresscdlic  contained  in  the  same." 

Question.  "  Is  not  Christ  Jesus,  man  of  man  according  to  the 

58  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

fleshe,  to  witt,  the  sonne  of  David,  the  seede  of  Abraham,  con- 
ceaved  of  the  Holie  Ghost,  borne  of  the  Virgine  Marie  his  mother, 
the  onlie  Head  and  Mediator  of  his  church  ?" 

A7iswere.  "  He  is,  and  without  him  there  is  neither  salvation  to 
man,  nor  life  to  angell." 

Question.  "  Is  not  the  same  Lord  Jesus  the  onlie  true  God, 
the  eternall  Sonne  of  the  eternall  Father,  in  whome  aU  that  sail 
be  saved  were  elected  before  the  foundatioun  of  the  world  was 
layed  ?" 

Answere.  "  I  acknowledge  and  confesse  Him  in  the  unitie  of  his 
Godhead  to  be  God  above  all  things,  blessed  for  ever." 

Question.  "  Sail  not  they  whome  God,  in  his  eternaU  counsell, 
hath  elected,  be  called  to  the  knowledge  of  his  Sonne,  our  Lord 
Jesus  ;  and  sail  not  they  who  of  purpose  are  called,  in  this  life,  be 
justifeid  ;  and  where  justificatioun  and  free  remissioun  of  sinnes  is 
obtained  in  this  life  by  free  grace,  sail  not  the  glorie  of  the  Sonne 
of  God  follow  in  the  generall  resurrectiouu,  when  the  Sonne  of 
God  sail  appeare  in  his  glorious  majestic  ?" 

Answere.  "  This  I  acknowledge  to  be  the  doctrine  of  the  apostles, 
and  the  most  singular  comfort  of  God's  childrein." 

Question.  "  Will  yee  not  then  containe  your  self  in  all  doctrine 
within  the  bounds  of  this  foundatioun  ?  Will  yee  not  studie  to 
promove  the  same,  as  weill  by  your  life  as  by  your  doctrine  ?  Will 
yee  not,  according  to  the  graces  and  utterance  that  God  sail  graunt 
unto  you,  professe,  instruct,  and  maintaine  the  puritie  of  the  doc- 
trine contained  in  the  sacred  Word  of  God  ;  and  to  the  uttermost 
of  your  power  will  yee  not  gainstand,  and  convince  the  gainsayers, 
and  the  teachers  of  men's  inventiouns  ?" 

A?isivere.  "  That  doe  I  promise  in  the  presence  of  God,  and  of 
his  congregation,  heir  assembled." 

Question.  "  Know  yee  not  that  the  exceUencie  of  this  office  unto 
the  which  God  hath  called  you,  requireth  that  your  conversatioun 
and  behaviour  be  suche,  as  that  yee  may  be  irreprchensible,  yea, 
even  in  the  eyes  of  the  ungodlie  ?" 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  oi) 

Ansioere.  "  I  unf'ainedlie  acknowledge,  and  humblie  desire  the 
church  of  God  to  pray  Avith  me,  that  my  life  be  not  slaunderous  to 
the  glorious  Evaugell  of  Christ  Jesus." 

Question.  "  Becaus  yee  are  a  man  compassed  with  infirmiteis, 
will  yee  not  charitablie,  and  Avith  lownesse  of  spirit,  receive  admo- 
nitioun  of  your  brethrein  ?  And  if  yee  sail  happen  to  slide,  or 
offend  in  anie  point,  Avill  yee  not  be  subject  to  the  discipline  of  the 
church,  as  the  rest  of  your  bi'ethrein  ?" 

Ansicere.  "  I  acknowledge  my  self  a  man  subject  to  infirmitie, 
and  one  that  hath  need  of  correctioun  and  admonitioun,  and, 
therefore,  I  most  willinglie  subject  my  self  to  the  wholsome  disci- 
pline of  the  church,  yea,  to  the  discipline  of  the  same  church  by  the 
w^hich  I  am  now  called  to  this  office  and  charge  ;  and  heere,  in 
God's  presence  and  yours,  do  promise  obedience  to  all  admonitiouns 
secreetlie  or  publicklie  given  :  unto  the  which  if  I  be  found  inobe- 
dient,  I  confesse  myself  most  woi'thie  to  be  ejected,  not  onlie  frome 
this  honour,  but  also  from  the  societie  of  the  faithfull,  in  case  of 
my  stubburnesse.  For  the  vocatioun  of  God  to  beare  charge 
"within  his  church  maketh  not  men  tyrants  nor  lords,  but  appoint- 
cth  them  servants,  watchemen,  and  pastors  to  the  flocke." 

This  ended,  question  must  be  asked  againe  of  the  multitude : 

Question.  "  Require  ye  anie  farther  of  this  your  superintend- 

Answere.  "  If  no  man  answere,  lett  the  minister  proceid  : 

"  Will  yee  not  acknowledge  this  your  brother  for  the  minister  of 
Christ  Jesus  ?  Will  yee  not  reverence  the  Word  of  God  that  pro- 
ceedeth  frome  his  mouth  ?  Will  yee  not  receave  of  him  the  scr- 
moun  of  exhortatioun  with  patience,  not  refusing  the  wholsome  me- 
dicine of  your  soulcs,  although  it  be  bitter  and  unpleasaunt  to  the 
fleshe  ?  Will  yee  not  finallie  mainteane  and  comfoi-t  him  in  his  mi- 
nistrie  against  all  suche  as  wickedlie  wold  rebcll  against  God,  and 
his  holie  ordinances  ?" 

Ansioere.  "  We  will,  as  we  will  answere  to  the  Lord  Jesus,  who 
hath  commaunded  his  ministers  to  be  had  in  reverence,  as  his  am- 

60  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

bassaders,  and  as  men  that  carefullie  watche  for  the  salvatioun  of" 
our  soules." 

Lett  the  Nohilitie  be  urged  with  this. 

"  Yee  have  heard  the  duetie  and  professioun  of  this  our  brother, 
by  your  consents  appointed  to  this  charge ;  as  also,  the  duetie  and 
obedience  which  God  requireth  of  us  towards  him  heir  in  this  nii- 
nistrie.  But  becaus  that  neither  of  both  are  able  to  performe  anie 
thing  without  the  speciall  grace  of  our  God  in  Christ  Jesus,  who  hath 
promised  to  be  present  with  us  even  to  the  consummatioun  of  the 
world,  with  unfained  hearts  lett  us  crave  of  him  his  benedictioun 
and  assistance  in  this  worke  begunne  to  his  glorie,  and  for  the  com- 
fort of  his  church." 

"  O  Lord,  to  whome  all  power  is  given  in  heaven  and  earth  ;  thou 
that  art  the  eternall  Sonne  of  the  eternall  Father;  who  hath  not 
onlie  so  loved  thy  church,  that  for  the  redemptioun  and  purgatioun 
of  the  same,  thou  hath  humbled  thyselfe  to  the  death  of  the  crosse, 
and  therupoun  hath  shedde  thy  most  innocent  blood  to  prepare  to 
thy  self  a  spouse  without  spott ;  bot  also  to  retaine  this  thy  most 
excellent  benefite  in  recent  memorie,  hath  appointed  in  thy  church 
teachers,  pastors,  and  apostles,  to  instruct,  comfort,  and  admonishe 
the  same  :  looke  upon  us  mercifuUie,  O  Lord,  thou  that  art  onlie 
King,  Teacher,  and  Hie  Freest  to  thy  owne  flocke ;  and  send  unto 
this  our  brother,  whome,  in  thy  name,  we  have  charged  with  the 
chcefe  care  of  thy  church,  within  the  bounds  of  L.,  suche  portioun 
of  thy  Ilolie  Spmt,  as  thereby  he  may  rightlie  divide  thy  Word, 
to  the  instructioun  of  thy  flocke,  and  to  the  conllitatioun  of  perni- 
cious errors,  and  damnable  sujierstitions.  Give  imto  him,  good 
Lord,  a  mouth  and  wisdomc,  whereby  the  enemeis  of  thy  truthc 
may  be  confounded,  the  woolves  expelled  and  driven  frome  thy  fold, 
thy  sheepe  may  be  fed  in  the  wholesome  pastures  of  thy  most  holie 
Word,  the  blind  and  ignoraunt  may  be  illuminated  with  true  know- 
ledge :  finallic,  that  the  dreggcs  of  superstitioun  and  idolatric  which 
now  resteth  within  this  reahnc  being  purged  and  removed,  we  may 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  61 

all  not  onlie  have  occasioun  to  glorifie  thee  our  Lord  and  Saviour, 
bot  also  daylie  to  grow  in  godlinesse  and  obedience  of  thy  most 
holie  will,  to  the  destructioun  of  the  bodie  of  sinne,  and  to  the  re- 
stitutioun  of  that  image  to  the  which  we  were  once  created,  and  to 
the  which,  after  our  faU  and  defectioun,  we  are  renewed  by  parti- 
cipatioun  of  thy  Holie  Spirit,  Avhich  by  true  faith  in  the  *  *  *  *' 
of  whome  the  perpetuall  increasse  of  thy  gi'accs  we  crave,  as  by  thee 
our  Lord,  King,  and  onlie  Bishop,  we  are  taught  to  pray,  Om'  Fa- 
ther," &c. 

The  prayer  ended,  the  rest  of  the  ministers,  if  anie  be,  and  el- 
ders of  that  church  present,  in  signe  of  their  consent,  sail  take  the 
elected  by  the  hand.  The  cheefe  minister  sail  give  the  benedic- 
tioun  as  followeth  : — 

"  God,  the  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  hath  commaund- 
ed  his  Gospell  to  be  preached  to  the  comfort  of  his  elect,  and  hath 
called  thee  to  the  office  of  a  watcheman  over  his  people,  multiplie 
his  graces  with  thee  ;  illuminate  thee  with  his  Holie  Spmt ;  com- 
fort and  strenthen  thee  in  all  vertue ;  governe  and  guide  thy  mini- 
strie  to  the  praise  of  his  holie  name,  to  the  propagatioun  of  Christ's 
kingdome,  to  the  comfort  of  his  church ;  and,  finaUie,  to  the  plaine 
discharge  and  assurance  of  thy  owne  conscience  in  the  day  of  the 
Lord  Jesus  ;  to  whome,  with  the  Father,  and  with  the  Holie  Ghost, 
be  all  honour,  praise,  and  glorie,  now  and  ever.     So  be  it." 

Tlie  last  Exhortation  to  the  Elected. 

"  Take  heede  to  thyself,  and  unto  the  flocke  committed  to  tliy 
charge :  feede  the  same  carefullie,  not  as  it  were  by  compulsioun, 
but  of  verie  love  which  thou  beareth  to  the  Lord  Jesus  :  Avalke  in 
simphcitie  and  purenesse  of  life,  as  it  becometh  the  true  servaunt, 
and  the  ambassader  of  the  Lord  Jesus.  Usurpe  not  dominioun, 
nor  tyrannicall  authoritie  over  thy  brethrein.  Be  not  discuragcd 
in  adversitie,  but  lay  before  thy  self  the  exemples  of  the  prophets, 
apostles,  and  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  who  in  their  ministrie  sustained 
contradictioun,  contempt,  persecutioun,  and  death.  Fcarc  not  to 
'  A  blank  in  the  .MS. 

62  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

rebooke  the  world  of  sinne,  justice,  and  judgement.  If  anie  thing 
succeede  prosperouslie  in  thy  vocatioun,  be  not  puft  up  with  pride, 
neither  yitt  flatter  thy  self  as  that  the  good  successe  proceeded 
frome  thy  vertue,  Industrie,  or  care.  But  lett  ever  that  sentence 
of  the  apostle  remaine  in  thy  heart,  '  What  hath  thou  which  thou 
hath  not  receaved  ?  If  thou  have  receaved,  why  glorieth  thou  ?' 
Comfort  the  afflicted,  support  the  poore,  and  exhort  others  to  sup- 
port them.  Be  not  solicite  for  things  of  this  life,  but  be  fervent 
in  prayer  to  God  for  the  increasse  of  his  Holie  Spirit.  And,  final- 
lie,  behave  thyself  in  this  hoUe  vocatioun  with  suche  sobrietie,  as 
God  may  be  glorifeid  in  thy  ministrie,  and  so  sail  thou  shortlie  ob- 
taine  the  victorie,  and  sail  receave  the  crowne  promised,  when  the 
Lord  Jesus  saU  appear  in  his  glorie  ;  whose  omnipotent  Spirit  as- 
sist thee  and  us,  to  the  end." 
Sing  the  twentie-thrid  Psalme. 


The  Necessitle  of  Discipline. 

As  no  citie,  toun,  house,  or  familie,  can  maintaine  their  estate, 
and  prosper,  without  policie  and  governance,  even  so  the  church  of 
God,  which  requireth  more  purelie  to  be  governed  than  anie  citie 
or  familie,  cannot,  without  spirituall  policie  and  ecclesiasticaU  dis- 
cipline, continue,  increase,  and  floorishe. 

What  Discipline  is. 

And  as  the  "Word  of  God  is  the  life  and  soule  of  this  church,  so 
this  godlie  order  and  discipline  is,  as  it  were,  sinews  in  the  bodie, 
which  knitt  and  joyne  the  members  together  witli  decent  order  and 
comelinesse,  Ephes.  v.  It  is  a  bridle  to  stay  the  wicked  frome 
their  mischeefes ;  it  is  a  spurre  to  pricke  fordward  such  as  be  slow 
and  negligent ;  yea,  and  for  all  men  it  is  the  Father's  rodde  ever 
in  readinesse  to  chastise  gentlie  the  faults  committed,  and  to  cans 
them  afterward  to  live  in  more  godlie  feare  and  reverence.     Final- 

1501.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  G3 

lie,  it  is  an  order  left  by  God  unto  his  church,  whereby  men  learne 
to  frame  their  wills  and  doings  according  to  the  law  of  God,  by 
instructing  and  admonishing  one  another,  yea,  and  by  correcting 
and  punishing  all  obstinate  rebeUs,  and  contemners  of  the  same. 

For  ichat  Cause  it  ought  to  he  used. 

There  are  tlu-ee  causes  cheeflie  which  move  the  chiu'ch  of  God  to 
the  executing  of  discipline.  First,  That  men  of  evill  conversatioun 
be  not  numbred  among  God's  childrein,  to  their  Father's  reproache, 
as  if  the  church  of  God  were  a  sanctuarie  for  naughtie  and  vile  per- 
souns.  The  secund  respect  is,  That  the  good  be  not  infected  with 
accompaneing  the  evill ;  which  thing  Sanct  Paul  foresaw,  when  he 
commanded  the  Corinthians  to  banishe  fi'ome  among  them  the  in- 
cestuous adulterer,  saying,  "  A  little  leaven  maketh  sowre  the 
whole  lumpe  of  dowe,"  1  Cor.  v. ;  Galat.  v.  The  tlirid  caus  is. 
That  a  man  thus  corrected  or  excommunicate  might  be  ashamed 
of  his  fault,  and  so  through  repentance  come  to  amendement :  the 
which  thing  the  apostle  calleth  delivering  to  Satan,  that  his  soule 
may  be  saved  in  the  day  of  the  Lord,  (1  Thes.  ix. ;  1  Cor.  v. ;) 
meaning  that  he  might  be  punished  with  excommunicatioun,  to  the 
intent  his  soule  sould  not  perishe  for  ever. 

The  Order  of  Proceiding  in  Privat  Discipline. 

First,  therefore,  it  is  to  be  noted,  that  this  censure,  correctioun, 
or  discipline,  is  either  private  or  publick  :  private,  as  if  a  man  com- 
mitt  either  in  maners  or  doctrine  anie  fault  against  thee,  to  admo- 
nishe  him  brotherlie,  bctAveene  him  and  thee.  If  so  be  he  stub- 
bornlie  resist  thy  charitable  advertisements,  or  elles,  by  continu- 
ance in  his  fault,  declareth  that  he  amendeth  not,  then,  after  he 
hath  beene  the  secund  time  warned  in  presence  of  two  or  three 
witnesses,  and  continueth  obstinatlie  in  his  errour,  he  ought,  as  our 
Saviour  Christ  commandeth,  to  be  disclosed  and  uttered  to  the 
church,  so  that,  according  to  publick  discipline,  he  either  may  be 
receaved  through  repentance,  or  elles  be  punished  as  his  fault  re- 

64  calderwood's  historie  15G1. 

quireth,  Matt,  xviii. ;  Luc.  xvii. ;    James  v. ;  Levit.  ix. ;  2  Thes. 

What  things  are  to  be  observed  in  Private  Discipline. 

And  heere,  as  tuiching  private  discipline,  three  things  are  to  be 
noted  :  First,  That  our  admonitiouns  proceede  of  a  godlie  zeale 
and  conscience ;  rather  seeking  to  winne  our  brother  than  to  slaun- 
der  liim.  Nixt,  That  we  be  assiu-ed  that  his  fault  be  reproveable 
by  God's  Word.  And,  finallie,  That  we  use  suche  modestie  and 
wisdome,  that  if  we  somewhat  doubt  of  the  mater  whereof  we  ad- 
monishe  him,  yitt,  with  godlie  exhortatiouns,  he  may  be  brought 
to  the  knowledge  of  his  fault ;  or  if  the  fault  appertaine  to  manie, 
or  be  knowne  of  diverse,  that  our  admonitioun  be  done  in  presence 
of  some  of  them.  Breeflie,  If  it  concerne  the  whole  church,  in  suche 
sort,  that  the  concealing  therof  might  procure  some  daunger  to  the 
same,  that  then  it  be  uttered  to  the  ministers  and  seniors,  to  whome 
the  policie  of  the  church  doth  appertaine. 

Of  Publick  Discipline,  and  of  the  end  thereof 

Also,  in  publick  discij)line,  it  is  to  be  observed,  that  the  minister 
pretermitt  nothing  at  anie  time  unchastised  with  one  kinde  of  pun- 
ishement  or  other,  if  they  perceave  anie  thing  in  the  congregatioun 
either  evill  in  exam'ple,  slaunderous  in  maners,  or  not  beseem- 
ing their  professioun :  as  if  there  be  anie  covetous  persoun ;  anie 
adulterer,  fornicator,  forsworne,  theefe,  briber,  false  witnesse-bearer, 
blasphemer,  drunkard,  slaunderer,  usurer ;  anie  persoun  disobedient, 
seditious,  or  dissolute ;  anie  heresie  or  sect,  as  Papisticall,  Anabap- 
tisticall,  and  suche  like  :  breeflie,  Avhatsoever  it  be  that  might  spott 
the  Christian  congregatioun  ;  yea,  rather,  Avhatsoever  is  not  to  edi- 
ficatioun,  ought  not  to  escape  their  admonitioun  or  punishment, 
Ephes.  vii. 

Excommunication  is  the  last  Remedie. 
And  becaus  it  cometh  to  passe,  sometime  in  the  church,  that 



Avhen  otlier  remedeis  assayed  profitc  nothing,  they  must  proceedc 
to  the  apostolicall  rod  and  correctioun,  as  unto  excommunicatioun, 
(wliich  is  the  greatest  and  last  punishment  belonging  to  the  spirit- 
ual! ministrie,)  it  is  ordained,  that  nothing  be  attempted  in  that 
behalfe  without  the  determinatioun  of  the  whole  church. 

Rigour  in  Pujiishment  ought  to  be  avoided. 
Wherin  also  they  must  beware,  and  take  good  heed,  that  they 
seeme  not  more  readie  to  expell  frome  the  congregatioun,  tlian  to 
receavc  againe  those  in  whome  they  perceave  worthie  fruicts  of 
repentance  to  appeare  ;  neither  yit  to  forbid  him  the  hearing  of  ser- 
mouns,  which  is  excluded  frome  the  sacraments  and  other  dueteis 
of  the  church,  that  he  may  have  libertie  and  occasioun  to  repent. 

God''s  Word  is  the  onlie  Rule  of  Discipline. 
Finallie,  That  all  punishments,  correctiouns,  censures,  and  ad- 
monitiouns,  stretche  no  further  than  God's  Word,  with  inercie,  may 
lawfullie  beare. 

Matt,  xviii. — "  If  ante  refuse  to  heare  the  congregation,  left  him 
he  to  thee  as  a  heathen,  and  as  a  puhUcan.'' 

MONETH  OF  JUNE,  1571. 

To  the  Reader. 
Albeit  that  in  the  Booke  of  Discipline,  the  causes,  as  weill  of 
publick  repentance  as  of  excommunication,  are  sufficientlic  ex- 
pressed, yit,  becaus  the  forme  and  order  are  not  sett  furth,  that 
everie  church  and  minister  may  have  assm-ance  that  they  agree 
with  others  in  proceeding,  it  is  thought  expedient  to  drawe  that 
order  which,  universallie  within  this  realme,  sail  be  observed. 
VOL.  11.  K 

6()  calderwood's  historie  15G1. 

The  Crimes  of  Examimunication. 

And,  first,  We  must  understand  what  crimes  be  worthie  of  ex- 
communication, and  what  of  pubhck  repentance. 

In  the  first,  it  is  to  be  noted.  That  all  crimes  that  by  the  laAV 
of  God  deserve  death,  deserve  also  excommunicatioun  frome  the 
societie  of  Christ  his  Chm'ch,  whether  the  offender  be  Papist  or 
Protestant :  for  it  is  no  reasomi  that,  under  pretence  of  diversitie 
of  religioun,  open  impietie  sould  be  suffered  in  the  visible  bodie  of 
Christ  Jesus.  And,  therefore,  wilfiill  murtherers,  adulterers,  (law- 
fuUie  convict,)  sorcerers,  witches,  conjurers,  charmers,  and  givers 
of  drinkes  to  destroy  childrein,  and  open  blasphemers,  (as  if  anie 
renunce  God,  denie  the  truthe  and  the  authoritie  of  his  hoMe  Word, 
railing  against  his  blessed  sacraments  ;)  suche,  we  say,  ought  to  be 
excommunicate  frome  the  societie  of  Christ's  Church,  that  their 
impietie  may  be  the  more  deepelie  wounded,  perceaving  themselves 
abhorred  of  the  godlie.  Against  suche  open  malefactors  the  pro- 
cesse  may  be  summouned.  For  the  crime  being  knowne,  adver- 
tisement ought  to  be  given  to  the  superintendent  of  the  diocesse, 
either  by  the  minister,  or  by  suche  as  can  best  give  informatioun  of 
that  fact ;  except  in  reformed  touns  and  other  places,  where  the 
ministrie  is  planted  with  ministers  and  elders,  according  to  the  act 
of  the  General]  Assemblie,  made  the  26th  of  December,  1568. 
And  if  there  be  no  superintendent  where  the  crime  is  committed, 
then  ought  the  informatioun  to  passe  frome  suche  as  are  offended 
to  the  nixt  superintendent,  who,  with  expeditioun,  ought  to  direct 
his  letters  of  summouns  to  the  parish  church  where  the  offender 
hath  his  residence,  if  the  ministrie  be  there  planted.  And  if  it  be 
not,  or  if  the  offender  have  no  certane  dwelling  place,  then  ought 
the  suiumouns  to  be  direct  to  the  chcefe  toun,  and  best  reformed 
church  in  that  diocesse  Avhcre  the  crime  was  committed,  appointing 
to  the  offender  a  certane  day,  time,  and  place,  where  and  Avhen  he 
sail  appeare  before  the  superintendent  and  his  assessors,  to  lieare 
that  crime  tryed,  as  tuiching  the  truthe  of  it,  and  to  answere  him- 
self why  the  sentence  of  excommunicatioun  sould  not  be  pronounced 

15()1.  OF  Til  10  KIUK  OF  SCOTLAND.  07 

piiblicklle  against  liim.  If  the  otfender,  Uiwfullic  warned,  a})peare 
not,  inquisitioun  being  taken  of  the  crime,  charge  may  be  given  by 
the  superintendent  to  the  ministers,  so  manie  as  sail  be  thought 
needful  for  publicatioun  of  that  sentence,  to  pronunce  tlie  same  the 
nixt  Sunday,  the  forme  wherof  sail  after  be  declared.  Ikit  and  if 
the  offender  appeare,  and  alledge  for  himself  anie  reasonable  de- 
fense, to  witt,  that  he  Avill  not  be  fugitive  frome  the  law,  bot  will 
abide  the  censure  for  that  offense,  then  may  the  sentence  of  excom- 
municatioun  be  suspended,  till  that  the  magistrat  be  requu'cd  to  trie 
that  cause  ;  wlierin,  if  the  magistrats  be  negligent,  then  ought  the 
church  frome  secreit  inquisitioun  proceed  to  publick  admonitioini, 
that  the  magistrats  may  be  vigilant  in  that  cause  of  blood,  which 
crieth  vengeance  upoun  the  Avhole  land  where  it  is  shed  without 
punishment.  If  no  remedie  by  them  can  be  found,  then  justlie 
may  the  church  pronunce  the  offender  excommunicate,  as  one  sus- 
pect, besides  his  crime,  to  have  corrupt  the  judges,  revengers  of  the 
blood.  And  so  ought  the  church  to  proceed  to  excommunicatioun, 
Avhether  the  offender  be  fugitive  frome  the  law,  or  whether  he  pro- 
cure pardoun,  or  illude  the  severitie  of  justice  by  meanes  Avhatso- 
ever,  besides  the  triell  of  his  innocencie. 

If  the  offender  abide  an  assise,  and  by  the  same  be  absolved, 
then  may  not  the  church  pronunce  exconnnunicatioun  ;  but  justlie 
may  exhort  the  man  by  whose  hand  the  blood  was  shed  to  enter 
in  consideratioun  with  himself,  how  pretious  is  the  life  of  man 
before  God,  and  how  severelie  God  commaunded  blood  (howsoever 
it  be  shed,  except  it  be  by  the  sword  of  the  magistrate)  to  be  pun- 
ished :  and  so  may  enjoyne  unto  him  suche  satisfactiouns  to  bo 
]nade  publicklie  to  the  church,  as  may  beare  testlficatioun  of  his 
obedience  and  unfalned  repentance.  If  the  offender  be  convict, 
and  executioun  follow  according  to  the  crime,  then,  upoun  the 
humble  sute  of  him  that  is  to  suffer,  may  the  elders  and  ministers 
of  the  church  not  onlie  give  unto  him  consolatioun,  l)ut  also  pro- 
nunce the  sentence  of  absolutloun,  and  his  sinne  to  be  remitted, 
according  to  his  repentance  and  faith.  And  this  nuiche  for  excom- 
municatioun of  publick  offenders.     And  yit  further,  we  must  con- 

68  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

sider,  that  if  the  offender  be  fugitive  fi-ome  the  law,  so  that  punishe- 
ment  cannot  be  executed  against  him,  in  that  case  the  church  ought 
to  delay  no  time  ;  bot  upoun  the  notice  of  his  crime,  and  that  he 
is  fled  frome  the  presence  of  the  judge,  it  ought  to  pronunce  him 
excommunicated  publicklie,  and  so  continuallie  to  repute  him,  mi- 
till  suche  time  as  the  magistrate  be  satisfeid.  And  so,  whether  the 
offender  be  convict  in  judgement,  or  be  fugitive  frome  the  law,  the 
church  ought  to  proceede  to  the  sentence  of  excommunicatioun,  the 
forme  wherof  foUoweth  : — 


The  Minister,  hi  puhlick  audience  of  the  People,  sail  say  : — 

"  It  is  clcerelie  knowne  to  us  that  N.,  sometime  baptized  in  the 
name  of  the  Father,  of  the  Sonne,  and  of  the  Holie  Ghost,  and  so 
reputed  and  counted  for  a  Christian,  hath  fearefullie  fallen  frome 
the  societie  of  Christ's  bodie,  by  committing  cruell  and  wilfull  mur- 
ther,  (or  by  committing  filthie  adulterie,  &c.)  which  crime,  by  the 
law  of  God,  deserveth  death.  And  becaus  the  civill  sword  is  in 
the  hand  of  God's  magistrats,  who,  notwithstanding,  oft  Avinke  at 
suche  crimes,  we,  having  place  in  the  ministrie,  with  greefe  and 
dolour  of  our  hearts,  are  compelled  to  draw  the  sword  graunted  by 
God  to  his  church  ;  that  is,  to  excommunicate  frome  the  societie  of 
Christ  Jesus,  frome  his  bodie,  the  church,  frome  participatioun  of 
sacraments  and  prayers  with  the  same,  the  said  N. 

"  And,  therefore,  in  the  name  and  authoritie  of  the  eternall  God, 
and  of  his  Sonne  Jesus  Christ,  we  pronunce  the  said  N.  excommu- 
nicate and  accursed  in  that  his  wicked  fact ;  and  charge  all  that 
favour  the  Lord  Jesus  so  to  repute  and  hold  liim,  (or  her,)  until 
suche  time  as  that  either  the  magistrat  have  punished  the  of- 
fender as  God's  law  commaunds,  or  that  the  same  offender  be  re- 
conciled to  the  church  againe,  by  publick  repentance.  And,  in 
the  mean  time,  we  earnestlie  desire  all  fiiithfull  to  call  upoun 
God  to  move  the  hearts  of  the  upper  powers  so  to  punishe  suche 

1561.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  60 

horrible  crimes,  that  malefactors  may  feare  to  offend,  even  fur 
feare  of  punishment;  and  also  so  to  tuiche  the  heart  of  the  offender, 
that  he  may  deepelic  consider  how  fearefull  it  is  to  fall  in  the 
hands  of  the  eternall  God,  that  by  mifained  repentance  he  may 
apprehend  mercie  in  Jesus  Christ,  and  so  avoide  eternall  condeni- 

The  sentence  of  excommunicatioun  once  pionunced,  the  church 
may  not  suddanlie  admit  the  murtherer,  or  convict  adulterer,  to 
repentance  and  societie  of  the  faithful!,  albeit  that  parduun  be 
purchased  of  the  magistrat.  But  first  ought  inquisitioun  be  taken, 
if  the  murtherer  have  satisfeid  the  partie  offended,  that  is,  the  kinne 
and  freinds  of  the  man  slaine  :  which,  if  he  have  not  done,  neither 
is  understand  willing  so  to  doe,  the  church  in  no  wise  may  heare 
him.  But  and  if  he  be  Avilling  to  satisfie,  and  the  freinds  excecde 
measure,  and  the  possibilitie  of  him  that  hath  committed  the  crime, 
then  ought  the  church  to  putt  moderatioun  to  the  unreasonable,  in 
case  the  civil  1  magistrate  hath  not  so  done  before,  and  so  proceid 
with  him  that  offereth  repentance,  that  the  wilfulnesse  of  the  indis- 
creete  be  not  hinderance  to  the  reconciliatioun  of  him  that  earnest- 
lie  craved  the  benefite  and  societie  of  the  church. 

And  yit  may  not  the  church  receave  anie  excommunicate  at  his 
first  requeist ;  bot  in  suche  greevous  crimes  as  before  are  expressed, 
(of  others  sail  be  after  spoken,)  fourtie  dayes  at  the  least  after 
his  first  offer  may  be  appointed,  to  trie  whether  the  signes  of  re- 
pentance appeare  in  the  offender  or  not.  And  yit,  in  the  meane 
time,  the  church  may  comfort  him  by  wholsome  adnionitiouns,  as- 
suring him  of  God's  mercie,  if  he  be  vcrilie  penitent :  he  may  also 
be  admitted  to  the  hearing  of  the  Word,  but  in  no  Avise  to  par- 
ticipatioun  of  prayers,  neither  before  nor  after  sermoun.  The  first 
fourtie  dayes  expired,  upoun  his  new  sute,  the  superintendent  or 
sessioun  may  enjoyne  suche  paines  as  may  trie  whether  he  be  peni- 
tent or  not :  the  least  are,  the  nmrtherer  nuist  stand  thi-ce  se- 
verall  Sundayes  in  a  publick  place  before  the  church  doore,  bare- 
footed and  bare-headed,  clothed  in  base  and  abject  api)arell,  having 
the  same   wcapoim  which  he  used  in  the    miuthcr,  or  the  like, 

70  CALDEiaVOOD's   llISTOIilE  1561. 

blooclie,  ill  his  hands,  and  in  conceaved  words  sail  say  to  suche  as 
sail  enter  into  the  church  : — 

The  Confession  of  the  Penitent. 

"  So  farre  hath  Satan  gotten  victorie  over  me,  that  cruellie  1 
have  shed  innocent  blood,  for  the  which  I  have  deserved  death 
corporall  and  eternall ;  and  so  I  graunt  my  self  unworthie  of  the 
coinmoun  light,  or  yit  of  the  corapanie  of  men.  And  yit,  becaus 
in  God  there  is  raercie  that  passeth  all  measure,  and  becaus  the 
magistrat  hath  not  taken  frome  me  this  wretched  life,  I  most  ear- 
nestlie  desire  to  be  reconciled  againe  with  the  church  of  Christ  Je- 
sus, frome  the  societie  whereof  mine  iniquitie  hath  caused  me  to 
be  excommunicated.  And,  therefore,  in  the  bo  wells  of  Christ  Je- 
sus, I  crave  of  you  to  pray  -with  me  unto  God,  that  my  greevous 
crime  may  be  of  him  remitted  ;  and  also  that  ye  wiU  be  suppliants 
with  me  to  the  church,  that  I  abide  not  thus  excommunicate  unto 
the  end." 

At  the  last  of  the  three  Sundayes,  certane  of  the  elders  sail  re- 
ceave  him  into  the  church,  and  present  him  before  the  preaching 
place,  and  sail  declare  unto  that  minister,  that  all  that  was  enjoyned 
to  that  offender  was  obedientlie  fulfilled  by  him.  Then  sail  the 
minister  recite  unto  him,  as  weill  the  greevousnesse  of  his  sinne  as 
the  merceis  of  God,  if  he  be  penitent ;  and  therafter  sail  requu'e  of 
the  church,  if  that  they  desire  anie  further  satisfactioun.  And  if 
no  answcre  be  given,  then  sail  the  minister  pronunce  his  sinne  to 
be  remitted  according  to  his  repentance  ;  and  sail  exhort  the  church 
to  embrace  him  as  a  brother,  after  that  prayer  and  thanksgiving  be 
givin  to  God,  as  after  sail  be  described.  And  thus  far  to  be  ob- 
served for  the  order  in  receaving  of  them  who  have  committed  ca- 
pitall  crimes,  be  it  murther,  adulterie,  incest,  witchcraft,  or  others 
before  expressed. 

Rcsteth  yitt  another  kinde  of  offenders  who  deserve  excoinmuni- 
catioun,  albeit  not  so  summarilie  ;  to  witt,  suche  as  have  beeiic  par- 
takers Avith  us  ill  doctrine  and  sacraments,  and  lia-s  e  returned  backe 
againe  to  Papistrio,  or  have  given  their  j)rcsence  to  anic  part  of 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND,  73 

their  abominatioun  ;  or  yitt,  that  of  anic  long  continuance  with- 
draw themselves  fronie  the  societie  of  Christ's  bodie,  and  frome  the 
participatioun  of  the  sacraments,  when  they  are  publicklie  mini- 
stred.  Suche,  no  doubt,  declare  tliemselves  worthic  of  excommu- 
nicatioun.  But  first,  they  must  be  called,  either  before  the  superin- 
tendent witii  some  joyned  with  him,  or  elles  before  the  elders  and 
sessioun  of  the  best  and  nixt  reformed  churcli  where  the  offenders 
have  their  residence,  who  must  accuse  their  defectioun,  exhort  them 
to  repentance,  and  declare  them  the  danger  wherin  they  stand. 
AVhome,  if  the  offender  heareth,  the  sessioun  or  superintendent 
may  appoint  him  a  day  to  satisfie  the  church  j^ublicklie,  whome  by 
his  defectioun  he  had  offended.  But  if  he  continue  stubburne,  tlien 
may  the  sessioun  or  superintendent  commaund  the  minister  or  mi- 
nisters to  declare,  the  nixt  Sunday,  the  defectioun  of  suche  a  pcr- 
soun,  and  his  obstinate  contempt.  And  this  advertisement  given 
two  Sundayes,  the  thrid  may  the  sentence  of  excommunication  be 

Offenses  that  deserve  Puhllck  Repentance,  and  order  to  proceede 


Such  offenses  as  fall  not  under  the  civill  sword,  and  yit  are 
slaunderous  and  offensive  in  the  church,  deserve  publick  repent- 
ance ;  and  of  these,  some  are  more  haynous  than  others.  Forni- 
catioun,  drunkennesse  used,  swearing,  cursed  speaking,  chiding, 
fighting,  browling,  and  commoun  contempt  of  the  order  of  the 
church,  breaking  of  the  Sabboth,  and  suche  like,  ought  to  be  in  no 
persoun  suffered.  But  the  slaunder  being  knowne,  the  offender 
sould  be  called  before  the  ministrie ;  his  crime  proved,  accused,  re- 
booked,  and  he  commaunded  publicklie  to  satisfie  the  churcli  : 
Avhich  if  the  offender  refuse,  they  may  proceede  to  excommunica- 
tioun,  as  after  sail  be  declared.  If  the  offender  appearc  not,  sum- 
moims  ought  to  passe  to  the  thrid  time ;  and  then,  in  case  he  ap- 
pearc not,  the  church  may  deccrne  the  sentence  to  be  pronun(;od. 

Other,  if  it  be  lesse  haynous,  and  yit  deserve  admoiiitioun,  as 
Avantoun  and  vainc  words,  uncomelie  gestures,  negligence  in  liear- 

12  CALDERWOOi>'s  HISTOKIE  1561. 

ing  the  preaching,  or  abstainmg  fi'orae  the  Lord's  Table  when  it  is 
ministred,  suspicioun  of  avarice  or  of  pride,  superfluitie  or  ryotous- 
nes  in  cheare  or  raynient ;  these,  we  say,  and  suche  others  that  of 
the  world  are  not  regarded,  deserve  admonitioun  among  the  mem- 
bers of  Christ's  bodie,  first,  secreitlie,  by  one  or  two  of  these  that 
first  espie  the  oiFense.  Which,  if  the  persovm  suspected  heare,  and 
give  declaratioun  of  amendiment,  then  there  needeth  no  farther 
processe.  But  if  he  contemne  the  admonitioun,  then  sould  the 
former  admonishers  take  to  themselves  two  or  three  faithfull  and 
honest  witnesses,  in  whose  presence  the  suspected  offender  sould 
be  admonished,  and  the  causes  of  their  suspicioun  declared.  To 
whome,  if  then  he  give  significatioun  of  repentance,  and  promise  of 
amendiment,  they  may  cutt  off"  all  farther  accusation.  But  and  if 
he  obstinatlie  contemne  both  the  said  admonitiouns,  then  ought 
the  first  and  secund  brethrein  signifie  the  mater  to  the  minister 
and  elders  in  their  sessioun,  who  ought  to  call  the  offender,  and  be- 
fore the  complainers  accuse  him,  as  weill  of  the  crime,  as  of  the 
contempt  of  the  admonitioun.  If  then  he  acknoAvledge  his  offense, 
and  be  willing  to  satisfie  the  brethrein  before  offended,  and  the 
sessioun  then  present,  there  needeth  no  farther  publicatioun  of  that 
offense.  But  if  he  declare  himself  inobedient  to  the  sessioun,  then, 
without  delay,  the  nixt  Sunday  ought  the  crime,  and  the  order  of 
admonitiouns  passed  before,  be  publicklie  declared  to  the  church, 
and  the  persoun  (without  specificatioun  of  his  name)  be  admonished 
to  satisfie  in  publick  that  which  he  refused  to  doe  in  secreit ;  and 
that  for  the  first.  If  he  offer  himself  to  the  church  before  the  nixt 
Sunday,  the  discretioun  of  the  ministrie  may  take  suche  order  as 
may  satisfie,  as  weill  the  private  persouns  that  were  first  offended, 
as  the  church,  declai'ing  the  repentance  and  submissioun  of  that 
])rother  that  before  appeared  stubburnc  and  incorrigible.  But  and 
if  he  abide  the  secund  admonitioun  pubhck,  when  that  his  name 
sail  be  expressed,  and  his  offenses  and  stubburnnesse  declared,  then 
can  no  satisfactioun  be  receaved  but  in  publick :  yea,  it  may  not  be 
reccaved  before  he  have  humblic  required  the  same  of  the  niinisti'ie 
and  sessioun  of  the  church,  in  their  appointed  asscmblie. 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  73 

If  he  continue  stubburne,  then  the  thritl  Sunday  ought  he  be 
charged  pubHcklie  to  satisfie  the  church  for  his  offense  and  con- 
tempt, under  the  paine  of  excommunicatioun,  the  order  whcrof  sail 
after  be  declared. 

And  thus  a  small  offense  or  slaunder  may  justlie  deserve  excom- 
municatiomi,  by  reasoun  of  the  contempt  and  disobedience  of  the 
offender.  If  the  offender  shew  himself  penitent  betweene  the  first 
admonitioun  and  the  secund,  and  satisfie  the  niinistrie  of  the  church, 
and  the  brcthrcin  that  before  were  offended  in  their  assemblie,  then 
it  may  suffice,  that  the  minister,  at  commandement  of  the  sessioun, 
declare  the  nixt  Sunday  (without  comparing  or  expressing  of  the 
persoun)  his  repentance  or  submissioun,  in  these,  or  other  words : 

"  It  was  signifeid  unto  you  before,  (dearelie  beloved,)  that  ane 
certane  brother  (or  brethrein)  was  noted,  or,  at  least,  suspected  of 
some  offense,  whereof  he  being  admonished  by  one  or  two,  ap- 
peared lightlie  to  regardc  the  same ;  and  therefore  was  he  and 
his  offense  notifeid  unto  the  ministrie,  in  their  assemblie,  who,  ac- 
cording to  their  duetie  and  charge,  accused  him  of  the  same.  And 
not  finding  in  him  suche  obedience  as  the  professioun  of  a  Chris- 
tiane  requireth,  fearing  that  suche  offenses  and  stubburnnesse  sould 
engender  contempt,  and  infect  others,  they  were  compelled  to  no- 
tifie  unto  you  the  crime,  and  proceiding  of  the  sessioun,  minding  to 
have  sought  the  uttermost  remedie,  in  case  the  oftbnder  had  con- 
tinued obstinate.  Bot  seing  that  it  hath  pleased  God  to  mollifie 
the  heart  of  our  brother,  whose  name  we  neede  not  to  expresse,  so 
that  he  hath  not  onlie  acknowledged  the  offense,  bot  also  hath 
fullie  satisfeid  the  brethrein  that  first  were  offended,  and  us  the 
ministrie,  and  hath  promised  to  abstaine  fromc  all  appearance  of 
suche  evill  as  Avherof  he  was  suspected  and  admonished,  we  have  no 
just  cause  to  procecde  to  anie  farther  extremitie  ;  but  rather  to 
glorifie  God  for  the  submissioun  of  our  brother,  and  unfaincdlie 
])ray  unto  him,  that  in  the  like  case  wc,  and  everie  one  of  us,  may 
aive  the  like  obedience." 

74  C  ALDER  wood's  IIISTOllIE  1561. 

Tlie  Forme  and  Order  of  Pid)lick  Repentance. 

It  is  first  to  be  observed,  that  none  may  be  admitted  to  publick 
repentance,  excei)t  that  first  they  be  admitted  thereto  by  the  ses- 
sioun  and  asscmbhe  of  the  ministers  and  elders  ;  in  the  which  they 
ought  sharplie  to  be  examined,  Avliat  fearc  and  terrour  they  have 
of  God's  judgements,  what  hatred  of  sinne,  and  dolour  for  the 
same,  and  what  sense  and  feeling  they  have  of  God's  mercies  ;  in 
the  which  if  they  be  ignoraunt,  they  ought  diligentlie  to  be  in- 
structed. For  it  is  but  a  mockage  to  present  suche  to  publick  re- 
pentance, as  neither  understand  Avhat  sinne  is,  what  repentance  is, 
what  is  grace,  nor  by  whome  is  God's  favour  and  mercie  pur- 
chased. After,  then,  tliat  the  offender  sail  be  in  the  assemblie  in- 
structed, so  that  he  hath  some  taste  of  God's  judgements,  bot 
cheefelie  of  God's  mercies  in  Christ  Jesus,  he  may  be  presented 
before  the  publick  church,  upoun  a  Sunday  after  the  sermoun,  and 
before  the  prayers  and  psalme  ;  and  then  the  minister  sail  say  : — 

"  Beloved  and  deerest  brethrein,  Ave,  by  reasoun  of  our  charge 
and  ministrie,  present  before  you  this  brother,  that  by  infirmitic  of 
flesh  and  craft  of  Satan  hath  fearefullie  fallen  frome  the  obedience 
of  his  God,  by  committing  N.  of  a  crime,  &c.,  (lett  the  sinne  be 
expressed,)  by  the  which  he  hath  not  onlie  offended  against  the 
Majestic  of  God,  bot  also  by  the  same  hath  given  great  slaunder 
and  offense  to  his  holie  congregatioun ;  and,  therefore,  doth  to  his 
owne  confusioun  (bot  to  the  glorie  of  God,  and  our  great  comfort) 
present  himself  lieere  before  you,  to  witncsse  and  declare  his  im- 
fained  repentance,  the  thirst  and  the  care  he  hath  to  be  reconciled 
with  God  through  Jesus  Christ,  and  with  you,  his  brethrein, 
whome  he  hath  offended.  And,  therefore,  it  is  requisite  that  yee 
and  he  understand  what  assurance  we  have  to  require  suche  pub- 
lick satisfactioun  of  him,  what  profite  we  ought  to  Icarne  in  the 
same,  and  what  profite  and  utilitie  redoundcth  to  both,  of  this  his 

"  That  publick  repentance  is  tlie  institutioun  of  God,  and  not 
man's  invontioim,  may  be  plainlie  gathered  of  the  words  of  our 
Master,  commanding,  that  if  anic  have  offended  his  brother,  in 

1561.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  7-") 

wliat  sort  soever  it  be,  tliat  he  sail  goc  to  him,  and  be  reconciled 
unto  liis  brother.  If  the  offense  committed  against  one  brother  re- 
qiiireth  rcconciliatioun,  the  offense  committed  against  manic  bre- 
threin  requireth  the  same.  And  if  a  man  be  charged  by  Christ 
.Tesus  to  goe  to  a  man  whome  he  hath  offended,  and  there,  by  con- 
fessing of  his  offense,  require  rcconciliatioun,  niuche  more  is  he 
bound  to  seeke  a  whole  multitude  whome  lie  hath  offended,  and 
before  them  with  all  humilitie  require  the  same.  For  tliat  woe 
whicli  our  Master,  Christ  Jesus,  pronounceth  against  everie  man 
that  hath  offended  the  least  one  within  his  church,  rcmainetli 
upoun  everie  publick  offender,  untill  suche  time  as  he  declare  him- 
self wiUing  to  remove  the  same ;  which  he  can  never  doe,  untill 
suche  time  as  he  lett  the  multitude  whome  he  hath  offended  under- 
stand his  unfained  repentance.  But  becaus  that  all  men  of  up- 
right judgement  agree  in  this,  that  publick  offenses  require  publick 
repentance,  we  passe  to  the  secund  head,  which  is.  What  it  is  that 
we  have  to  consider,  in  the  fall  and  sinne  of  this  our  brotlier.  If 
we  consider  his  fall,  and  sinne  in  him  onlic,  without  considcratioun 
of  ourselves,  and  of  our  owne  corruptioun,  we  saU  profite  nothing  : 
for  so  sail  we  but  despise  our  brother,  and  flatter  ourselves.  But 
if  Ave  sail  earnestlie  consider  what  nature  we  beare,  what  cor- 
ruptioun lurketh  in  it,  Iioav  prone  and  readie  everie  one  of  us  is  to 
suche,  and  greater  impictie,  then  sail  we,  in  the  sinne  of  this  our 
brother,  accuse  and  condcmne  our  OAvne  sinncs  ;  in  his  fall,  sail  we 
consider  and  lament  our  sinfull  nature ;  also  sail  avc  joyne  our  rc- 
])entance,  teares,  and  prayers,  with  him  and  his,  knoAving  that  no 
ileshe  can  be  justifeid  before  God's  presence,  if  judgement  proccid 
Avithout  mercic.  The  profite  Avhich  this  our  brother  and  we  have 
of  this  his  humiliatioun  is,  that  Ave  and  he  may  be  assured,  that 
more  readie  is  our  Lord  God  to  receave  us  to  mercie  tlu'ouoh 
Jesus  Christ,  his  onlie  Sonne,  than  we  are  to  crave  it.  It  is  not 
sinne,  be  it  never  so  grecvous,  that  sail  separate  us  fromc  his  fa- 
vour, if  Ave  seeke  to  his  mercie :  for  as  all  have  sinned,  and  arc  by 
themselves  destitute  of  God's  grace,  so  is  lie  readie  to  shew  mercie 
unto  all  that  unfaincdlic  call  for  the  sanio.    Yea,  He  doth  not  onlie 

7G  caldekwood's  iiisTomE  1561. 

receave  such  as  come,  bot  lie,  by  the  mouth  of  his  dcare  Sonne, 
calleth  upon  suche  as  be  burdenned  and  loadened  with  sinne,  and 
solenmelie  promiseth  that  He  Avill  refreshe  them.  We  have,  be- 
sides, an  other  commoditie,  to  witt,  that  if  we  sail  heerafter  fall  in 
the  like,  or  greater,  (for  we  stand  not  by  our  owne  power,  but  by 
grace  onlie,)  that  we  be  not  ashamed  in  this  same  sort  to  humble 
our  selves,  and  confesse  our  offense.  Now,  therefore,  brother,  as 
we  all  praise  God  in  this  your  humiliatioun,  beseeching  him,  that 
it  be  without  hypocrisie,  so  it  becometh  you  earnestlie  to  consider 
of  what  minde,  and  with  what  heart,  yee  present  your  self  heere 
before  this  assemblie.  It  is  not  your  sinne  that  sail  separate  you 
frome  your  God,  nor  frome  his  mercie  in  Jesus  Christ,  if  you  re- 
pent the  same  ;  but  hypocrisie  and  impenitencie  (which  God  re- 
move frome  you  and  us)  is  no  wise  tolerable  before  his  presence." 

The  offender  ought  to  protest  before  God  that  he  is  soi'ie  for  his 
sinne,  and  unfainedlie  desireth  God  to  be  mercifull  unto  him,  and 
that  for  the  obedience  of  his  deare  Sonne,  ovu'  Lord  Jesus  Christ. 

The  Minister. 

"  We  can  onlie  see  that  which  is  without,  and  according  to  your 
confessioun  judge,  leaving  the  secreits  of  the  heart  to  God,  Avho 
onlie  can  trie  and  searche  the  same.  But  becaus  unfaincd  repent- 
ance for  sinne,  and  simple  confessioun  of  the  same,  are  the  meere 
gifts  of  God,  we  will  joyne  our  prayers  with  yoiu-s,  that  the  one  and 
the  other  may  l)e  graunted  to  you  and  us. 

"  Eternall  and  everliving  God,  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
thou  that  by  the  mouth  of  thy  holy  prophets  and  apostles  hath 
plainly  pronunced,  that  thou  desireth  not  the  death  of  a  sinner,  bot 
rather  that  he  may  convert  and  live  ;  who  also  hath  sent  thy  onlie 
Sonne,  to  suffer  the  cruell  death  of  the  crosse,  not  for  the  just,  bot 
suche  as  find  themselves  oppressed  with  the  burthcin  of  sinncs,  that 
by  Him  and  his  advocatioun  they  may  have  accesse  to  the  throne 
of  thy  grace,  being  assured,  that  before  thee  they  sail  find  favour 
and  mercie  :  We  arc  assembled,  O  Lord,  in  thy  prcscn(!c,  and  that 
in  the  name  of  this  same  our  Lord  Jesus,  thy  deare  Sonne,  to  ac- 

1561.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  77 

cuse  before  thee  our  sinnes,  and  before  the  feete  of  thy  Majestic  to 
crave  mercie  for  the  same.  We  most  hiunblie  beseeche  thee,  O 
Father  of  mercies,  first  that  thou  will  louche  and  move  our  hearts 
by  tlic  power  of  thy  Holie  Spirit,  in  suche  sort,  that  we  may  come 
to  a  true  knowledge  of  our  sinnes.  But  cheefelie,  O  Lord,  that  it 
Avill  please  thee  to  move  the  heart  of  this  our  brother,  N.,  &c.,  who, 
as  he  hath  offended  thy  Majestic,  and  a  great  nimiber  of  this  thy 
holie  congregatioun,  by  his  greevous  and  public  sinne,  so  doth  he 
not  reftise  publicklie  to  acknowledge  and  confesse  the  same,  as  that 
this  his  humiliatioim,  given  to  the  glorie  of  thy  name,  presentlie 
doth  witnesse.  But  becaus,  O  Lord,  the  cxtcrnall  confessioun, 
without  the  dolour  of  the  heart,  availeth  nothing  in  thy  presence, 
we  most  humblie  beseeche  thee,  that  thou  will  so  eflfectuallie  move 
his  heart,  and  ours  also,  that  he  and  we,  without  hypocrisie  damning 
that  which  thy  law  pronounceth  unjust,  may  attaine  to  some  sense 
and  feeling  of  thy  mercie,  Avhich  thou  hath  abundantlie  shewed  unto 
mankinde  in  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.  Graunt,  O  Lord,  unto  this 
our  brother,  the  repentance  of  the  heart,  and  sincere  confessioun  of 
his  mouth,  to  the  praise  of  thy  name,  to  the  comfort  of  thy  chm'ch, 
and  to  the  confusioun  of  Satan.  And  to  us  graunt,  O  Lord,  that 
albeit  we  cannot  be  altogether  cleane  of  sinne,  yit  that  we  fall  not 
in  horrible  crimes,  to  the  dishonour  of  thy  most  holie  name,  to  the 
slaunder  of  our  brethrein,  and  infamie  of  thy  holie  Evangell  which 
we  professe.  Lett  thy  godlie  power,  O  Lord,  so  strenthen  our 
weaknesse,  that  neither  the  craft  of  Satan,  nor  the  tyrannic  of  sinne, 
draw  us  utterlie  frome  thy  obedience.  Give  us  grace,  O  Lord,  that, 
by  holinesse  and  innocencie  of  life,  avc  may  declare  to  this  wicked 
generatioun,  what  difference  there  is  betAvixt  the  sonnes  of  light 
and  the  sonnes  of  darknes,  that  men,  seing  our  good  works,  may 
glorifie  thee,  and  thy  Sonne  Jesus  Christ,  our  onlie  Saviour  and 
Redeemer ;  to  whomc,  with  thee  and  the  Holie  Spu'it,  be  all  hon- 
our, praise,  and  glorie,  now  and  ever.     Amen." 

The  prayer  finished,  the  minister  sail  turne  him  to  the  penitent 
brother,  and  in  fidl  audience  sail  say  : 

"  Ye  have  heard,  brother,  what  is  your  duetie  toward  the  church 

78  CALDEKWOOD  S  llISTOltlE  15G1. 

Avhicli  yee  have  oft'ended ;  to  Avitt,  that  willinghe  yee  confesse  tliat 
crime  that  you  have  committed,  asking  God  mercie  for  the  same, 
and  so  that  yee  may  reconcile  your  self  to  the  church  which  yee 
have  oifended.  Yee  have  heard  also  the  affection  and  care  of  the 
church  toward  you,  their  penitent  brother,  notwithstanding  your 
greevous  fall ;  to  wit,  that  we  all  heere  present  joyne  our  sinnes 
with  your  sinne ;  we  all  repute  and  esteeme  your  fall  to  be  our 
owne ;  we  accuse  our  selves  no  lesse  than  we  accuse  you :  now, 
finallie,  we  joyne  our  prayers  with  yours,  that  we  and  you  may  ob- 
taine  mercie,  and  that  by  the  meanes  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ. 
Let  us,  therefore,  brother,  have  this  comfort  of  you,  that  yee  will 
opeiiKe  and  simplie  confesse  your  crime,  and  give  to  us  attestation 
of  your  unfained  repentance." 

The  penitent  sail  then  openlie  confesse  the  crime,  whatsoever  it 
be,  and  saU  desire  God's  mercie,  and  pray  the  church  to  call  to  God 
for  mercie  with  him ;  and  unfainedlie  desire  that  he  may  be  joyned 
again  to  their  societie  and  number. 

If  the  penitent  be  confounded  with  shame,  or  such  a  one  as  can- 
not distinctlie  speeke  to  the  comfort  and  instraction  of  the  church, 
the  minister  sail  make  repetition,  that  everie  head  may  be  under- 
stood by  it  self;  and  therefore  sail  aske  the  penitent  if  that  be  his 
confession,  and  if  so  he  beleeveth.  His  answere  affirmative  being 
receaved,  the  minister  sail  aske  the  congregation  if  they  judge  anie 
further  to  be  required  for  their  satisfaction  and  reconciliation  of 
that  brother.  No  contradiction  being  made,  the  minister  sail  say 
to  the  penitent,  "  We  have  heard,  deare  brother,  your  confession, 
for  the  which,  from  our  hearts  we  praise  God.  For  in  it  the  Spmt 
of  Jesus  Christ  hath  confounded  the  devill,  and  broken  doun  his 
head  and  power,  in  that,  that  yee  to  the  glorie  of  God  have  openlie 
damned  yourself  and  your  impietie,  imploring  gi-ace  and  mercie,  for 
Christ  Jesus,  liis  Sonne's  sake.  This  strenth,  submission,  and  obe- 
dience, cannot  proceed  fromc  flesh  and  blood,  bot  is  the  singular 
gift  of  the  Holie  Ghost.  Acknowledge,  therefore,  it  to  be  given 
unto  you  by  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.  And  now,  take  heed,  least 
at  any  time  yee  be  unmindfull  of  this  great  benefite,  which,  no 

15(31.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  7U 

doubt,  Satan  doth  envic,  and  Avill  assaile  by  all  nieanes  possible, 
that  you  may  abuse  it.  lie  will  not  cease  to  tempt  you  to  fall 
againe  in  suche,  or  crimes  more  horrible.  But  resist  the  devill,  and 
he  sail  flee  frome  you.  Live  in  sobrietie ;  be  instant  in  prayer ; 
commend  yourself  unfainedlie  unto  God,  Avho,  as  he  is  faith  full,  so 
sail  he  give  to  us  victorie  over  sinne,  death,  and  Satan,  and  that  by 
the  meanes  of  our  Head,  and  soverane  Campioun,  Jesus  Christ,  to 
whom  be  all  praise,  glorie,  and  honour,  now  and  ever.     Amen." 

An  Admonition  to  the  Church. 

"  It  is  your  duetie,  brethrein,  to  tak  exemple  of  this  our  penitent 
brother.  First,  that  yee  be  unfainedlie  displeased  in  your  owne 
hearts  for  your  sinnes :  Secundarilie,  that  with  this  our  brother 
yee  accuse  them  in  the  sight  of  God,  imploring  grace  and  mercie 
for  your  offenses  committed ;  and  last,  if  anie  of  you  sail  after  this 
publicklie  offend,  that  yee  refuse  not,  with  the  like  reverence,  to 
satisfie  the  Church  of  God,  offended  by  you.  Noav  onlie  resteth, 
that  yee  remitt  and  forget  all  offenses  Avhich  yee  have  conceaved 
heeretofore,  by  the  sinne  and  fall  of  this  our  brother ;  accept  and 
embrace  him  as  a  member  of  Chnst's  bodie.  Let  none  take  upon 
him  to  repi'oache  and  accuse  him  for  any  offenses  that  before  this 
houre  he  hath  committed.  And  that  he  may  have  the  better  as- 
surance of  your  good  will  and  reconciliation,  prostrate  yourselves 
before  God,  and  render  him  thanks  for  the  conversion  and  repent- 
ance of  this  our  brother." 

The  T hanks f/iving. 

"  Heavenlie  Father,  fountane  of  all  mercie  and  consolation,  we 
confesse  ourselves  unAvorthic  to  be  counted  among  thy  childrein,  if 
thou  have  respect  to  the  corruption  of  our  nature.  But,  seing  it 
hath  pleased  thy  Fatherlie  goodnes,  not  only  freelie  to  choose  us  in 
thy  deare  Sonne,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  by  his  death  to  redeeme 
us,  by  his  Evangell  to  call  us,  and  by  his  Ilolie  Spirit  (which  both 
are  thine)  to  illuminate  us ;  but  also,  that  thou  hath  commanded 
the  Word  and  holie  Evangell  to  be  preached,  to  the  end  that  the 

80  calberavood's  iiistorie  1561. 

penitent  sail  have  an  assurance  of  the  remission  of  their  sinnes,  not 
onlie  for  a  time,  bot  even  so  oft  as  men  frome  sorrowful  heart  sail 
call  for  thy  grace  and  mercie :  In  consideration  of  this  thy  Fatherlie 
adoption,  and  inefiable  clemencie  showen  upon  us,  we  can  not  but 
praise  and  magnifie  thy  Fatherlie  mercie,  a  testimonie  whereof  we 
not  onlie  feele  in  ourselves,  bot  also  see  the  same  evident  in  the 
conversion  of  this  our  brother,  whom  Satan  for  a  time  held  in  boun- 
dage,  but  noAV  is  set  at  freedome  by  the  power  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  and  is  returned  againe  to  the  societie  of  thy  bodie.  Graunt 
unto  us,  Heavenlie  Father,  that  he  and  we  may  more  and  more 
be  displeased  for  our  sinnes,  and  proceed  in  all  maner  of  good  works, 
to  the  praise  of  thy  hoHe  name,  and  edification  of  thy  church,  by 
Jesus  Christ,  our  Lord,  and  onlie  Saviour.     So  be  it." 

The  thanks  finished,  the  minister  sail  require  of  the  penitent,  if 
he  will  be  subject  to  the  discipline  of  the  church,  in  case  that  he 
after  offend.  Who,  answering  that  he  will,  the  minister  sail  say  in 
maner  of  absolution : 

"  If  thou  unfainedlie  repent  thy  former  iniquitie,  and  beleeve  in 
the  Lord  Jesus,  then  I,  in  his  name,  pronounce  and  affirme  that  thy 
sinnes  are  forgiven,  not  onlie  in  earth,  but  also  in  heaven,  according 
to  the  promises  annexed  with  the  preaching  of  his  Word,  and  to 
the  power  putt  in  the  ministrie  of  his  church." 

Then  sail  the  elders  and  deacons,  with  the  ministers,  (if  anie  be,) 
in  name  of  the  whole  church,  take  the  reconciled  brother  by  the 
hand,  and  embrace  him,  in  signe  of  full  reconciliation.  Then,  after, 
sail  the  church  sing  the  103d  Psalme,  so  muche  as  they  think  ex- 
pedient ;  and  so  sail  the  assemblie  Avith  the  benediction  be  dis- 

The  Forme  of  Excommunication. 
After  that  aU  admonition,  both  privat  and  public,  be  past,  as  be- 
fore is  said,  then  must  the  church  proceed  to  excommunicatioun,  if 
the  offender  remainc  obstinate.  The  Sunday,  therefore,  after  the 
thrid  publick  admonition,  the  minister  being  before  charged  by  the 
session  or  elders,  sail  thus  signifie  unto  the  church  after  sermoun  ; 

15(51.  OF  TIIK  Klltiv  OF  SCOTLAND.  81 

"It  is  not  unknowcn  to  you,  with  wluit  lenitie  and  ojirefulnesse 
the  ministric  and  the  whole  ehurch,  by  publick  and  privat  admoni- 
tions, hatli  sought  N.,  &c.,  to  satisfie  the  church,  and  to  declare 
himself  penitent  for  his  greevous  crimes  and  rebellion,  by  the  which 
he  hath  offended  God's  majestic,  blasphemed  his  liolie  name,  and 
offended  his  church,  in  whome  to  this  day  we  finde  nothing  bot 
stubburnnesse.  We  cannot,  therefore,  of  conscience,  winke  any 
longer  at  the  disobedience  of  the  said  N,,  least  that  his  exemple  in- 
fect and  hurt  others.  We  are  compelled,  therefore,  in  the  feare  of 
God,  to  give  the  said  N.  into  the  hands  and  power  of  the  devill,  to 
the  destruction  of  the  flesh,  if  that  by  that  meane  he  may  be  broght 
to  the  consideration  of  himself,  and  so  repent,  and  avoide  that  feare- 
full  condemnation  that  sail  fall  on  all  inobedient,  in  the  day  of  the 
Lord  Jesus.  And,  least  that  anie  sail  thinke  that  we  doe  this  of 
manlie  presumption,  without  the  assurance  of  the  Scripture,  yee  sail 
shortlie  heare  what  commandement  and  authoritie  wc  have  so  to 

"  First,  Ave  have  the  commandement  of  our  INIastcr  and  Saviour, 
Jesus  Christ,  to  hold  suche  for  ethnicks  and  publicans  as  will  not 
heare  the  voice  of  the  church.  But  plaine  it  is,  that  this  obstinate 
N.  hath  contemptuouslie  refused  all  wholsome  admonitions,  and 
therefore  Ave,  not  one  or  tAvo,  but  the  Avhole  church,  must  hold  him 
as  a  publicanc  ;  that  is,  as  one  cutt  off  fronie  the  bodic  of  Cln-ist, 
and  imworthie  of  anie  societie  with  him,  or  Avith  the  benefites  of  his 
chm'ch,  till  his  new  conversion,  and  his  receaving  againe. 

"  Secundarihe,  avc  liaAC  the  command  of  the  apostle  Sanct  Paul, 

and  that  fearefull   sentence  Avhich  he,  being  absent,  did  notAvith- 

standing  pronounce  against  the  incest ;  Avith  his  sharpc  rebooke  to 

the  Corinthians,  that  with  greater  zeale  and  expedition  they  expelled 

not  from  among  them  that  Avicked  man.     And,  if  anie  thinke  that 

the  offense  of  this  forenamed  obstinat  is  not  so  hainous  as  that  of 

the  incest,  lett  such  understand,  that  mercie  and  favour  may  be 

rather  granted  to  anie  other  sinne,  than  to  the  contempt  of  Avhol- 

some  admonitions,  and  of  the  just  and  lawfull   ordinances  of  the 

church.     For  other  sinnes.  Iioav  hainous  so  ever  they  be,  (so  be  it 
\^OL.   II.  '  F 

82  calderwood's  hi.storie       '  15G1. 

that  they  deserve  not  death,)  as  by  unfained  repentance  they  are  re- 
mitted before  God,  so,  upon  the  same  humblie  offered  unto  the 
church,  order  may  be  taken,  that  the  offender  may  be  comforted, 
and  at  lenth  restored  to  the  societie  of  the  church  again.  But  such 
as  proudhe  contemne  the  admonition  of  the  church,  privat  or  pub- 
lick,  declare  themselves  stubburne,  rebellious,  and  altogether  im- 
penitent, and,  therefore,  most  justlie  ought  they  to  be  excommuni- 

"  The  precept  of  God  given  under  the  law,  to  expel  frome  the 
middest  of  God's  people  suche  as  were  leprous,  (without  exception 
of  person,)  is  to  us  an  assurance,  that  we  ought  to  expell  frome  the 
societie  of  Christ's  bodie  suche  as  be  stricken  with  spiritual!  lepro- 
sie  ;  for  the  one  is  no  lesse  infective  and  dangerous  than  is  the 
other.  Now,  seing  that  we  know  excommunication  is  God's  ordi- 
nance, lett  us,  in  few  words,  imderstand  the  utilitie  and  use  of  the 

"  By  it,  first,  the  church  is  purged  of  open  wicked  doers,  which 
is  no  small  commoditie,  considering  that  we  fight  in  the  middest 
and  eyes  of  this  wicked  generation,  which  seeketh  in  us  nothing- 
more  than  occasioun  of  slaunder.  Secundarlie,  by  it  is  the  church, 
and  everie  member  of  the  same,  retained  in  obedience  and  feare, 
wherof  all  have  need,  if  the  frailtie  of  our  flesh  sail  be  rightlie  con- 
sidered. Thridlie,  by  it  we  exercise  a  singular  work  of  charitie, 
whill  that  we  declare  ourselves  carefiill  to  keepe  the  flocke  of  Chi'ist 
in  puritie  of  maners,  and  without  danger  to  be  infected.  For,  as  it 
were  a  worke  both  uncharitable  and  cruell,  to  joyne  together  in 
one  bed  persons  infected  with  pestilent  and  other  contagious  and 
infective  sores  with  tender  childrein,  or  with  suche  as  are  whole,  so 
it  is  no  lesse  crueltie  to  suffer  among  the  flocke  of  Christ  suche  ob- 
stinat  rebells  :  for,  true  is  that  sentence  of  the  apostle's,  ^  A  little 
leaven  corrupteth  the  Avhole  masse."  But,  least  that  we  soidd 
seerae  to  usurpe  power  over  the  church,  or  to  doe  anie  thing  without 
the  knowledge  and  consent  of  the  whole  bodie,  for  this  present  we 
delay  the  sentence,  willing  such  as  have  anie  thing  to  object  in  the 
contraric  to  propone  the  same  the  nixt  sessioun  day,  or  elles  to  sig- 

15G1.  OF  THE  KIIJK  OK  SCOTLAND.  i>o 

nifie  tlio  same  to  some  of  the  ministers  or  elders,  (liiit  answere  may 
be  given  thereto  ;  and,  in  the  meane  time,  we  Avill  eall  to  God  foi- 
the  conversion  of  the  impenitent. 

The  Prayer  for  the  Obstinat. 

"  Eternall  and  ever-living  God,  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
whose  verie  propertie  is  to  shew  raercie,  and  to  restore  life,  when  to 
man's  judgement  death  hath  gotten  dominion  over  thy  creatui^es  : 
for  thou  hath  first  sought,  called,  accused,  and  convicted  our  father 
Adam,  after  his  transgression,  and  being  so  deid  in  shme,  and  thrall 
to  Satan,  that  he  could  neither  confesse  his  offense,  nor  yit  aske 
mercie  for  the  same :  thou,  by  thy  free  promises  of  mercie  and 
grace,  gave  unto  him  a  new  life,  and  strenth  to  repent.  The  same 
order  must  thou  keepe,  O  Lord,  with  all  thy  chosen  childrein  of 
his  posteritie ;  for  in  man's  corrupt  nature  there  can  be  no  obedi- 
ence, untill  that  thou,  by  operation  of  thy  Holie  Spirit,  Avork  the 
same.  And,  therefore,  Ave  most  humblie  beseeke  thee,  for  Jesus 
Christ  thy  Sonne's  sake,  pitifullie  to  looke  upon  this  thy  creature, 
who  was  once  baptized  in  thy  name,  and  hath  professed  himself 
subject  to  thy  religion,  and  to  the  discipline  of  thy  church,  whom 
Satan  (alas !)  now  so  blindeth,  that  obstinatlie  he  contcmneth  the 
one  and  the  other.  We  have  followed,  O  Lord,  the  rule  prescribed 
unto  us  by  thy  deare  Sonne,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  in  admonisl;- 
ing  and  threatning  him  ;  but  hitherto  have  profited  nothing  con- 
cerning him  and  his  humiliation. 

''  But,  O  Lord,  as  thou  alone  knoweth,  so  may  thou  alone  cluuige 
and  molllfie  the  hearts  of  the  proud  and  impenitent.  Thou,  by  the 
voice  of  thy  prophet  Nathan,  Avakened  David  frome  his  deadlic  se- 
curitie.  Thou,  Avithout  anie  prophet,  did  beate  doun  the  pride  of 
Manasseh  in  the  prisoun,  after  he  had  shed  the  blood  of  thy  ser- 
vants, and  had  replenished  Jerusalem  Avith  all  kinde  of  impietie. 
Tliou  turned  the  heart  of  Peter,  at  the  looke  of  thy  deare  Sonne, 
our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  after  that  fearefullic,  Avith  horrible  impreca- 
tions, he  had  thrise  openlie  denied  him. 

"O  Lord,  thy  mercies  Avithout  measure  endure  lor  ever,  to  the 

84  calderwood's  nisTORiE  1561. 

which  we,  after  long  traveU,  doe  remitt  this  obstinat  and  impeni- 
tent ;  earnestlie  desiring  thee,  O  Father  of  mercies,  first  so  to  peirce 
his  heart  with  the  feare  of  thy  severe  judgements,  that  he  may  be- 
giinie  to  understand,  that  thus  contemning  all  wholsome  admoni- 
tions, he  provoketh  thy  wrath  and  indignation  against  himself. 
Open  his  eyes,  that  he  may  see  how  fearefiill  and  terrible  a  thing 
it  is  to  fall  into  thy  hands.  And,  therefore,  moUifie  and  anoint  his 
heart  with  the  unction  of  thy  Holie  Spirit,  that  he  may  unfainedlie 
convert  unto  thee,  and  give  unto  thee  that  honour  and  obedience 
that  thou  requireth  in  thy  holie  Word ;  and  so  to  our  comfort,  that 
now  mom-ne  for  his  rebellion,  that  he  may  subject  himself  to  the 
just  ordinance  of  thy  church,  and  avoide  that  fearefuU  vengeance 
that  most  assm^edlie  sail  fall  upon  all  the  inobedient.  These  thy 
graces,  Heavenlie  Father,  and  farther,  as  thou  knoweth  to  be 
expedient  for  us,  and  for  thy  church  universall,  we  call,  according 
as  we  be  taught  to  pray  by  our  soverane  Master,  Christ  Jesus,  say- 
ing, '  Our  Father,'  &c." 

The  second  Sunday,  after  sermon  and  publick  prayers,  the  mini- 
ster sail,  in  audience  of  the  whole  church,  aske  the  elders  and  dea- 
cons, who  must  sitt  in  an  eminent  and  proper  place,  that  their  an- 
swere  may  be  heard  : 

The  Minister. 

"  Hath  he,  whome  the  last  day  we  admonished,  under  the  paine 
of  excommunication,  to  satisfie  the  church  for  his  publick  slander 
and  contempt  of  the  ministrie,  by  himself  or  by  anie  other,  offered 
his  obedience  unto  you  ?" 

They  sail  answere,  as  the  truthe  is.  Yea,  or  Nay. 

If  he  hath  sought  the  favour  of  anie  within  the  ministrie,  with 
promise  of  obedience,  then  sail  farther  proccsse  be  delayed,  and  he 
commanded  to  appeare  before  the  session  in  their  nixt  assemblie, 
where  order  may  be  taken  for  his  publick  repentance,  as  in  the  for- 
mer head  is  expressed.  If  he  have  not  laboured  to  satisfie  the 
church,  then  sail  the  minister  proceed,  and  say  : 

"  It  cannot  be  but  dolorous  to  the  bodie,  that  anie  one  member 

loGl.  OF  THE  KIUK  OF  SCOTLAND.  85 

therof  sould  be  cut  off  and  perish :  and  yit,  it  ought  to  be  more 
fearefull  to  the  member  than  to  the  bodie,  for  the  member  cut  off' 
can  doe  no  thing  but  putrifie  and  perish,  and  yit  the  bodie  may  re- 
taine  life  and  strenth.  But  the  rcbeUion  of  this  obstinat  may  pro- 
ceed, in  one  part,  from  ignorance ;  for  it  may  be,  that  he  under- 
standeth  not  what  excommunication  is,  and  Avhat  is  the  danger  of  the 
same.     I  sail,  therefore,  in  few  words,  open  the  one  and  the  other. 

"  Lawfull  excommunication  (for  the  tlmndrings  of  that  Roman 
Antichrist  are  but  vanitie  and  winde)  is  the  cutting  off"  frorae  the 
bodie  of  Jesus  Christ,  frome  participation  of  his  holie  sacraments, 
and  frome  publick  prayers  with  his  church,  by  publick  and  so- 
lemned  sentence,  all  obstinat  and  impenitent  persons,  after  due  ad- 
monitions ;  which  sentence,  lawfullie  pronounced  in  earth,  is  ratified 
in  heaven,  by  binding  of  the  same  sinnes  that  they  bind  in  earth. 
The  danger  heerof  is  greater  than  man  can  suddanlie  espie :  for 
seing,  that  without  the  bodie  of  Jesus  Christ  there  abideth  nothing 
but  death  and  damnation  to  mankinde,  in  what  estate  sail  we  judge 
them  to  stand  that  justlie  are  cut  off"  frome  the  same  ? 

"Yea,  what  horrible  vengeance  hangeth  upon  them  and  their 
posteritie,  notable  and  severe  punishments  may  instruct  us.  Cain, 
the  murtherer,  was  not  accused  within  his  owne  person  onlie,  bot 
that  same  malediction  ranne  on  his  posteritie,  and  all  that  joyned 
therewith,  till  that  all  mankhid  was  destroyed  by  Av^ater,  (eight 
persons  reserved.)  Cham  likewise  was  accursed  in  his  sonne  Ca- 
naan, the  severitie  wherof  proceeded  even  to  the  rooting  out  of  that 
whole  race  and  nation.  The  simple  word  of  our  Master,  Jesus 
Christ,  caused  the  figge  tree  suddanlie  to  wither.  At  the  voice  ot 
Peter,  Ananias  and  Saphira  were  striken  with  death.  The  same 
God  and  Lord  Jesus,  with  the  power  of  liis  Holie  Spirit,  that  then 
Avas  potent  and  just,  worketh  even  now  in  the  ministrie  of  his 
church,  the  contempt  wherof  he  will  in  no  wise  suffer  unpunished. 
And,  therefore,  ye  that  have  acquaintance  or  familiaritie  with  the 
forenamed  obstinate,  declare  unto  him  these  dangers,  and  Avill  him 
not  to  tempt  the  uttermost.  .\nd  thus,  yett  againc  Ictt  us  piay  to 
God  for  his  conversion."' 


Lett  the  former  Prai/er  he  puhlicklie  said. 

The  tlu'id  Sunday,  lett  the  first  question  be  proponed  by  the  mi- 
nister to  the  elders  and  deacons,  concerning  the  subraissioun  of  the 
obstinate  so  oft  admonished,  as  was  proponed  the  secund.  If  re- 
pentance be  offered,  lett  order  be  taken,  as  is  aforesaid,  with  one 
charge  to  the  church,  to  praise  God  for  the  conversion  of  that  bro- 
ther. If  repentance  be  not  offered,  then  sail  the  minister  exponc 
Avherein  the  persoun  that  is  to  be  excommunicate  hath  offended ; 
how  oft,  and  by  wliome  he  hath  beene  admonished,  as  weill  privat- 
lie  as  publicklie  ;  and  sail  demand  of  the  elders  and  deacons,  if  it 
be  not  so  :  whose  answere  receaved,  the  minister  sail  aske  the  whole 
church,  if  they  thinke  that  suche  contempt  sould  be  suffered  among 
them ;  and  if  then  no  man  mak  intercession  for  the  obstinat,  the 
minister  sail  proceed,  and  say : 

"  Of  verie  conscience  we  are  compelled  to  doe  that  Avhicli  to  our 
hearts  is  most  dolorous ;  to  witt,  to  give  over  to  the  hands  of  the 
divell  this  forenamed  obstinate  contemner,  N.,  whom  once  we  es- 
teemed a  member  of  our  bodie ;  and  that  not  onlie  for  the  crime 
which  he  hath  committed,  bot  muche  rather  for  his  proud  contempt 
and  intolerable  rebelHon,  least  tliat  our  sufferance  of  him  in  this  his 
impietie  sould  not  onlie  be  imputed  to  us,  bot  also  that  he  sould  in- 
fect others  with  the  same  jaestilence.  And,  therefore,  Ave  must  use 
the  last  remedie,  how  greevous  so  ever  it  be  unto  us.  And  yit, 
I  desire  you,  for  more  ample  declaration  of  your  Christian  charitie 
toward  him,  ye  pray  Avith  me  unto  God  noAv,  for  the  last,  for  his 

The  Last  Prayer  before  the  Excommanieatioit . 

"  Omnipotent,  eternall,  and  most  mercifull  Father,  who,  for  that 
good  Avill  that  thou  beareth  unto  us  in  Jesus  Christ,  thy  dcare 
Sonne,  Avill  not  the  death  and  destructioun  of  a  sinner,  but  rather 
that  he  by  inspiration,  and  moving  of  thy  Ilolie  Spirit,  convert  and 
live  :  wlio  also  doth  witncsse  the  vertue  and  strenth  of  thy  Wuid 
to  be  suche,  that  it  caiiseth  the  niountaiis  to  shake,  llie  rocks  trem- 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTl>ANI).  87 

ble,  and  the  floods  to  drie  up  :  Behold,  wee  thy  childrein  and  people 
heere  prostrate  before  thee,  most  humbUe  besceche  thee,  in  the 
name  of  thy  deare  Sonne,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  that  thovi  will 
move  and  pierce  the  heart  of  our  impenitent  brother,  whom  Satan 
so  long  hath  endured  and  hardened.  Lett  it  please  thy  Majestie, 
by  the  vertue  of  thy  Holie  Spirit,  that  thou  will  mollifie  the  same, 
expell  his  darknes,  and,  by  the  light  of  thy  grace,  that  thou  will  so 
illuminat  him,  that  now  at  lenth  he  may  feele,  First,  how  greevous- 
lie  he  hath  offended  against  thy  Majestie ;  and,  Secundarilie,  against 
thy  holie  church  and  assemblic.  Give  him  thy  grace  to  ackno"\v- 
ledge,  accuse,  and  damne,  as  weill  before  us  whome  he  hath  of- 
fended, as  before  thy  presence,  this  his  proud  contempt ;  least  that 
we,  by  the  same  provoked,  be  compelled  Avith  all  our  greefes  to 
cutt  him  off  thy  mysticall  bodie,  whom  we,  O  Lord,  unfainedlic 
desire  to  retaine  within  thy  church,  as  a  livelie  member  of  thy 
deare  Sonne,  our  Lord  Jesus.  Heare  us,  mercifull  Father.  Call 
backe  againe  this  our  impenitent  brother  that  now  tendeth  to  eter- 
nall  destruction,  that  we  all  who  before  thy  presence  even  for  his 
rebelhoun  doe  morne,  may  receave  him  again  with  gladnesse  and 
joy,  and  so  rander  praise  and  honour  to  thee  before  thy  holy  con- 

"  We  grant  ourselves,  O  Lord,  imworthie  whom  thou  sould 
heare,  becaus  we  ceasse  not  to  offend  thee,  by  our  contlnuall  trans- 
gi'essing  thy  holy  precepts.  Looke  not  upon  us,  merciftill  Father, 
in  this  OTU'  corrupt  nature  ;  bot  looke  thou  to  thy  deare  Sonne, 
whom  thou  of  thy  meere  mercie  hath  appointed  our  Head,  great 
Bishop,  Advocat,  Mediator,  and  onlic  Propitiator.  In  him,  and  in 
the  merits  of  his  death,  we  humblie  besceche  thee  mercifuUie  to 
behold  us,  and  suffer  not  the  most  innocent  blood  of  thy  deare 
Sonne  shed  for  us,  and  for  this  our  impenitent  brother,  to  be  i)ro- 
fained  by  the  tyrannic  and  slight  of  Satan.  But,  by  the  vertue  of 
the  same,  lett  this  our  impenitent  brother  be  brought  to  unfaincd 
re])cntance,  that  so  he  may  escape  that  feareftill  condemnation  in 
the  which  he  appeareth  to  fall.    This  we  aske  of  thee,  O  llc;i\(Minc 

88  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

Father,  in  the  boldnes  ol:'  our  Head  and  Mediator,  Jesus  Christ, 
praying,  as  he  hath  taught,  Our  Father,"  &c. 

If,  after  this  prayer,  the  obstinat  apjDeare  not  to  offer  his  repent- 
ance, then  sail  the  minister  proceed,  and  say  : 

"  Brethrein,  seing  that,  as  yee  have  heard,  this  obstinat  and  inj- 
penitent  person  hath  so  greevouslie  offended  against  God,  and 
against  this  his  holie  congregation,  who  by  no  meanes  (as  yee  may 
perceave)  can  be  broght  to  repentance  ;  wherof  it  is  evident  by  the 
Word  of  God,  that  he  is  fallen  from  the  kingdome  of  heaven,  and 
the  blessed  societie  of  the  Lord  Jesus  :  and  we  (albeit  with  do- 
lour of  our  hearts)  may  now  execute  that  Avhich  the  commande- 
ment  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  the  practise  of  his  apostles,  sheweth  that 
of  our  office  we  ought  to  doe  ;  to  witt,  that  we  sail  publicklie  de- 
clare and  pronounce  suche  to  have  no  societie  with  us,  as  declare 
themselves  obstinate  and  rebellious  against  all  wholsome  admoni- 
tions, and  the  blessed  ordinances  of  his  church.  And  that  we  may 
doe  the  same,  not  of  our  owne  authoritie,  but  in  the  name  and 
power  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  before  whom  all  knees  are  com- 
pelled to  bow,  lett  us  humblie  fall  doun  before  him,  and  on  this 
maner  pray,  and  pronounce  this  sentence  : 

The  Invocation  of  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ  to  excommunicate  the 
Imjjenitent,  together  ivith  the  Sentence  of  Excommunication. 

"  O  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  the  onlie  and  cternall  King  of  all  the 
chosin  childrein  of  thy  Heavenlie  Father,  the  Head  and  Lawgiver 
of  thy  Church ;  who  by  thy  owne  mouth  hath  commanded,  that 
suche  offenders  as  proudlie  contemne  the  admonitions  of  thy  church 
sail  be  cast  out  of  the  societie  of  the  same,  and  sail  be  reputed  of 
thy  professors  as  profane  ethnicks ;  wee,  willing  to  obey  this  thy 
precept,  which  also  we  have  reccaved  by  institution  of  thy  apostles, 
are  heere  presentlie  conventcd,  to  excommunicate,  and  cast  furth 
li-ome  the  societie  of  thy  holie  bodic,  and  from  all  participation 
with  thy  churcli  in  sacraments  or  prayers,  N.  Which  thing  avc 
doe  at  thy  connnundeniont,  and  in  thy  power  and  autlioritic,  to  tlic 

1561.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTI.ANJ).  S9 

gloric  of  thy  holle  name,  to  the  conservation  and  edification  of  this 
thy  churcli,  m  the  which  it  hath  pleased  thee  to  place  us  ministers, 
and  to  the  extreme  remedie  of  the  stubburne  obstinacie  of  the  fore- 
named  impenitent.     And  becaus  thou  hath  promised  thy  self  ever 
to  be  with  us,  bot  speciallle  with  such  as  uprightlie  travell  in  the 
ministrie  of  thy  church,  whom  also  thou  hath  promised  to  instruct 
and  guide  by  the  dictament  of  thy  Ilolie  Spirit,  we  most  humblie 
beseeche  thee  so  to  governe  and  assist  us  in  the    execution  of  this 
our  charge,  that  whatsoever  we  in  thy  name  doe  heere  j)ronuncc  in 
earth,  that  thou  will  ratifie  the  same  in  the  heaven.      Our  assur- 
ance, O  Lord,  is  thy  expressed  Word.     And,  therefore,  in  boldnes 
of  the  same,  here  I,  in  thy  name,  and  at  the  commandement  of  this 
thy  present  congregation,   cutt  off,  seclude,    and  excommunicate 
frome  thy  bodie,  and  frome  our  societie,  N.,  as  ane  persoun  slan- 
derous, proude,  contemner,  and  a  member  for  this  present  alto- 
gether corrupted,  and  pernicious  to  the  bodie.     And  this  his  sinne 
(albeit  Avith  sorrow  of  heart)  by  vertue  of  our  ministrie  we  bind, 
and  pronunce  the  same  to  be  bound  in  heaven  and  earth.     We 
farther  give  over  in  the  hands  and  power  of  the  devill  the  said  N., 
to  the  destruction  of  his  flesh ;  straitlie  charging  all  that  professc 
the  Lord  Jesus,  to  whose  knowledge  this  our  sentence  sail  come, 
to  repute  and  to  hold  the  said  N.  accursed,  and  unworthie  of  the 
familiar  societie  of  Christians  ;  declaring  unto  all  men,  that  suche 
as  heerafter,  before  his  repentance,  sail  haunt  or  familiarlie  accom- 
])anie  him,  are  partakers  of  his  impietie,  and  subject  to  the  like 
condemnatioun.     This  oiu'  sentence,  ()  Lord  Jesus,  pronunced  in 
thy  name,  we  humblie  desire  thee  to  ratifie,  according  to  thy  pro- 
mise.    And  yit,  Lord,  thou  that  came  to  save  that  Avhich  was  lost, 
looke  upon  him  witli  the  eyes  of  thy  mercie,  if  thy  good  pleasure 
be  ;  and  so  pierce  thou  liis  heart,  that  he  may  feele  in  his  breast 
the  terrors  of  thy  judgements,  that  by  thy  grace  he  liuitfullie  may 
be  converted  to  thee ;  and  so  damning  his  owne  impietie,  he  may 
be  with  the  like  solemnitic  rcceavcd  within  the  bosonie  of  thy 
church,  frome  the  which  this  day  (with  grcefe  and  dolour  of  our 
hearts)  he  is  ejected.     Lord,  in  tliy  [jresence  we  prolcst,  that  our 


owne  affections  move  us  not  to  this  severitie,  Lot  onlie  the  hatred 
of  sinne,  and  obedience  tliat  we  give  to  thy  owne  commandement. 
And,  therefore,  O  HeavenHe  Father,  we  crave  the  perpetuall  assist- 
ance of  thy  Hohe  Spirit,  not  onlie  to  bridle  our  corrupt  affections, 
bot  also  so  to  conduct  us  in  all  the  course  of  our  whole  life,  that 
we  never  fall  to  the  like  impietie  and  contempt ;  but  that  con- 
tinuallie  we  may  be  subject  to  the  voice  of  thy  church,  and  unto 
the  ministers  of  the  same,  who  truelie  offer  unto  us  the  Word  of 
Life,  the  blessed  Evangell  of  thy  onlie  beloved  Sonne,  Jesus 
Christ ;  to  whome  with  thee,  and  the  Holie  Spirit,  be  all  praise, 
glorie,  and  honour,  noAv  and  ever.     So  be  it." 

The  sentence  pronunced,  and  the  prayer  ended,  the  minister  sail 
admonishe  the  church,  that  all  the  faithfuU  doe  hold  the  excom- 
municat  as  an  ethnick,  as  before  is  said  ;  that  no  man  use  his  fa- 
miliar companie  ;  and  yit,  that  no  jnan  accuse  him  of  anie  other 
crime  than  of  suche  as  he  is  convicted  of,  and  for  the  which  he  is 
excommunicate  ;  bot  that  everie  man  sail  secreitlie  call  to  God  for 
grace  to  be  granted  to  the  excommunicate.  Such  as  have  office  in 
the  ministrie  may,  upon  licence  required  of  the  church,  speeke  with 
the  excommunicate,  so  long  as  hope  resteth  of  his  conversion.  Bot 
if  he  continue  obstinat,  then  ought  all  the  faithfull  utterlie  to  ab- 
horre  his  presence  and  comnnmication.  And  yit  ought  they  more 
earnestlie  to  call  to  God,  that  Satan  in  the  end  may  be  confounded, 
and  the  creature  of  God  free  frome  his  snares,  by  the  power  of  tlie 
Lord  Jesus.  And  with  the  accustomed  benediction,  the  assemblic 
sail  be  dismissed,  after  they  have  sung  the  101st  Psalm e,  or  one 
portion  therof,  as  it  sail  please  the  congregation. 

The  Order  to  reccave  the  Excommunicate  againe  to  the  Sucietie  of 

the  Church. 

First,  we  must  observe,  that  suche  as  deserve  death  for  that 
crime  connnitted,  never  be  admitted  to  the  societie  of  the  church, 
untill  suche  time  as  either  the  magistrat  imnish  according  to  the 
law,  or  cllcs  pardoun  the  crime,  as  before  we  have  said.  But  sucli 
as  for  other  offenses,  and   for  their  contempt,  are  cxconnnunicaf, 

1561.  OF  Till-:  KlllK  OF  SCOTI.AND.  HI 

may  be  rcceaved,  wlien  they  sail  eunicstlie  seekc  tlie  tavours  of 
the  church.  They  must  beginne  at  the  ministric,  the  eklei's,  and 
the  deacons,  Avho  nuist  expone  their  repentance  to  the  minister  or 
ministers  in  tlieir  assembUe  ;  a  day  may  be  appointed  to  the  excom- 
municate to  present  himself  before  them.  The  signes  of  his  re- 
pentance ought  to  be  diligentlie  enquired ;  as,  what  hatli  beene  his 
behaviour  since  the  time  of  his  excommunication,  what  he  will  of- 
fer for  satisfaction  to  the  church,  and  vmto  whome  he  hath  exponed 
the  greefe  and  dolor  of  his  heart?  If  the  exconnnunicate  be  found 
penitent,  and  obedient  in  all  things,  the  minister,  the  nixt  Sunday, 
may  give  advertisement  to  the  whole  church  of  his  humiliation, 
and  conunand  them  to  call  to  God  for  increasse  of  the  same.  The 
nixt  session  day,  the  minister  may  appoint  to  the  excommunicate 
suche  satisfaction  as  they  thinke  most  expedient ;  to  the  which  if 
the  excommunicate  fullie  agree,  then  may  the  said  ministrie  appoint 
unto  him  a  certane  day,  when  he  sail  fulfill  the  same.  For  this  is 
principallie  to  be  observed,  that  no  excommunicate  person  may  be 
receaved  to  the  societie  of  the  church  againe,  untill  suche  time  that 
he  have  stand  at  the  church  doore,  at  the  least  moe  Sondayes  than 
one.  Which  dayes  being  expired,  and  the  whole  satisfaction  coni- 
[)leat,  some  of  the  elders  sail  passe  to  the  excommunicate,  after  that 
tlie  former  prayer  of  the  minister  in  the  pulpit  be  ended,  and  sail 
present  him  to  a  certane  place  appointed  for  the  penitent;  Avhcrc 
he  sail  stand  in  the  same  habite  in  the  which  he  made  satisfaction, 
luitill  the  sermon  be  ended.  And  then  sail  the  same  elders  that 
broght  him  in  the  church  present  him  to  the  minister,  with  these, 
or  the  like  words  : — 

"  This  creature  of  God,  N.,  that  for  his  wickednes  and  obstinat  rc- 
bellioun  hath  beene  excommunicate  frome  the  bodie  of  Jesus  Christ, 
bot  now,  by  the  power  of  the  Spirit  of  God,  is  called  backe  againe  by 
repentance,  so  farre  as  the  judgement  of  man  can  perceave.  For  he 
hath  not  onlie  craved  the  favours  of  the  ministrie,  that  lie  might 
be  receaved  unto  the  bodic  of  the  church  againe,  but  also  most 
obedientlie  hath  sulycetcd  himself  to  all  that  we  have  commanded, 
for  tryell  of  his  humiliation.      And,  llicrefoic,  we  i)rcscnt  him  before 

92  CALI)EHW001>'s  HISTOUIE  15G1. 

you  to  be  examined  ;  and  if  liis  repentance  be  sufficient,  to  be  re- 
ceaved  again  to  the  bodie  of  the  church." 

Then  sail  the  minister  render  thanks  first  to  God,  for  that  part 
of  his  humiliation,  and  also  desire  the  church  of  God  to  doe  the 
same  Avith  him.  Therafter,  he  sail  addresse  him  to  the  person  ex- 
communicate ;  and,  first,  sail  lay  before  him  his  sinne ;  then,  after, 
the  admonitions  that  were  givin  to  him,  to  satisfie  the  church  for 
the  same  ;  and,  last,  his  proud  contempt,  and  long  obstinacie,  for 
the  which  he  was  excommunicate  ;  and  of  everie  one  he  sail  re- 
quu'c  his  particular  confession,  with  accusation  of  himself,  and  de- 
testation of  his  impietie.  Which  being  receaved,  he  sail  rander 
thanks  to  God  as  followeth  : — 

"  We  thanke  the  mercie  and  goodnes  of  God,  through  Jesus 
Christ  our  Lord,  for  this  thy  conversion,  N.,  into  the  Avhich  thou 
hath  not  so  muche  shamed  thy  self,  as  that  thou  hath  confounded 
and  overcome  Satan,  by  Avhose  venemous  and  deceavable  entisc- 
ments  thou  hitherto  hath  beene  rebellious  to  the  wholsome  admoni- 
tions of  the  church.  And  yit,  becaus  we  can  onlie  see  that  which 
is  externall,  we  willjoyne  our  prayers  with  thine,  that  thy  humilia- 
tion may  proceed  frome  the  heart." 

Lett  the  prayer  appointed  to  be  said  in  the  receaving  the  peni- 
tent be  said  also  lieere ;  which  ended,  lett  the  church  and  the  pe- 
nitent be  admonished,  as  is  expressed,  except  that  the  crime  of  his 
excommunication  must  ever  be  alledged  and  mentioned. 

The  Prayer  conteaning  his  receaving  to  the  Church. 

"  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  King,  Teacher,  and  our  eternall  Freest,  who, 
with  the  preaching  of  thy  blessed  Evangell,  hath  joyned  the  power 
to  bind  and  loose  the  sinnes  of  men  ;  Avho  hath  also  pronunced,  that 
whosoever  by  thy  ministers  is  bound  in  earth  still  be  bound  in 
the  heaven,  and  also,  that  whosoever  is  loosed  by  the  same  sail 
be  loosed  and  absolved  with  thee  in  the  heaven :  looke,  O  Lord, 
mercifullie  upon  this  thy  creature,  N.,  &c.,  whonie  Satan  of  long- 
time hath  holdcn  in  boundage,  so  that  not  onlie  he  drew  liim  to  ini- 
quitie,  bot  also  that  he  so  hardened  hi.<  lieiirt,  tluit  lie  dcspi.-<cd  all 


admonitions,  for  tlic  which  his  sinne  iind  contempt  we  were  com- 
pelled to  excommnnicate  him  frome  onr  bodie.  But  now,  O  Lord, 
seing  that  the  Spirit  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  hath  so  far  prevailed 
in  him,  that  he  is  returned  to  our  societie,  it  will  please  thee,  for  the 
obedience  of  our  Lord  Jesus,  to  accept  him,  that  his  former  inobe- 
dience  be  never  layed  to  his  charge ;  but  that  he  may  increasse  in 
all  godlines,  till  that  Satan  finallie  be  trodden  under  his  feete  and 
ours,  by  the  powder  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ ;  to  whom  with  thee, 
and  with  the  Holie  Spirit,  be  all  honour  and  glorie,  now  and  ever. 
So  be  it." 

The  Forme  of  Absolution. 

"  In  the  name  and  authoritie  of  Jesus  Christ,  I,  the  minister 
of  his  blessed  Evangell,  with  consent  of  this  whole  ministrie  and 
church,  absolve  thee,  N.,  from  the  sentence  of  excommunication, 
frome  the  sinne  by  thee  committed,  and  fi'ora  all  censures  ledde 
against  thee  for  the  same  before,  according  to  thy  repentance ;  and 
pronunce  thy  sinne  to  be  loosed  in  heaven,  and  thee  to  be  receaved 
again  to  the  societie  of  Jesus  Christ,  to  his  bodie  the  church,  to 
the  participation  of  his  sacraments,  and,  finallie,  to  the  fruition  of 
all  his  benefites,  in  the  name  of  the  Father,  the  Sonne,  and  the 
Holie  Spirit.     So  be  it." 

The  absolution  pronunced,  the  minister  sail  then  call  him,  Bro- 
ther, and  give  him  admonition  to  watche  and  pray  that  he  fall  not 
in  the  hke  tentation ;  that  he  be  thankfull  for  the  mercie  showen 
unto  him,  and  that  he  shew  the  fruicts  of  his  conversion  in  life  and 

Therafter,  the  whole  ministrie  sail  embrace  him,  and  such  others 
of  the  church  as  be  nixt  unto  him,  and  then  sail  ane  psalme  of 
thanksgiving:  be  sung. 

This  order  may  be  enlarged  or  contracted,  as  the  wisdome  of  the 
discreit  minister  sail  thinke  expedient ;  for  we  rather  shew  the  way 
to  the  ignorant,  than  prescribe  order  to  the  learned,  that  cannot  be 

94  ■  calderavood's  historik       '  15GI. 

A  Prayer. 

"  Preserve  the  publick  face  of  thy  church  withiu  this  reahne,  O 
Lord :  dilate  the  kingdome  of  thy  Sonne,  Jesus  Christ,  universal- 
lie  ;  and  so  farther  disclose,  and  breake  doun  the  tyrannic  of  that 
Roman  Antichrist,  by  the  power  of  thy  Sonne,  our.  Lord  Jesus 
Christ.     So  be  it."     Anno  1567. 

Rom.  xvi. 

Soli  sapienti  Deo  per  lesum  Christum  gloria  in  perpetuum.     Amen. 

This  booke  is  thoght  necessarie  and  profitable  for  the  Church, 
and  commaunded  to  be  printed  by  the  Generall  Assemblie.  Sett 
furtli  by  John  Knox,  minister,  and  sighted  by  us  whose  names  fol- 
low, as  we  war  appointed  by  the  said  Generall  Assemblie. 

Johne  Willocke.  David  Lindsay. 

Mr  Johne  Craig.  William  Christeson. 

Robert  Pont.  James  Creg,  &c. 
John  Row. 


Becaus  the  visitation  of  the  sicke  is  a  thing  verie  necessarie,  and 
yitt,  notwithstanding,  it  is  hard  to  prescribe  all  rules  appertaining 
therunto,  we  referre  it  to  the  discretion  of  the  godlie  and  prudent 
minister,  who,  according  as  he  seeth  the  patient  afflicted,  either  may 
lift  him  up  with  the  sweete  promises  of  God's  mercie  through  Christ, 
if  he  pcrccave  him  much  afrayed  of  God's  threatnings  ;  or  contrari- 
wise, if  he  be  not  tuiched  Avith  the  feeling  of  his  sinnes,  may  beate 
him  doun  with  God's  judgements  ;  evermore,  like  a  skilfull  physi- 
cian, framing  his  medicine  according  as  the  disease  requireth.  And 
if  he  perceave  him  to  Avant  anie  necessaries,  he  not  onlie  releeveth 
him  according  to  his  abilitie,  but  also  provideth  by  others,  tliat  he 

1.5G1.  OF  Tin:  kiuk  of  sccrri.ANU.  1>5 

may  be  t'urnished  sufficientlle.  Moreover,  the  partie  that  is  visited 
may  at  all  times  for  his  comfort  send  for  the  minister,  Avho  doth  not 
onhe  make  prayers  for  him  there  presenthe,  but  also,  if  it  so  re- 
quire, commendeth  him  in  the  publick  prayers  to  the  congrega- 

A  Prayer  to  be  said  in  visiting  of  the  Sicke. 

"  O,  om-  good  God,  Lord,  and  Father,  the  Creator  and  conserver 
of  all  things,  the  fountaine  of  all  goodnes  and  benignitie ;  like  as 
(among  other  thine  infinite  benefites,  Avhich  thou  of  thy  great  good- 
nes and  grace  doth  distribute  ordinarilie  unto  all  men)  thou  giveth 
them  health  of  bodie,  to  the  end  that  they  sould  the  better  know  thy 
great  liberalitie,  so  that  they  might  be  the  more  readie  to  serve  and 
glorifie  thee  with  the  same  :  so,  contrariAvise,  Avhen  we  have  evill- 
behaved  ourselves,  in  offending  thy  JNlajestie,  thou  hath  accustomed 
to  admonishe  us,  and  call  us  unto  thee,  by  diverse  and  sindrie  chas- 
tisements, through  the  which  it  hath  pleased  thy  goodnes  to  sub- 
due and  tame  our  fraile  fleshe :  but  speciallie,  by  the  greevous 
plagues  of  sicknesses  and  diseases ;  using  the  same  as  a  nieane,  to 
awake  and  stirre  up  the  great  dullnesse  and  negligence  that  is  in 
us  all,  and  advertising  us  of  our  evill  life  by  such  infirmiteis  and 
dangers  ;  especiallie  when,  as  they  threaten  the  verie  death,  which 
(as  assured  messingers  of  the  same)  are  all  to  the  flesh  full  of  ex- 
treme anguish  and  torments,  although  they  be,  notAvithstanding,  to 
the  spirit  of  the  elect  as  medicines  both  good  and  wholsome  :  for 
by  them  thou  doth  move  us  to  turne  unto  thee  for  our  salvation, 
and  to  call  upon  thee  in  our  afflictions,  to  have  thine  helpe  which 
art  our  deare  and  loving  Father. 

''  In  consideration  Avherof,  avc  most  earnestlie  pray  unto  thee, 
our  good  God,  that  it  Avold  please  thine  infinite  goodness  to  have 
pitie  upon  this  thy  poore  creature  whome  thou  hath,  as  it  were, 
bound  and  tyed  to  the  bed  by  most  greevous  sicknesse,  and  broght 
to  great  extremitie  by  the  heavinesse  of  thine  hand.  O  Lord,  enter 
not  into  accompt  Avith  him,  to  render  the  rcAvard  due  unto  his 
AA'orks :  hot  through  thine  infinite  mercie  remitt  all  his  faults,  for 


the  which  thou  liath  chastised  liim  so  gentlie  ;  and  behold  rather 
the  obedience  which  thy  deare  Sonne,  Christ  Jesus  our  Lord,  hath 
rendered  unto  thee,  to  witt,  the  sacrifice  which  it  pleased  thee  to 
accept  as  a  fiill  recompense  for  all  the  iniquities  of  them  that  re- 
ceave  him  for  then'  justice  and  satisfaction,  yea,  for  their  onlie  Sa- 
viour. Lett  it  please  thee,  O  God,  to  give  him  a  true  zeal  and  af- 
fection to  receave  and  acknowledge  Him  for  his  onlie  Redeemer. 
To  the  end  also  that  thou  mayest  receave  this  sicke  person  to  thy 
mercie,  qualifieng  all  the  troubles  which  his  sinnes,  the  horrour  of 
death,  and  dreadfull  feare  of  the  same,  may  bring  to  his  weake  con- 
science ;  neither  suffer  thou,  O  Lord,  the  assaidts  of  the  mightie 
adversarie  to  prevaile,  or  to  take  frome  him  the  corafoi'table  hope 
of  salvation  which  thou  giveth  to  thy  dearlie  beloved  childrein. 

"  And,  forasmuche  as  we  are  all  subject  to  the  like  state  and  con- 
dition, and  to  be  visited  with  like  battell,  when  it  sail  please  thee 
to  call  us  unto  the  same,  we  beseeche  thee  humblie,  O  Lord,  with 
this  thy  poore  creature,  whome  thou  presentlie  chastiseth,  that 
thou  will  not  extend  thy  rigorous  judgement  against  him  ;  but  that 
thou  wold  vouchsafe  to  show  him  thy  mercie,  for  the  love  of  thy  deare 
Sonne,  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord,  who  having  suffered  the  most  shame- 
full  and  extreme  death  of  the  crosse,  beare  willinglie  the  fault  of 
this  poore  patient,  to  the  end  that  thou  might  acknowledge  him  as 
one  redeemed  with  his  precious  blood,  and  receaved  into  the  com- 
munion of  his  bodie,  to  be  participant  of  eternall  felicitie,  in  the 
companie  of  thy  blessed  angells.  Wherefore,  O  Lord,  dispose  and 
move  his  heart  to  receave,  by  thy  grace,  with  all  meeknesse,  this 
gentle  and  Fatherlie  correctioim,  which  thou  hath  layed  upon  him ; 
that  he  may  endure  it  patientlie,  and  with  willing  obedience ;  sub- 
mitting himself  with  heart  and  minde  to  thy  blessed  AviU,  and  fa- 
vourable mercie,  wherin  thou  now  visiteth  him  after  this  sort,  for 
his  profite  and  salvation.  It  may  please  thy  goodnes,  O  Lord,  to 
assist  him  in  all  his  anguishes  and  trubles.  And  although  the 
tongue  and  voice  be  not  able  to  execute  their  office,  in  this  behalfe, 
to  sett  furth  thy  glorie,  that  yitt,  at  the  least  thou  will  stirre  up  liis 
heart  to  aspire  unto  thee  onlie,  which  are  the  onlie  fountaine  of  all 

l!)(\\.  or  Tin:  K\n\\  ok  scorLAND,  1)7 

goodaes  ;  and  tlmt  thou  fust  roote  ami  sattle  in  his  lu'iirt  the  sweete 
promises  which  thou  hath  made  unto  us  in  Christ  Jesus,  thy  Sonne, 
our  Saviour,  to  the  intent  lie  may  remain  constant  against  all  the 
assaults  and  tumults  which  the  enemie  of  our  salvation  may  raise  up 
to  trouble  his  conscience. 

"  And  seing  it  hath  pleased  thee  that,  by  the  death  of  thy  deare 
Sonne,  life  eternall  sould  be  communicated  unto  us  ;  and  by  the 
shedding  of  his  blood,  the  washing  of  oiu:  sinnes  sould  be  declared  ; 
and  that  by  his  resurrection  also,  both  justice  and  immortalitie 
sould  be  given  us,  it  may  please  thee  to  apply  this  holie  and  whol- 
some  medicine  to  this  thy  poore  creature,  in  suche  extremitie  ;  tak- 
ing frome  him  all  trembling  and  dreadfull  feare,  and  to  give  him  a 
stout  courage  in  the  middest  of  all  his  present  adversities. 

"  And  for  as  muche  as  all  things,  O  Heavenlie  Father,  be  knowen 
unto  thee,  and  thou  can,  according  to  thy  good  pleasure,  minister 
unto  him  all  suche  things  as  sail  be  necessarie  and  expedient,  lett 
it  please  thee,  O  Lord,  so  to  satisfie  him  by  thy  grace,  as  may  seeme 
meete  for  thy  divine  majestic.  Receave  him.  Lord,  into  thy  pro- 
tectioun,  for  he  hath  his  recom'se  and  accesse  unto  thee  alone  ;  and 
make  him  constant  and  firme  in  thy  commandements  and  promises : 
and  also  pardoun  all  his  sinnes,  both  secreit  and  these  which  are  nvd- 
nifest,  by  the  Avhich  he  hath  most  greevouslie  provoked  thy  wrathe 
and  severe  judgements  against  him  ;  so  as,  in  place  of  death,  (the 
which  both  he  and  all  we  have  justlie  merited,)  thou  will  grant 
unto  him  that  blessed  life  which  we  also  attend  and  looke  for,  by 
thy  grace  and  mercie.  Neverthelesse,  O  Heavenlie  Father,  if  thy 
good  pleasure  be,  that  he  sail  yit  live  longer  in  this  world,  it  may 
then  please  thee  to  augment  in  him  thy  graces,  so  as  the  same  may 
serve  unto  thy  glorie ;  yea.  Lord,  to  the  intent  he  may  conforme 
himself  the  moi'e  diligentlie,  and  with  more  carefulnesse,  to  the  ex- 
omple  of  thy  Sonne,  Christ  Jesus  ;  and  that  in  renuncing  himself, 
he  may  cleave  fulHe  to  Him  who,  to  give  consolation  and  hope  to 
all  sinners  to  obtaine  remission  of  all  their  sinnes  and  offenses,  hath 
caried  with  him  into  the  heavens  the  tlieefc  which  was  crucified 
with  him  upon  the  crosse. 

VOL.  II.  CJ 


"  But  if  the  time  by  thee  appointed  be  come,  that  he  sail  depart 
frome  us  unto  thee,  make  him  to  feele  in  his  conscience,  O  Lord,  the 
fruict  and  strenth  of  thy  grace ;  that  thereby  he  may  have  a  new 
taste  of  thy  Fatherlie  care  over  him  frome  the  beginning  of  his  life 
unto  the  verie  end  of  the  same,  for  the  love  of  thy  deare  Sonne, 
Jesus  Christ,  our  Lord. 

"  Give  him  thy  grace,  that  with  a  good  heart,  and  fidl  assurance 
of  faith,  he  may  receave  to  his  consolation  so  great  and  excellent  a 
treasure,  to  witt,  the  remission  of  his  sinnes  in  Christ  Jesus  thy 
Sonne,  who  now  presenteth  him  to  this  poore  persoun  in  distresse, 
by  the  vertue  of  thy  promises  reveeled  unto  him  by  thy  Word, 
which  he  hath  exercised  with  us,  in  thy  church  and  congregation, 
and  also  in  using  the  sacraments  which  thou  therin  hath  established, 
for  confirmatioun  of  all  their  faith  that  trust  in  thee  unfainedlie. 
Lett  true  faith  be  unto  him,  O  Lord,  as  a  most  sure  buckler,  there- 
by to  avoide  the  assaults  of  deatli,  and  more  boldhe  walke  for  the 
advancement  of  eternall  life  to  the  end ;  that  he,  having  a  most 
lyvelie  apprehensioun  therof,  may  rejoyce  with  thee  in  the  heavens 

"  Lett  him  be  under  thy  protection  and  governance,  O  Heavenlie 
Father.  Althogh  he  be  sick,  yitt  can  thou  heale  him :  he  is  cast  doun, 
bot  thou  can  lift  him  up  :  he  is  sore  trubled,  bot  thou  can  send  re- 
dressc  :  he  is  weake,  thou  can  send  strenth  :  he  acknowledgeth  his 
uncleannesse,  his  spots,  his  filthinesse,  and  iniquities,  bvit  thou  can 
washe  him,  and  make  him  cleane  :  he  is  Avounded,  bot  thou  can  mi- 
nister most  soverane  salves :  he  is  fearefuU  and  trembling,  bot  thou 
can  give  good  enrage  and  boldnesse.  To  be  short,  he  is,  as  it  were, 
utterlie  lost,  and  a  strayed  sheepe,  bot  thou  can  call  him  home  to  thee 
againe.  Wherefore,  O  Lord,  seing  that  this  poore  creature  (thine 
owne  workmanship)  resigneth  him  whoUie  into  thy  hands,  receave 
him  into  thy  mercifull  protection.  Also,  we  poore  miserable  crea- 
tures which  are,  as  it  were,  in  the  feild,  readie  to  fight  till  thou 
withdraw  us  frome  the  same,  vouchsafe  to  strenthen  us  by  thine 
Holie  Spirit,  that  we  may  obtaine  the  victorie,  in  thy  name,  against 
our  deidlie  and  mortal!  enemie ;  and,  furthermore,  that  the  afflic- 

l')()l.  OF  TIIK  KIIIK  OK  SCori.AXI).  V>il 

tion  and  the  cuml);ito  ul'tliis  thy  jjoorc  c real  hit,  in  nuhsl  gre'e\ oiis  tor- 
ments, may  move  us  to  humble  ourselves  with  all  reverent  feare  and 
trend>ling  under  thy  mightie  hand,  knowing  that  we  must  appeare 
before  thy  judgement-seate,  when  it  sail  please  thee  so  to  appoint. 
But,  O  Lord,  the  conniption  of  our  fraile  nature  is  suche,  that  we 
are  utterlie  destitute  of  anie  meane  to  appeare  before  thee,  except 
it  please  thee  to  make  us  suche  as  thou  thy  self  requireth  us  to  be ; 
and,  further,  that  thou  give  us  the  spirit  of  meeknes  and  humilitie, 
to  rest  and  stay  whollie  on  these  things  Avhieh  thou  onlie  com- 

"  But  forasmuche  as  we  be  altogether  unworthie  to  enjoy  suche 
bcnefites,  we  beseeche  thee  to  receave  us  in  the  name  of  thy  deare 
Sonne,  our  Lord  and  Master,  in  whose  death  and  satisfaction  stand- 
eth  Avhollie  the  hope  of  our  salvation. 

"  It  may  also  please  thee,  O  Father  of  comfort  and  consolatioun, 
to  strenthen  with  thy  grace  these  which  employ  their  travell  and 
diligence  to  the  aiding  of  this  sicke  person,  that  they  faint  not  by 
overmuche  and  continuall  labour,  bot  rather  to  goe  heartilie  and 
cheerefullic  fordward  in  doing  their  endeavoures  toward  him  :  and 
if  thou  take  him  frome  them,  then  of  thy  goodnesse  to  comfort  tliem, 
so  as  they  may  patientlie  beare  suche  departing,  and  praise  thy 
name  in  all  things.  Also,  O  Ileavenlie  Father,  vouchsafe  to  have 
pitie  on  all  other  sicke  persons,  and  suche  as  be  anie  otherwise 
or  mcanes  afflicted ;  and  also  on  those  who  as  yit  are  ignorant  of 
thy  truthe,  and  appertaine  neverthclesse  unto  thy  kingdome :  in 
like  maner  on  those  that  suffer  persecution,  tormented  in  prisons, 
or  otherwise  trubled  by  the  enemies  of  the  Veritie,  for  bearing  tes- 
timonie  to  the  same :  finallie,  on  all  the  necessities  of  thy  people,  and 
upon  all  the  mines  or  decayes  Avhich  Satan  hath  brought  upon  thy 
eluu'ch.  O  Father  of  mercie,  spread  forth  thy  goodnesse  upon  all 
those  that  be  thine,  that  we,  forsaking  ourselves,  may  be  the  more 
iuihunmcd  and  confirmed  to  rest  onlie  upon  thee  alone.  Giant 
these  our  requests,  O  our  deare  Father,  for  the  love  of  thy  deare 
Somie,  our  Saviour,  .Fesus  Christ,  who  livoth  and  raigneth  with 

100  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

thee  in  unitie  of  the  Hohe  Ghost,  true  God  for  evermore.     So 
be  it." 


The  corps  is  reverentlie  broght  to  the  grave,  accompaneid  with 
the  congregatioun,  without  anie  farther  ceremoneis.  Which  being 
bureid,  the  minister,  if  he  be  present,  and  required,  goeth  to  the 
church,  if  it  be  not  farre  off,  and  maketh  some  comfortable  exhor- 
tation to  the  people  tuiching  death  and  resurrection. 


First,  note,  that  forasmuche  as  it  is  not  permitted  by  God's 
Word  that  weomen  sould  preache,  or  minister  the  sacraments ;  and 
it  is  evident  that  the  sacraments  are  not  ordained  of  God  to  be 
used  in  private  corners,  as  charmes  or  sorcereis ;  but  left  to  the 
congregation,  and  necessarilie  annexed  to  God's  Word,  as  scales  of 
the  same ;  therefore,  the  infant  which  is  to  be  baptized  sail  be 
broght  to  the  chm'ch,  on  the  day  appointed  to  commoun  prayer  and 
preaching,  accompaneid  with  the  father  and  god-father :  so  that, 
after  the  sermon,  the  childe  being  presented  to  the  minister,  he  de- 
mandeth  this  questioun : 

"  Doe  you  heere  present  this  childe  to  be  baptized,  earnestlie 
desiring  that  he  may  be  engrafted  in  the  mysticall  bodie  of  Jesus 

The  ansioere. — "  Yea,  we  require  the  same." 

The  minister  proceedeth : 

"  Then  lett  us  consider,  dearelie  beloved,  how  Almightie  God 
hath  not  onlie  made  us  his  childrein  by  adoption,  (Kom.  viii. ;  Ga- 
lat.  iv. ;  Eph.  i.,)  and  receaved  us  into  the  fellowship  of  his  church, 
but  also  hath  promised,  that  he  Avill  be  our  God,  and  the  God  of 
our  childrein,  unto  the  thowsand  generation.  Gen.  xvii. ;  Isa.  Ivi. 
AVhich  things,  as  he  confirmed  to  his  people  of  the  Old  Testament 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  101 

by  the  sacrament  of  Circumcision,  so  hath  he  also  renewed  the  same 
to  us  in  his  New  Testament  by  the  sacrament  of  Baptisme,  do- 
ing us  thereby  to  witt,  that  our  infants  appertaine  to  him  by  cove- 
nant, and,  therefore,  ought  not  to  be  defrauded  of  those  holie  signes 
and  badges,  whereby  his  childrein  are  knowen  from  infidels  and  pa- 
gans, Gen.  xvii. ;  Col.  ii. ;  Acts  x. 

"  Neither  is  it  requisite,  that  all  these  that  receave  this  sacra- 
ment have  the  use  of  understanding  and  faith  ;  bot  cheeflie  that 
they  be  contained  under  the  name  of  God's  people,  so  that,  remis- 
sion of  sinnes  in  the  blood  of  Christ  Jesus  doth  apf)ertaine  unto 
them  by  God's  promise  ;  wliich  thing  is  most  evident  by  Sanct 
Paul,  who  pronounceth  the  childrein  begotten  and  borne  (either  of 
the  parents  being  faithfull)  to  be  cleane  and  holie,  1  Cor.  vii.  Also 
our  Saviour  Christ  admitteth  childrein  to  his  presence,  embracing 
and  blessing  them,  Mark  x. ;  Matt.  x. ;  Luke  xviii. ;  Psal.  xxii. 
Which  testimonies  of  the  Holie  Ghost  assure  us,  that  infants  be  of 
the  number  of  God's  people,  and  that  remission  of  sinnes  doth  also 
appertaine  to  them  in  Christ.  Therefore,  without  injurie  they  can- 
not be  debarred  frome  the  commoun  signe  of  God's  childrein.  And 
yit  is  not  this  outward  action  of  suche  necessitie,  that  the  lacke 
therof  sould  be  hurtfull  to  their  salvation,  if  that,  prevented  by 
death,  they  may  not  convenientlie  be  presented  to  the  church. 
But  we  (having  respect  to  that  obedience  which  Christians  owe  to 
the  voice  and  ordinance  of  Christ  Jesus,  who  commanded  to  preach 
and  baptize  all,  without  exceptioun)  doe  judge  them  onlie  unwor- 
thie  of  anie  fellowship  with  him,  who  contemptuouslie  refuse  suche 
ordinarie  meanes  as  his  wisdome  hath  appointed  to  the  instruction 
of  our  dull  senses,  Mar.  xvi. ;  Matt.  xxi. 

"  Furthennore,  it  is  evident,  that  baptisme  was  ordained  to  be 
ministred  in  the  element  of  water,  to  teache  us,  that  like  as  water 
outwardlie  doth  wash  away  the  filth  of  the  bodie,  so,  inwardlio, 
doth  the  vertue  of  Christ's  blood  purge  our  soules  frome  that  cor- 
ruptioun,  and  dcadlic  poysoun,  whci'cwith  by  nature  we  Averc  infect- 
ed ;  Avhose  venemous  dreggcs,  althogh  they  continue  in  this  our  flesh, 
yit,  by  the  merits  of  his  death,  are  not  imputed  unto  us,  becaus 

102  calderwood's  msToiJiE  15(51. 

the  justice  of  Jesus  Christ  is  made  ours  by  baptisiue,  ]\Iatt.  v. ; 
1  Pet.  v.;  1  Johne  v.;  1  Cor.  x.;  Eph.  ii.  Not  that  Ave  thinke  anie 
siiche  vertue  or  power  to  be  included  in  the  visible  water,  or  out- 
ward action  ;  for  nianie  have  beene  baptized,  and  yit  never  inward- 
lie  purged ;  but  that  our  Saviour,  Christ,  who  commanded  baptisme 
to  be  ministred,  will,  by  the  power  of  his  Holie  Spirit,  effectuallie 
vrorke  in  the  hearts  of  his  elect,  in  time  convenient,  all  that  is  meant 
and  signified  by  the  same.  And  this  the  Scripture  calleth  our  rege- 
neration, which  standeth  cheefelie  in  these  two  points  :  in  mortifica- 
tion, that  is  to  say,  a  resisting  of  the  rebellious  lusts  of  the  flesh ; 
and  in  newnes  of  life,  whereby  Ave  continuallie  sti'ive  to  walke  in 
that  purencsse  and  perfection  wherewith  Ave  are  cled  in  baptisme. 

"  And  althogh  we,  in  the  journey  of  this  life,  be  encumbered 
Avith  manie  enemies,  which,  in  the  way,  assaile  us,  yit  fight  avc  not 
Avithout  fruict.  For  this  continuall  battell  Avhich  avc  fight  against 
sinne,  death,  and  hell,  is  a  most  infallible  argument,  that  God  the 
Father,  mindefull  of  his  promise  made  unto  us  in  Clmst  Jesus, 
doth  not  onlie  give  us  motions  and  curage  to  resist  them,  bot  also 
assurance  to  OA'ercome,  and  obtaine  Adctorie.  Wherefore,  dearelie 
beloved,  it  is  not  of  necessitie  onlie  that  Ave  be  once  baptized  : 
but  also,  it  muche  profiteth  oft  to  be  present  at  the  ministration 
thereof,  that  Ave  (being  putt  in  minde  of  the  league  and  coA^enant 
made  betweenc  God  and  us,  that  he  Avill  be  our  God,  and  we  his 
people  ;  he  our  Father,  and  we  his  childrein)  may  have  occasioun  as 
Aveill  to  trie  our  lives  past,  as  our  present  couA^ersation ;  and  to 
prove  ourselves,  Avhether  avc  stand  fast  in  the  faith  of  God's  elect, 
or  contrariwise  liaA'e  strayed  frome  him,  through  incredulitie  and  un- 
godlie  living,  Jer.  xxxi. ;  Heb.  viii.,  vi.  Wherof  if  oiir  consciences 
doe  accuse  us,  yit,  by  hearing  the  loving  promises  of  our  heavenlie 
Father,  (Avho  calleth  all  men  to  mercie  by  repentance,)  avc  may, 
frome  henceforth,  Avalke  more  Avarilie  in  our  vocatioun.  Moreover, 
yee  tliat  be  fathers  and  mothers,  may  take  heereby  most  singular 
comfort,  to  see  your  childrein  thus  receaved  into  the  bosome  of 
Christ's  congregation  ;  Avhercby  you  arc  daylie  admonished,  that  yee 
luu'ishe  and  bring  up  the  childrein  ol' God's  iavour  and  inercie,  over 

loGl.  OF  Till':  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  lO,') 

wliome  his  Fatherlie  providence  watclieth  continuallie.  Which 
thing,  as  it  ought  greatlic  to  rcjoyce  you,  knowing  that  nothing  can 
come  unto  them  without  his  good  pleasure,  so  ought  it  to  make 
you  diligent  and  carefull  to  nurture  and  instruct  them  in  the  true 
knowledge  and  feare  of  God ;  wherin,  if  yee  be  negligent,  yee 
doe  not  onlic  injurie  unto  your  childrein,  hiding  frome  them  the 
good  will  and  pleasure  of  Almightie  God,  their  Father,  but  also 
heape  damnation  upon  yourselves,  in  suffering  his  childrein,  bought 
Avith  the  blood  of  his  dearc  Sonne,  so  traterouslic  for  lacke  of 
knowledge  to  turne  backe  frome  him.  Therefore,  it  is  your  duetie, 
with  all  diligence  to  provide  that  your  childrein,  in  time  convenient, 
be  instmcted  in  all  doctrine  nccessarie  for  a  true  Christian  :  cheefe- 
lie,  that  they  be  taught  to  rest  upon  the  justice  of  Christ  Jesus 
alone,  and  to  abhorre  and  flee  all  superstitioun,  Papistrie,  and 
idolatrie.  Finallie,  To  the  intent  that  we  may  be  assured,  that 
you,  the  father  and  the  suretie,  consent  to  the  performance  heerof, 
declare  heere,  before  the  face  of  his  congregation,  the  summc  of 
that  faith  wherin  you  beleeve,  and  mil  instruct  this  childe." 

Then  the  father,  or,  in  his  absence,  the  god-father,  sail  rehearse 
the  articles  of  his  faith ;  which  done,  the  minister  exponeth  the 
same,  as  after  followeth  : — 

"  The  Christiane  faith,  Avherof  yee  have  now  breeflie  heard  the 
summe,  is  commounlie  divided  in  twelve  articles  ;  but  that  Ave  may 
the  better  understand  what  is  conteaned  in  the  same,  Ave  sail  divide 
it  into  foure  principal  parts.  The  first  sail  concerne  God  the  Fa- 
ther ;  the  secund,  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord ;  the  thrid  sail  expresse 
unto  us  our  faith  in  the  Plolie  Ghost ;  and  the  fourth  and  last  sail 
declare  what  is  our  faith  concerning  the  church,  and  of  the  graces 
of  God  freelie  given  unto  the  same. 

/  hcleeve  in  God,  the  Father  Almightie,  Maker  of  heaven  and  earth. 

"  Fii'st,  of  God  Ave  confesse  three  things,  to  Avitt,  that  he  is  our 
Father,  Almightie,  Maker  of  heaven  and  earth.  Our  Father  avc 
call  him,  and  so  by  faith  beleeve  him  to  be,  not  so  nmclic  bocaus 
he  Iiath  created  us,  (for  that  Ave  have  conmioun  Avitli   the  rest  of 

104  CALDERWOOD's  HLSTOlilE  1561. 

creatures,  who  yit  are  not  called  to  that  honour,  to  have  God  to 
them  a  favourable  Father ;)  but  Ave  call  him  Father,  by  reason  of 
his  free  adoption,  by  the  which  he  hath  chosen  us  to  life  everlast- 
ing in  Jesus  Christ.  And  this  his  most  singular  mercie  we  pre- 
ferre  to  all  things  earthlie  and  transitorie.  For  without  this,  there 
is  to  mankinde  no  felicitie,  no  comfort,  nor  finall  joy ;  and  having 
this  we  are  assured,  that  by  the  same  love  by  the  which  He  once 
hath  freelie  chosen  us,  he  sail  conduct  the  whole  course  of  our  life ; 
that  in  the  end,  Ave  sail  possesse  that  immortaU  kingdome  that  he 
hath  prepared  for  his  chosin  childrein.  For  frome  this  fountaine 
of  God's  free  mercie,  or  adoption,  springeth  our  vocatioun,  our 
continuall  sanctificatioun,  and,  finailie,  our  glorificatioun,  as  wit- 
nesseth  the  apostle,  Rom.  viii. 

"  The  same  God,  our  Father,  we  confesse  Almightie,  not  onlie 
in  respect  of  that  he  may  doe,  but  in  consideration,  that  by  his 
power  and  godlie  wisdome  are  all  creatures  in  heaven  and  earth, 
and  under  the  earth,  ruled,  guided,  and  keeped  in  that  order  that 
his  eternall  knoAvledge  and  will  hath  appointed  them.  And  that  is 
it  which  in  the  thrid  part  we  doe  confesse,  that  he  is  Creator  of 
heaven  and  earth ;  that  is  to  say,  that  the  heaven,  and  the  earth, 
and  the  contents  thereof,  are  so  in  his  hands,  that  there  is  nothing 
done  without  his  knowledge,  neither  yitt  against  his  will,  but  that 
he  ruleth  them  so,  that  in  end  his  godlie  name  sail  be  glorified  in 
them.  And  so,  we  confesse  and  beleeve,  that  neither  the  devills, 
nor  yit  the  wicked  of  the  world,  have  anie  power  to  molest  or 
trouble  the  chosin  childrein  of  God,  but  in  so  farre  as  it  pleaseth 
him  to  use  them  as  instruments,  either  to  prove  and  trie  our  fiith 
and  patience,  or  elles  to  stirre  us  to  more  fervent  invocatioun  of 
his  name,  and  to  continuall  meditatioun  of  that  heavenlie  rest  and 
joy  that  abideth  us  after  these  transitorie  trubles.  And  yit  sail  not 
this  excuse  the  Avicked,  becaus  they  neither  looke  in  their  iniquitie 
to  please  God,  nor  yit  to  obey  his  Avill. 

And  in  Jcsns  Christ,  his  onlie  Sonne,  our  Lord, 
"  In  Jesus  Christ  avc  confesse  two  distinct  and  pcri'cct  natures. 

15G1.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  8COTI>ANI).  105 

to  witt,  the  eternall  Godhead  and  the  perfect  manhead  joyned  to- 
gether ;  so  that  we  confesse  and  beleeve,  tliat  that  eternall  Word, 
which  was  fronie  the  beginning,  and  by  the  which  all  things  Avere 
created,  and  yit  are  conserved  and  keeped  in  their  being,  did,  in 
the  time  appointed  in  the  counsell  of  his  heavenlie  Father,  receave 
our  nature  of  a  Virgin,  by  operation  of  the  Holie  Ghost. 

Conceaved  hy  the  HoUe  Ghost. 

"  So  that  in  his  conceptioun  Ave  acknowledge  and  beleeve,  tliat 
there  is  nothing  but  puritie  and  sanctification,  yea,  even  in  so 
muche  as  he  is  become  our  brother.  For  it  behoved  him  that  sould 
purge  others  frome  their  sinnes  to  be  pvire,  and  cleane  frome  all 
spott  of  sinne,  even  frome  his  conception.  And  as  Ave  confesse 
and  belecA^e  him  conceaved  by  the  Holie  Ghost,  so  doe  Ave  confesse 
and  beleeve  him  to  be  borne  of  a  Virgine,  named  Marie,  of  the 
tribe  of  Juda,  and  of  the  famihe  of  David,  that  the  promise  of  God 
and  the  prophecie  might  be  fulfilled,  to  AA'itt,  '  That  the  seed  of  the 
Avoman  sail  breake  doun  the  serpent's  head ;'  and  that  '  A  Virgine 
sould  conceave,  and  beare  a  childe,  Avhose  name  sould  be  Immanuel, 
that  is  to  say,  God  Avith  us,'  Isa.  vii.  The  name  of  Jesus,  signifieng 
a  Saviour,  was  given  to  him  by  the  angell,  to  assure  us,  that  it  is 
he  alone  that  '  saveth  his  people  frome  their  sinnes,'  Matt.  i.  He  is 
called  Christ,  that  is,  anointed,  by  reasoun  of  the  offices  given  him  by 
God  his  Father ;  to  Avitt,  that  he  alone  is  appointed  King,  Freest, 
and  Prophet.  King,  in  that,  that  all  poAver  is  given  to  him  in  heaA  en 
and  earth,  so  that  there  is  none  other  but  He  in  heaven  or  earth 
that  hath  just  authoritie  and  power  to  make  laAves  to  binde  the 
consciences  of  men  ;  neither  yitt  is  there  anie  other  may  de- 
fend our  soules  frome  the  boundage  of  sinne,  nor  yitt  our  bodies 
frome  the  tyrannic  of  man.  And  this  He  doeth  by  the  poAver  of 
his  Word,  by  the  Avhich  he  draweth  us  out  of  the  boundage  and 
slaverie  of  Satan,  and  maketh  us  to  raigne  over  sinne,  Avliiles  that 
we  live,  and  serve  our  God  in  righteousnes  and  holines  of  our  Hfe. 
A  Freest,  and  tliat  perpetuall  and  CACrlasting,  we  confesse  him, 
becaus  that,  by  the  sacrifice  of  lii-  ow  ne  bodie,  Avhich  he  once  of- 

106  cai.deuwood's  msTOKiK  15G1. 

fered  up  upon  the  orosse,  he  hath  fullie  satisfied  the  justice  of  liis 
Father  in  our  behalfe ;  so  tliat  whosoever  seeketli  auie  meanes  be- 
sides his  death  and  passioun,  in  heaven  or  in  earth,  to  reconcile 
unto  them  God's  favour,  they  doe  not  onlie  blaspheme,  bot  also,  so 
farre  as  in  them  is,  renunce  the  fruict  and  eflficacie  of  that  his  onlie 
one  sacrifice.  We  confesse  him  to  be  the  onlie  Prophet,  who  had 
reveeled  unto  us  the  wdiole  will  of  his  Father  in  all  things  pertain- 
ing to  our  salvatioun.  This  our  Lord  Jesus  Ave  confesse  to  be  the 
onlie  Sonne  of  God,  becaus  there  is  none  suche  by  nature  bot  he 
alone.  We  confesse  him  also  our  Lord,  not  onlie  by  reason  we  are 
his  creatures,  but  cheefelie  becaus  he  hath  redeemed  us  by  his  pre- 
cious blood,  and  so  hath  gotten  just  dominioun  over  us,  as  over  the 
people  whome  he  hath  delivered  frome  the  bondage  of  sinne,  death, 
hell,  and  the  divell,  and  hath  made  us  kings  and  preests  to  God 
his  Father. 

Suffered  under  Pontius  Pilate,  loas  crucified. 

"  We  farther  confesse  and  beleeve,  that  the  same  our  Lord  Jesus 
Avas  accused  before  an  earthlie  judge,  Pontius  Pilate,  under  Avhom, 
albeit  oft  and  diverse  times  he  Avas  pronounced  to  be  innocent,  he 
suffered  the  death  of  the  crosse,  hanged  upon  a  tree  betAvixt  two 
theeves.  Which  death,  as  it  Avas  most  cruell  and  vile  before  the 
eyes  of  men,  so  Avas  it  accursed  by  the  mouth  of  G  od  himself,  say- 
ing, '  Cursed  is  everie  one  that  hangeth  on  a  tree.' 

Died,  and  hurled,  and  descended  Into  hell. 

"  And  this  kinde  of  death  sustained  he  in  our  persoun,  becaus 
lie  was  appointed  of  God  his  Father  to  be  our  pledge,  and  he  that 
sould  beare  the  punishment  of  our  transgressiouns.  And  so  Ave  ac- 
knoAvledge  and  beleeve,  that  he  hath  taken  aAvay  that  curse  and 
malediction  that  hanged  on  us  by  reasoun  of  sinne.  He  verilie 
died,  rendering  up  his  spirit  into  the  hands  of  his  Father,  after  that 
he  had  said,  '  Father,  into  thy  hands  1  conunend  my  spirit.'  After 
his  death,  avc  confesse  his  bodic  Avns  buried,  and  that  he  descended 
to  the  hell. 

l/)*i1.  OF   jm:  KIKK  OF  SC'OTLAN'I).  107 

The  tlirid  day  he  rose  again  from  the  dead. 

"  But  bccaus  lie  Avas  the  Author  of  Life,  yea,  tlic  vcrie  life  it 
selfj  it  was  impossible  that  he  souhl  be  retained  under  the  dolours 
of  death.  And,  therefore,  the  thrid  day  he  rose  agane,  victor  and 
conqueror  of  death  and  licll ;  by  the  Avhich  his  resurrectioun  he 
hath  brought  life  againe  to  the  Avorld,  which  he  by  the  poAver  of 
his  Holic  Spirit  conimtuiicateth  unto  his  livelie  members,  so  that 
noAv  imto  them  corporal]  death  is  no  death,  but  an  entrance  into 
that  blessed  life  AA'herin  our  Head,  Jesus  Christ,  is  noAv  entered. 

//(?  aseended  into  heaven^  and  sitteth  on  the  rigid  liand  of  God,  the 
Father  Almightie. 

"  For  after  that  he  had  sufficientlie  proA'cd  his  resurrectioun  to 
his  disciples,  and  unto  suche  as  constantlie  did  abide  Avith  him  to 
the  death,  he  A'isiblie  ascended  into  the  heaven,  and  Avas  taken 
frome  the  eyes  of  men,  and  placed  at  the  right  hand  of  God,  the 
Father  Almightie,  Avhere  presentlie  he  rcmaineth  in  his  glorie, 
onlie  Head,  onlie  Mediator,  and  onlie  Advocat,  for  all  the  members 
of  his  bodie.  Of  which  Ave  have  most  espcciall  comfort.  First,  for 
that  by  his  ascension,  the  heavens  arc  opened  to  us,  and  entrance 
made  unto  us,  that  boldlie  Ave  may  appeare  before  the  throne  of 
our  Fathers  mercie  ;  and,  Secundarilie,  that  avc  knoAv  that  his 
honour  and  authoritie  is  given  to  Jesus  Christ,  our  Head,  in  our 
name,  and  for  our  profite  and  utilitie.  For  albeit  that  in  bodic  he 
noAV  be  in  heaAcn,  yitt,  by  the  poAver  of  his  Spirit,  he  is  ])rescnt 
heere  AAuth  us,  as  Aveill  to  instruct  us,  as  to  maintuine  and  comfort 
us  in  all  our  trubles  and  adversities;  frome  the  which  he  sail 
finallie  deliver  his  Avhole  church,  and  everic  true  member  of  the 
same,  in  that  day  Avhen  he  sail  visiblie  appeare  againe.  Judge  of  the 
quicke  and  the  dead. 

From  thence  lie  sail  come  to  judge  the  quicke  and  the  dead. 
"For  this  finallie  avc  confcsse  of  our  Jjord  Jesus  Christ,  that  as 

108  CALDEK wood's  histokie  1561. 

he  was  seene  visiblie  to  ascend,  and  so  left  the  world  as  tuiching 
that  bodie  that  suffered  and  rose  againe,  so  do  we  constantlie  be- 
leeve  that  he  sail  come  frome  the  right  hand  of  his  Father,  when  all 
eyes  sail  see  him,  yea,  even  those  that  have  pierced  him.  And  then 
sail  be  gathered,  as  weill  those  that  then  sail  be  found  alive,  as  those 
that  before  have  sleeped.  Separatioun  sail  be  made  betwixt  the 
lambes  and  the  goates,  that  is  to  say,  betwixt  the  elect  and  the  re- 
probate. The  one  sallheare  this  joyfull  voice,  '  Come,  yee  blessed 
of  my  Father,  possesse  the  kingdome  that  is  prepared  for  you  be- 
fore the  beginning  of  the  Avorld ;'  the  other  sail  heare  that  fearefull 
and  irrevocable  sentence,  '  Depart  frome  me,  ye  workers  of  iniqui- 
tie,  to  the  fire  that  never  sail  be  quenched.'  And  for  this  cause, 
this  day  in  the  Scripture  is  called  the  day  of  refreshing,  and  of  the 
revelation  of  all  secreits,  becaus  that  then  the  just  sail  be  delivered 
from  all  miseries,  and  sail  be  possessed  in  the  fulnes  of  their  glorie  : 
contrariwise,  the  reprobate  sail  receave  judgement  and  recompense 
of  all  their  impietie,  be  it  openlie  or  secreitlie  Avrought. 

I  beleeve  in  the  Holie  Ghost. 

"As  we  constantlie  beleeve  in  God  the  Father,  and  in  Jesus 
Christ,  as  before  is  said,  so  we  doe  assuredlie  beleeve  In  the  Holie 
Ghost,  whom  we  confesse  God,  equal  with  the  Father  and  the 
Sonne ;  by  whose  working  and  mightie  operation  our  darknes  is  re- 
moved, our  spirituall  eyes  are  illuminated,  our  soules  and  con- 
sciences sprinkled  with  the  blood  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  we  retained 
in  the  truthe  of  God,  even  to  our  lives'  end.  And  for  these  causes 
we  understand,  that  this  eternall  Spirit,  proceiding  frome  the  Fa- 
ther and  the  Sonne,  hath  in  the  Scriptures  diverse  names.  Some- 
times called  Water,  by  reason  of  his  purgation,  and  giving  strenth 
to  this  our  corrupt  nature  to  bring  furth  good  fruicte,  without 
whom  this  our  nature  sould  utterlie  be  barren,  yea,  it  sould  utterlie 
abound  in  all  wickednes.  Sometimes  the  same  Spirit  is  called  Fire, 
by  reason  of  the  illumination,  and  burning  heate  of  fire  that  he 
kindleth  in   our  hearts.     The  same  Spirit  is?   called  also  Oylc,  or 

1561.  OF  THE  KIUK  OF  SCOTLAND.  1  U'.l 

Unction,  by  reason  that  his  woikiug-  niollifieth  the  hardnes  of"  our 
heart,  and  maketh  us  receave  the  print  of  that  image  of  Jesus  by 
whom  onlie  we  are  sanctified. 

The  HoUe  Catholick  CJiurdi,  the  Communioii  of  Sands. 

"We  constantlie  beleeve  that  there  is,  was,  and  saU  be,  even  till  the 
commmg  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  a  church  which  is  liolie  and  universal!, 
to  witt,  the  Communion  of  Saucts.  This  church  is  holie,  becaus  it 
receaveth  fi-ee  remission  of  sinnes,  and  that  by  faitli  onlie  in  the 
blood  of  Jesus  Christ.  Secundlie,  becaus  it  being  regenerate,  it 
receaveth  the  vSpirit  of  sanctification,  and  power  to  walke  in  new- 
nesse  of  life,  and  in  good  Avorkes,  which  God  hath  prepared  for  his 
chosen  to  walke  in.  Not  that  we  thinke  the  justice  of  this  church, 
or  anie  member  of  the  same,  ever  was,  is,  or  yitt  sail  be,  so  full  or 
perfect,  that  it  needeth  not  to  stoupe  under  mercie ;  but  that,  be- 
caus the  imperfections  are  pardoned,  and  the  justice  of  Jesus  Christ 
imputed  to  suche  as  by  true  faith  cleave  unto  him :  which  church 
we  call  universall,  becaus  it  consisteth  and  standetli  of  all  tongues 
and  nations,  yea,  of  aU  estats  and  conditions  of  men  and  Aveomen 
whom,  of  his  mercie,  God  calleth  frome  darknes  to  light,  and  frome 
the  boundage  and  thraldome  of  sinne,  to  his  spii-ituall  service  and 
puritie  of  life ;  unto  whome  he  also  communicateth  his  Holie  Spirit, 
giving  unto  them  one  faith,  one  Head  and  soveraigne  Lord,  the 
Lord  Jesus,  one  baptisme,  and  right  use  of  sacraments ;  whose  heart 
also  he  knitteth  together  in  love  and  Christiane  concord. 

The  Forgivenesse  of  Sinnes,  the  Resurrection  of  the  Bodie,  and  Life 


"  To  this  church,  holie  and  universall,  we  acknowledge  and  be- 
leeve three  notable  gifts  to  be  granted  ;  to  witt,  remission  of  sinnes, 
which  by  ti*ue  faith  must  be  obtained  in  this  life.  Resurrection  of 
the  flesh,  which  all  sail  have,  albeit  not  in  equall  condition ;  for  the 
reprobat,  as  before  is  said,  sail  rise  bot  to  fearefull  judgement  and 
condemnation,  and  the  just  sail  rise  to  be  possessed  in  glorie.  And 
this  resurrection  sail  not  be  an  imagination,  or  that  one  bodie  sail 


rise  for  another,  but  everie  nmn  still  receuve  in  his  owne  bodie  as 
he  hath  deserved,  be  it  good  or  evill.  The  just  sail  receave  the  life 
everlasting,  wliich  is  the  free  gift  of  God,  given  and  piu'chased  to 
his  chosen  by  Jesus  Christ,  our  onlie  Head  and  Mediator;  to 
Avhome,  with  the  Father,  and  the  Holie  Ghost,  be  all  honour  and 
glorie,  noAv  and  ever.     Amen." 

Then  foUoweth  this  prayer : 

"Almightie  and  everlasting  God,  which  of  thine  infinite  mercie 
and  goodnes  hath  promised  unto  us,  that  thou  will  not  onUe  be  our 
God,  but  also  the  God  and  Fatlier  of  our  children ;  we  beseeche 
thee,  that  as  thou  hath  vouchsafed  to  caU  us  to  be  partakers  of  this 
thy  great  mercie  in  the  felloAvship  of  faith,  so  it  may  please  thee  to 
sanctifie  with  thy  Spirit,  and  to  receave  into  the  number  of  thy 
childrein  this  infant,  whome  we  sail  baptize  according  to  thy  Word  ; 
to  the  end  that  he,  comming  to  perfyte  age,  may  confesse  thee  onlie 
the  true  God,  and  whome  thou  hath  sent,  Jesus  Christ :  and  so 
serve  liim,  and  be  profitable  vmto  his  church,  in  the  whole  course 
of  his  life,  that,  after  his  life  ended,  he  may  be  broght,  as  a  livelie 
member  of  his  bodie,  unto  the  full  fruition  of  thy  joyes  in  the 
heavens,  where  thy  Sonne,  our  Saviour,  Christ  reigneth,  world  with- 
out end :  in  whose  name  we  pray,  as  he  hath  taught  us.  Our  Fa- 
ther," &c. 

When  they  have  prayed  in  this  sort,  the  minister  requireth  the 
child's  name ;  which  knowen,  he  sayeth,  "  N.,  I  baptize  thee  in  the 
name  of  the  Father,  of  the  Sonne,  and  of  the  Holie  Ghost." — 
Matt,  xviii. ;  Mark  xvi. ;  Acts  ii. 

And  as  he  speeketh  these  Avords,  he  taketli  water  in  his  hand, 
and  layeth  it  upon  the  childe's  forehead  :  Avhich  done,  he  givetli 
thanks,  as  followeth  :— 

"  Forasmuch,  most  holie  and  mercifull  Father,  as  thou  doth  not 
onlie  beautifie  and  blesse  us  with  commoun  benefites,  like  unto  the 
rest  of  mankinde,  bot  also  heapeth  upon  us  most  abundantlie  rare 
and  wonderfull  gifts  ;  of  duetie  we  lift  up  our  eyes  and  mindes  unto 
thee,  and  give  thee  most  humble  thanks  for  thy  infinite  goodnes, 
which  hath  not  onlie  numbred  us  among  thy  sancts,  bot  also  of  thy 

15G1.  OF  TlIK  KIRK  OK  SCOTLAND.  1  1  1 

free  inercie  doth  call  our  cliildreiu  unto  tlioe,  marking  them  Avitli 
this  sacrament,  as  a  singular  token  and  badge  of  thy  love.  Where- 
fore, most  loving  Father,  thogli  Ave  be  not  able  to  deserve  this  so 
great  a  benefite ;  yea,  if  thou  would  handle  us  according  to  our 
merites,  we  sould  suffer  the  punishment  of  eternall  death  and  dam- 
nation, yit,  for  Christ's  sake,  we  beseeche  thee,  that  thou  will  con- 
firme  this  thy  favour  more  and  more  toward  us,  and  take  this 
infant  in  thy  tuition  and  defense,  whomc  we  offer  and  present  unto 
thee,  with  commoun  supplications.  And  never  suffer  him  to  fall  in 
suche  unkindnes,  whereby  he  sould  lose  the  force  of  baptisme  ;  but 
that  he  may  perceave  thee  continuallie  to  be  his  mercifull  Father, 
throgh  thine  Holie  Spirit  working  in  his  heart,  by  whose  divine 
power  he  may  so  prevaile  against  Satan,  that  in  the  end,  obtaining 
the  victorie,  he  may  be  exalted  into  the  libertie  of  thy  kingdome. 
So  be  it." 

The  maner  of  the  LorcVs  Supper. 

The  day  when  the  Lord's  Supper  is  ministred,  Avhich  connnounlie 
is  used  once  a  moneth,  or  so  oft  as  the  congregation  sail  think  ex- 
pedient, the  minister  usetli  to  say  as  followeth  : — 

"  Lett  us  marke,  deare  brethrein,  and  consider,  how  Jesus  Christ 
did  ordaine  unto  us  his  holie  Supper,  according  as  Sanct  Paul  mak- 
eth  rehearsall,  in  the  eleventh  chapter  of  the  First  Epistle  to  the 
Corinthians,  saying,  '  I  have  reccaved  of  the  Lord  that  which  I 
have  delivered  unto  you,  to  Avitt,  that  the  Lord  Jesus,  the  same 
night  that  he  was  betrayed,  tooke  bread  ;  and  when  he  had  given 
thanks,  he  brake  it,  saying.  Take  yee,  eate  yee ;  this  is  my  bodie 
which  is  broken  for  you :  doe  yee  this  in  remembrance  of  me.  Like- 
Avise  after  supper  he  tooke  the  cuppe,  saying.  This  cuppe  is  the 
ncAv  testament,  or  covenant,  in  my  blood  ;  doe  yee  this,  so  oft  as  yee 
sail  drinke  thereof,  in  remembrance  of  me.  For  so  oft  as  yee  sail 
eate  this  bread,  and  drinke  of  this  cuppe,  yee  sail  declare  the  Lord's 
death  untill  his  comming.  Therefore,  Avhosoever  sail  eate  this 
bread,  and  drinke  of  the  cuppe  of  the  Lord,  unAvorthilie,  he  sail  be 
guiltie  of  the  bodie  and  blood  of  tlie  Lord.     Then  sec  that  everie 

11::^  CALDERWOOD's  HISTORIE  '  ]r)Gl. 

in:in  prove  and  trie  himself,  and  so  lett  liini  eate  of  this  bread,  and 
drinke  of  this  cuppe  :  for  Avhosoever  eateth  and  drinketh  unwor- 
thihc,  he  eateth  and  drinketh  liis  owne  damnation,  for  not  having 
due  regard  and  consideration  of  the  Lord's  bodie.'" 

This  done,  the  minister  proceedeth  to  the  exhortation  : — 

"  Dearelie  beloved  in  the  Lord,  forasmuche  as  we  be  now  as- 
sembled, to  celebrate  the  holie  communion  of  the  bodie  and  blood 
of  our  Saviour  Christ,  lett  us  consider  these  words  of  Sanct  Paul, 
how  he  exhorteth  all  persons  diligentlie  to  trie  and  examine  them- 
sehes,  before  they  presume  to  eate  of  that  bread,  and  drinke  of 
that  cuppe.  For  as  the  benefite  is  great,  if  Avith  a  true  penitent 
heart,  and  livelie  faith,  we  receave  that  holie  sacrament,  (for  then 
we  spirituaUie  eate  the  flesh  of  Christ,  and  drinke  his  blood  :  then 
we  dwell  in  Christ,  and  Christ  in  us ;)  so  is  the  danger  great  if  we 
receave  the  same  unworthilie  :  for  then  we  be  guiltie  of  the  bodie 
and  blood  of  Christ  our  Saviour,  and  eate  and  drinke  our  owne 
damnation,  not  considering  the  Lord's  bodie  ;  we  kindle  God's 
wrath  against  us,  and  provoke  him  to  plague  us  with  diverse  dis- 
eases, and  sindrie  kindes  of  death. 

"  And,  therefore,  in  the  name  and  authoritie  of  the  eternall  God, 
and  of  his  Sonne,  Jesus  Christ,  I  excommunicate  frome  this  table 
all  blasphemers  of  God,  all  idolaters  and  murtherers,  all  adulterers, 
all  that  be  in  malice  or  envie,  all  disobedient  persons  to  father  or 
mother,  princes  or  magistrats,  pastors  or  preachers,  all  theeves  and 
deceavers  of  their  nighbours,  and,  finallie,  all  suche  as  (leade)  a  life 
directlie  fighting  against  the  will  of  God ;  charging  them,  as  they 
will  answere  in  the  presence  of  Him  who  is  the  righteous  Judge, 
that  they  presume  not  to  profane  this  most  holie  table.  And  yit, 
this  Ave  pronunce,  not  to  seclude  anie  penitent  person,  how  gree- 
vous  so  ever  his  sinnes  before  have  beene,  so  that  he  feele  in  his 
heart  unfained  repentance  for  the  same ;  hot  onlie  suche  as  con- 
tinue in  sinne  without  repentance.  Neither  yit  is  this  pronunced 
against  such  as  aspire  to  a  greater  perfection  than  they  can  in  this 
life  attaine  unto. 

"  For  albeit  we  feele  in  ourselves  muche  frailtie  and  wretched- 

1561.  OF  Tin:  KIUK  OF  SCOTLAND.  113 

ncs  ;  as  that  we  have  not  our  faith  so  pcrfyte  and  constant  as  we 
onght,  being  manic  times  reailie  to  distrust  God's  goodncs,  through 
our  corrupt  nature  ;  and  also,  that  we  are  not  so  throughlie  given  to 
serve  God,  neither  have  so  fervent  a  zeale  to  sett  furth  his  glorie 
as  our  duetie  requireth  ;  feeling  stiU  suchc  rebellioun  in  ourselves, 
that  we  have  need  daylie  to  fight  against  the  lusts  of  our  flesh,  yet, 
neverthelesse,  seing  that  our  Lord  hath  dealt  thus  mercifullie  with 
us ;  that  he  hath  printed  his  Gospell  in  our  hearts,  so  that  we  are 
preserved  frome  falling  into  desperation  and  misbeleefe ;  and  seing, 
also,  that  he  hath  endued  us  with  a  wiU  and  desire  to  renunce  and 
Avithstand  our  owne  aifections,  with  a  longing  for  his  righteousnes, 
and  the  keeping  of  his  commandements,  we  may  be  now  right  weill 
assured,  that  these  defaults  and  manifold  imperfections  in  us  sail  be 
no  hinderance  at  all  against  us,  to  cause  him  not  to  accept,  and  to 
impute  us  as  worthie  to  come  to  his  spirituall  table.  For  the  end 
of  our  comraing  thither  is,  not  to  make  protestation  that  we  are 
upright  or  just  in  our  lives  ;  bot  contrariwise,  we  come  to  seeke  our 
life  and  perfection  in  Jesus  Christ,  acknowledging,  in  the  meane 
time,  that  we  of  our  selves  be  the  childrein  of  wrathe  and  damna- 

"  Lett  us  consider  then,  that  this  sacrament  is  a  soverane  medi- 
cine for  all  poore,  sicke  creatures,  a  comfortable  hclpo  to  weake 
soules,  and  that  our  Lord  requireth  no  other  worthinesse  on  our 
part,  bot  that  we  unfainedlie  acknowledge  our  naughtinesse  and 
imperfection.  Then,  to  the  end  that  we  may  be  worthie  partakers 
of  his  merits,  and  most  comfortable  benefites,  (which  is  the  true 
eating  of  his  flesh,  and  drinking  of  his  blood,)  lett  us  not  sufter  our 
mindes  to  Avander  about  the  consideration  of  these  carthlie  and  cor- 
ruptible things,  (which  we  see  present  to  our  eyes,  and  feele  Avith 
our  hands,)  to  seeke  Christ  bodilic  present  in  them,  as  if  he  Averc 
enclosed  in  the  bread  or  Avinc,  or  as  if  these  elements  Averc  turned 
and    changed  into    the    substance    of  his  flesh  and    blood.'      For 

'  "  Transiibstantiatioii,  Transolementation,  Transmutation,  and  Transformation, 
as  tlio  Papists  use  tiioni,  are  tho  doctrine  of  dovills." — Nvtc  in  the  MS- 

VOL.  U.  II 

114  calderwood's  uistorie       '  1561. 

the  onlie  way  to  dispose  ourselves  to  receave  nurishment,  releefe, 
and  quickening  of  his  substance,  is  to  lift  up  our  mindes,  by  faith, 
above  all  things  worldlie  and  sensible,  and  thereby  to  enter  into 
heaven,  that  Ave  may  find  Christ  where  he  dwelleth  undoubtedlie, 
verie  God  and  verie  man,  in  the  incomprehensible  gloi-ie  of  his 
Father,  to  whome  be  all  praise,  honour,  and  glorie,  noAV  and  ever. 

The  exhortation  ended,  the  minister  coraeth  doun  frome  the  pul- 
pit, and  sitteth  at  the  table,  everie  man  and  woman,  in  like  wise, 
taking  their  place  as  occasioun  best  serveth.  Then  he  taketh 
bread,  and  giveth  thanks,  either  in  these  words  following,  or  like  in 
effect : — 

"  O  Father  of  mercie,  and  God  of  all  consolation  ;  seing  all  crea- 
tures doe  acknowledge  and  confesse  thee  as  Govemour  and  Lord, 
it  becometh  us,  the  workmanship  of  thine  owne  hands,  at  all  times 
to  reverence  and  magnifie  thy  godlie  Majestie,  first,  for  that  thou 
hath  created  us  to  thine  owne  image  and  similitude,  but,  cheefelie, 
becaus  thou  hath  delivered  us  frome  that  everlasting  death  and  dam- 
nation into  the  which  Satan  drew  raankinde  by  the  meanc  of  sinne, 
frome  the  boundage  Avherof,  neither  man  nor  angell  was  able  to 
make  us  free.  But  thou,  O  Lord,  riche  in  mercie,  and  infinite  in 
goodnes,  hath  provided  our  rcdemptioun  to  stand  in  thine  onlie  and 
welbeloved  Sonne,  whom,  of  verie  love,  thou  did  give  to  be  made 
man,  like  unto  us  in  all  things,  sinne  except,  that  in  his  bodie  he 
might  receave  the  punishment  of  our  transgression,  by  his  death  to 
make  satisfaction  to  thy  justice,  and  by  his  resurrection  to  destroy 
him  that  was  author  of  death ;  and  so  to  bring  againe  life  to 
the  world,  frome  Avhich  the  whole  ofspring  of  Adam  most  justlie 
was  exiled. 

"  O  Lord,  Ave  acknowledge  that  no  creature  is  able  to  compre- 
hend the  lenth  and  breadth,  the  deepnesse  and  hight  of  that  thy 
most  excellent  love,  Avhich  moved  thee  to  shew  mercie  where  none 
was  deserved  ;  to  promise  and  give  life  Avhere  death  had  gottin  vic- 
torie  ;  to  receave  us  in  thy  grace,  Avhen  we  could  do  nothing  but 
rebell  against  thy  justice.     O  Lord,  the  blind  dulncsse  of  our  cor- 

1501.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  1  15 

rupt  nature  will  not  suffer  us  suffieientlie  tu  weigh  thy  most  ample 
bencfitcs.  Yit,  neverthclesse,  at  the  commandement  of  Jesus 
Clu'ist  our  Lord,  we  present  ourselves  to  this  table,  (which  he  hath 
left,  to  be  used  in  remembrance  of  his  death,  untill  his  comming 
againe,)  to  declare  and  witnesse  before  the  world,  that  by  him  alone 
we  have  receaved  libertie  and  life ;  that  by  him  alone  thou  doth 
acknowledge  us  thy  childrein  and  heyres  ;  that  by  him  alone  we 
have  entrance  to  the  throne  of  thy  grace  ;  that  by  him  alone  Ave  are 
possessed  in  our  spiritual!  kingdome,  to  eat  and  drinke  at  his  table, 
with  whom  we  have  our  conversation  presentlie  in  heaven,  and  by 
Avhom  our  bodies  sail  be  raised  up  againe  frome  the  dust,  and  sail 
be  placed  with  him  in  that  endlesse  joy,  which  thou,  O  Father  of 
mercie,  hath  prepared  for  thine  elect,  before  the  foundation  of  the 
world  was  layed.  And  these  most  inestimable  benefites,  we  ac- 
knowledge and  confesse  to  have  receaved  of  thy  free  mercie  and 
grace,  by  thine  onlie  beloved  Sonne,  Jesus  Christ,  for  the  which, 
therefore,  we,  thy  congregatiouu,  moved  by  thy  Ilolie  Spirit, 
render  all  thanks,  praise,  and  glorie,  for  ever  and  ever." 

This  done,  the  minister  breaketh  the  bread,  and  delivereth  it  to 
the  people,  Avho  distribute  and  divide  the  same  among  themselves, 
according  to  our  Saviour  Christ's  commandement :  and  likewise 
giveth  tlie  cuppe,  during  the  which  time,  some  place  of  Scripture 
is  read,  which  doth  livelie  sett  furth  the  death  of  Christ,  to  the  in- 
tent, that  our  eyes  and  senses  may  not  onlie  be  occupied  in  these 
outward  signes  of  bread  and  wine,  which  are  called  the  visible 
Word,  but  that  our  hearts  and  mindes  also  may  fullie  )jc  fixed  in 
the  contemplation  of  the  Lord's  death,  Avhich  is,  by  this  holie  sacra- 
ment, represented.  And  after  tliis  action  is  done,  he  giveth  thanks, 
saying : — 

"  Most  mercifuU  Father,  we  render  unto  thee  all  thanks,  praise, 
and  glorie,  for  that  it  hath  pleased  thee,  of  thy  great  mercie,  to 
grant  unto  us,  miserable  sinners,  so  excellent  a  gift  and  treasure, 
as  to  receave  us  into  the  fellowship  and  companie  of  thy  dcare 
Sonne,  Jesus  Christ  oin*  Lord,  w^liome  thou  hath  delivered  to  death 
for  us  ;  and  hath  given  him  to  us,  as  a  ncccsFaric  foodc  and  nurit^li- 


ment  unto  everlasting  life.  And  now,  we  beseeche  thee  also,  Hea- 
venlie  Father,  to  grant  us  this  request,  that  thou  never  suffer  us  to 
become  so  unkindc  as  to  forgett  so  worthie  benefites.  But  rather 
imprint  and  fasten  them  sure  in  our  hearts,  that  we  may  grow  and 
increase  daylie  more  and  more  in  true  faith,  which  continuallie  is 
exercised  in  all  maner  of  good  works.  And  so  muche  the  rather, 
O  Lord,  confirme  us  in  these  perellous  dayes,  and  rages  of  Satan, 
that  we  may  constantlie  stand  and  continue  in  the  confessioun  of 
the  same,  to  the  advancement  of  thy  glorie,  who  art  God  over  all 
things,  blessed  for  ever.     So  be  it." 

The  action  thus  ended,  the  people  sing  the  103  Psalme :  "  My 
soule,  give  laud,"  &c.,  or  some  other  of  thanksgiving  ;  which  ended, 
one  of  the  blessings  before  mentioned  is  recited,  and  so  they  rise 
fi'ome  the  table  and  depart. 


Why  this  Order  is  observed  rather  than  anie  other. 

If  there  be  anie  that  wold  merveU,  why  we  follow  rather  this 
order  than  anie  other,  in  the  administration  of  this  sacrament,  lett 
him  dihgentlie  consider,  that,  first  of  all,  we  utterlie  renunce  the 
errour  of  the  Papists :  Secundlie,  We  restore  unto  the  sacrament 
his  owne  substance,  and  to  Christ  his  proper  place.  And  as  for 
the  words  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  we  rehearse  them,  not  becaus  they 
sould  change  the  substance  of  bread  or  wine,  or  that  the  repetition 
thereof,  with  the  intent  of  the  sacrificer,  sould  make  the  sacrament, 
(as  the  Papists  falslie  beleeve,)  but  they  are  read  and  pronounced, 
to  teache  us  how  to  behave  ourselves  in  that  action ;  and  that 
Christ  might  witnesse  unto  our  faith,  as  it  were,  with  his  owne 
mouth,  that  he  hath  ordained  these  signes  to  our  spirituall  use  and 
comfort.  We  doe  first,  therefore,  examine  ourselves,  according  to 
Sanct  Paul's  rule,  and  prepare  our  mindes,  that  we  may  be  worthie 
partakers  of  so  high  mysteries.  Then,  taking  bread,  we  give 
thanks,  breake,  and  distribute  it,  as  Christ  our  Saviour  hath  taught 
us.    Finallie,  the  ministration  ended,  we  give  thanks  again,  accord- 

1561.  OF  THE  KIllK  OF  SCOTLAND.  117 

ing  to  his  exemple  ;  so  that  without  his  Word  and  warrant,  there 
is  nothing  in  this  holie  action  attempted. 


After  the  bannes  or  contract  hath  beene  published  three  seve- 
rall  dayes,  in  the  congregation,  (to  the  intent,  that  if  anie  person 
liave  interest  or  title  to  either  of  the  parties,  they  may  have  suffi- 
cient time  to  make  their  challenge,)  the  parties  assemble  at  the 
beginning  of  the  sermon,  and  the  minister,  at  time  convenient,  say- 
cth  as  followeth  : — 

Of  Manage. 

"  Dearlie  beloved  bretlu'cin,  we  are  heere  gathered  together  in 
the  sight  of  God,  and  in  the  face  of  his  congregation,  to  knitt  and 
joyne  these  parties  together,  in  the  honourable  estate  of  matrimo- 
nie,  which  was  instituted  and  authorized  by  God  himself  in  Para- 
dise, man  being  then  in  the  estate  of  innocencie.  For  what  time 
God  had  made  heaven,  and  earth,  and  all  that  is  in  them,  and  had 
created  and  facioned  man  after  his  owne  similitude  and  likenesse, 
unto  whom  he  gave  rule  and  lordship  over  all  the  beasts  of  the 
earth,  fishes  of  the  sea,  and  foules  of  the  aire,  he  said,  '  It  is  not 
good  that  man  live  alone  :  lett  us  make  ane  helper  like  unto  him- 
self.' And  God  broght  a  fast  sleepe  upon  him,  and  tooke  one  of 
his  ribbes,  and  shaped  Evah  therof,  giving  us  therby  to  understand, 
that  man  and  wife  are  one  bodie,  one  flesh,  and  one  blood  ;'  signi- 
feing  also  unto  us,  the  mysticall  union  that  is  bctweene  Christ  and 
his  Church  ;  for  the  which  cause,  man  leaveth  his  father  and  mo- 
ther, and  taketh  him  to  his  wife,  to  keepe  compaiiie  with  her  ;  the 
which  also  we  ought  to  love,  even  as  our  Saviour  loveth  his  ohurcli, 
that  is  to  say,  his  elect  and  faithfuU  cougrcgatioim,  for  which  he 
gave  his  life. 

'  "  In  Hebrew,  man  is  called  iscli,  aiultlii'  woman  im-Iik,  whereby  is  Weill  o.\[iressed 
the  nadnall  afTinitie  betwixt  man  and  his  wife." — Note  in  the  MS. 

118  CALDERWOOU'S  niSTORlE  15()1. 

"  And  semblablie  also,  it  is  the  wive's  duetie  to  studie  to  please  and 
obey  her  husband,  serving  him  in  all  things  that  be  godlie  and  honest ; 
for  she  is  in  subjectioun,  and  under  the  governance  of  her  husband, 
so  long  as  they  continue  both  alive.  And  this  holic  mariage  being 
a  thing  most  honourable,  is  of  suche  vertue  and  force,  that  thereby 
the  husband  hath  no  more  right  and  power  over  his  owne  bodie  bot 
the  wife,  and,  likewise,  the  wife  hath  no  more  power  over  her  owne 
bodie  bot  the  husband,  forasmuche  as  God  hath  so  knitt  them  to- 
gether in  his  mutuall  societie,  to  the  procreation  of  childrein,  that 
they  sould  bring  them  up  in  the  feare  of  the  Lord,  and  to  the  in- 
crease of  Christ's  kingdome. 

"  Wherefore,  they  that  be  thus  coupled  together  by  God  cannot 
be  severed  or  putt  apart,  unlesse  it  be  for  a  seasoun  with  the  con- 
sent of  both  parties,  to  the  end,  to  give  themselves  the  more  fer- 
ventlie  to  fasting  and  prayer  ;  giving  diligent  heede  in  the  meane 
time,  that  their  long  being  apart  be  not  a  snare,  to  bring  them  into 
the  danger  of  Sathan,  through  incontinencie.  And,  therefore,  to 
avoide  fornication,  everie  man  ought  to  have  his  owne  wife,  and 
everie  woman  her  owne  husband ;  so  that  so  manie  as  cannot  live 
chast  are  bound,  by  the  commandement  of  God,  to  marie,  that 
therby  the  holie  temple  of  God,  Avhich  is  our  bodies,  may  be  keeped 
pure  and  undefiled  :  for  since  our  bodies  are  now  become  the  verie 
members  of  Jesus  Christ,  how  horrible  and  detestable  a  thing  is  it, 
to  make  them  the  members  of  ane  harlott !  Everie  one  ought, 
therefore,  to  keepe  his  vessell  in  all  purenesse  and  holinesse ;  for 
whosoever  polluteth  and  defileth  the  temple  of  God,  him  will  God 

Here  the  minister  speeketh  to  the  parties  that  sail  be  maried,  on 
this  wise  : — 

"  I  require  and  charge  you,  as  ye  will  answere  at  the  day  of 
judgement,  when  the  sccreets  of  all  hearts  sail  be  disclosed,  that 
if  either  of  you  knoAv  anic  impediment  why  yee  may  not  be 
lawfullic  joyned  together  in  matrimonie,  that  yee  confesse  it.  For 
be  yee  wcill  assured,  that  so  manic  as  be  coupled  otherwise  than 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  119 

God's  Word  doth  allow,  arc  not.  joyned  together  by  God,  neither 
is  their  matrimonie  lawfuU." 

If  no  impediment  be  by  them  declared,  then  the  minister  sayeth 
to  the  whole  congregatioun  : — 

"  I  take  you  to  witnesse,  that  be  heere  present,  beseeching  you 
all  to  have  good  remembrance  heerof.  And,  moreover,  if  there  be 
anie  of  you  that  know,  that  either  of  these  parties  be  contracted 
to  anie  other,  or  knoweth  anie  other  lawful!  impediment,  lett  them 
now  make  declaration  thereof." 

If  no  cause  be  alledged,  the  minister  proceedeth,  saying  : — 

''  Forasmuche  as  no  man  speeketh  against  this  thing,  you,  N., 
sail  protest  heere,  before  God,  and  his  holie  congregatioun,  that 
you  have  taken,  and  are  now  contented  to  have,  M.,  heere  present, 
for  your  lawfuil  wife  ;  promising  to  keepe  her,  to  love  and  entreate 
her  in  all  things,  according  to  the  duetie  of  a  faithfull  husband,  for- 
saking all  other  during  her  life,  and  breefelie  to  live  in  an  holic 
conversation  with  her,  keeping  faith  and  truthe  in  all  points,  ac- 
cording as  the  Word  of  God  and  his  holie  Gospell  doth  command." 

The  Aiiswere. 

"  Even  so  I  tak  her,  before  God,  and  in  the  presence  of  this 
his  congregation." 

The  minister  to  the  spouse  also  sayeth  : — 

"  You,  M.,  sail  protest  heere,  before  the  face  of  God,  and  in  the 
presence  of  this  holie  congregatioun,  that  yee  have  taken,  and  arc 
now  contented  to  have,  N.,  liecrc  })rescnt,  for  your  lawfuil  husband  ; 
promising  to  him  subjection  and  obedience,  forsaking  all  other  dur- 
ing his  life,  and,  finallie,  to  li^■c  in  a  holic  conversatioun  with  him, 
keeping  faith  and  truthe  in  all  points,  as  God's  Word  doth  pre- 

The  Ansicere. 

"  Even  so  I  take  him,  before  God,  and  in  the  presence  of  this 
his  congrejiation." 

120  GALDEPtWOOD's  HISTORIE        '  1561. 

The  minister  then  sayeth  : — 

"  Give  diligent  eare,  then,  to  tlie  GospeU,  tliat  yee  may  under- 
stand how  our  Lord  wold  have  this  holie  contract  keeped  and  ob- 
served ;  and  how  sure  and  fast  a  knott  it  is,  Avhicli  may,  in  no  wise, 
be  loosed,  according  as  we  be  taught  in  the  19th  chapter  of  Sanct 
Matthew's  Gospell : — '  The  Pharisees  came  unto  Christ,  to  tempt 
him,  and  to  grope  his  minde,  saying,  Is  it  lawfuU  for  a  man  to  putt 
away  his  wife  for  everie  light  cause  ?'  He  answered,  saying,  '  Have 
yee  not  read,  that  he  which  created  man  in  the  beginning  made 
them  male  and  female  ;  saying,  For  this  thing  sail  man  leave  father 
and  mother,  and  cleave  unto  his  wife,  and  they  twaine  sail  be  one 
flesh  ?  So  that  they  are  no  more  two,  but  one  flesh.  Lett  no  man, 
therefore,  putt  asunder  that  which  God  hath  coupled  together.' 

"  If  yee  beleeve  assuredlie  these  words  which  our  Lord  and  Sa- 
viour did  speeke,  (according  as  yee  have  heard  them  now  rehearsed 
out  of  the  holie  GospeU,)  then  may  yee  be  certaine,  that  God  hath 
even  so  knitt  you  together  in  this  holie  state  of  wedlocke.  Where- 
fore, applie  yourselves  to  live  together,  in  godlie  love,  in  Christian 
peace,  and  good  exemple,  ever  holding  fast  the  band  of  charitie 
without  anie  breache ;  keeping  faith  and  truthe  the  one  to  the  other, 
even  as  God's  Word  doth  appoint." 

Then  the  minister  commendeth  them  to  God,  in  this  or  suche 
like  sort : — 

"  The  Lord  sanctifie  and  blessc  you  ;  the  Lord  powre  the  richesse 
of  his  grace  upon  you,  that  yee  may  please  him,  and  live  together 
in  hoHe  love  to  your  lives'  end.     So  be  it.'" 

Then  is  sung  the  128  Psalme,  "  Blessed  arc  they  that  feare  the 
Lord,"  &c.,  or  some  other  appertaining  to  the  same  purpose. 

1561.  OF  THE  KIEK  OF  SCOTLAND.  121 


As  the  servants  of  God  travelled  to  have  vice  punished,  the 
devill  beganne  to  bestirre  himself  more  furiouslie.  There  was  an 
Act  made  in  Edinburgh,  that  fornicators  and  adulterers  soidd  be 
carted  through  the  town,  and  banished,  till  their  repentance  were 
offered  and  receaved.  It  was  found,  that  a  flcshiour,  named  San- 
dcrsone,  had  putt  away  his  lawfull  wife,  under  colour,  that  they 
were  lawfullie  divorced  after  the  Popish  maner,  and  had  takin  an- 
other into  his  hous.  Triell  being  takin  that  he  was  not  mareid 
with  the  secund  woman,  nor  able  to  prove  that  he  was  divorced 
lawfullie  frome  his  first  wife,  was  committed  to  the  hands  of  the 
magistrats,  who  commanded  him  to  be  carted,  according  to  their 
Act.  The  rascall  midtitude,  inflammed  by  some  ungodlie  crafts- 
men, brake  the  cart,  and  tooke  aAvay  the  malefactor.  This  was 
the  beoinning  of  farther  evills. 


After  the  death  of  King  Francis,  the  qucene  withdrew  herself 
frome  the  court  of  France,  and  went  to  Lorane,  with  her  uncles, 
either  bccaus  not  willing  to  remaine  longer  at  court,  when,  through 
the  strenth  of  the  King  of  Navarre,  her  mother-in-law  did  draAv  to 
lierself,  by  little  and  little,  the  governement  of  the  whole  realrae,  or 
dies  to  seeke  a  retired  place  for  mourning.  Lord  James  came  to 
licr  in  Lorainc.  Mr  Johne  Leslie,  Officiall  of  Aberdeene,  after 
liishop  of  Rosse,  came  to  her  the  day  before,  sent  to  her  frome  the 
Erie  of  Iluntlie,  and  other  lords  spirituall  and  temporall,  in  the 
north.  He  suggested  fidsclie  to  tlie  qucene,  that  he  came  to  per- 
8Avade  her  to  committ  the  governement  of  the  kingdomc  to  liini,  to 
which  he  aspired  more  than  the  overthrow  of  rcligioun  ;  and  ad- 

122  calderavood's  historie  1561. 

vised  lier,  to  cans  deteane  him  till  she  were  arrived  in  Scotland, 
and  had  pacifeid  tumults  at  home ;  to  land  in  the  north  parts, 
where  there  sould  be  twentic  thowsand  men  readie  to  guarde  her, 
and  convoy  her  to  Edinburgh.  But  she  would  not  seemc  to  follow 
his  advice. 


It  was  reasouned  among  the  queene  her  freinds  whether  she 
sould  returne  or  not.  Some  pretended  the  difficultie  of"  the  jour- 
ney, the  malcontentment  of  the  English  queene,  the  seditious 
spirits  of  her  subjects  at  home,  who  could  hardhe  be  conteaned  in 
aive  by  the  governement  of  men  ;  Avho  had  shortened  the  dayes  of 
her  father  and  mother  with  displeasure.  It  was  answered,  that 
kings  not  preassing  to  infringe  the  liberteis  of  the  countrie,  raigned 
among  them  in  securitie  and  great  honour.  The  cheefe  way  now 
to  preserve  peace  was,  to  make  no  altcratioun  in  religioim.  Her 
uncles  inclynned  this  way  for  their  owne  respects,  for  they  thought 
she  would  be  farther  at  their  devotioun  if  she  were  out  of  France, 
where  the  state  of  the  countrie  was  so  troubled ;  and  Avith  the  hope 
of  her  manage  might  gaine  friends,  and  in  the  meanc  time  appoint 
one  of  their  OAvne  factioun  to  be  gouvernour  in  Scotland.  She 
herself  inclynned  to  returne,  that  she  might  commande  as  a  sove- 
rane.  Her  brother,  Lord  James,  promised  she  sould  find  the  coun- 
trie in  quiett. 


Whill  Lord  James  Avas  in  France,  there  came  an  ambassader, 
Noalius,  a  senator  of  Burdeaux.  lie  ci'avcd,  that  the  league  be- 
twixt Scotland  and  England  might  be  brokin,  the  ancient  league 
betweene  Scotland  and  France  might  be  renued,  the  bishops  and 
churchmen  restored  to  their  places,  and  suffered  to  intromctt  with 

15G1.  OF  THE  KIllK  OF  SCOTLAND.  123 

their  rents.     The  counsell  delayed  answcre  till  the  parliament  aj)- 
pointed  to  be  holdin  in  May  following. 


In  the  nieane  time,  the  Papists  practised  Avith  the  ambassader. 
The  Erles  of  Huntlic,  Atholl,  Bothwcli,  and  others,  intended  to 
have  takin  Edinburgh  before  the  time  indicted  for  the  parliament. 
The  bishops  held  counsell  in  Stirline.  Some  whispered,  that  the 
duke  and  the  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes  Avere  too  familiar :  some 
feared  that  the  duke,  as  sccund  persoun,  sould  have  usurped  the 
authoritie  of  the  queene  in  her  absence  ;  for  so  had  some  of  his 
freinds  urged  him,  immediatlie  after  the  death  of  the  King  of 
France.  The  professours  prevented  them,  and  came  to  Edinburgh. 
The  Erie  of  Arran  stoodc  constant  with  his  brethrcin.  Mr  James 
Mackgill,  and  some  others,  travelled  earnestlie  and  stoutlie,  that 
nothing  sould  be  done  prejudiciall  to  the  queene's  authoritie  in  ab- 
sence of  Loi'd  James,  but  were  evill  recompensed  after. 


The  Papists  hunt  for  occasioims  of  broylc.  The  play  of  Kobin- 
hoodc'  was  left  off  for  manie  yeeres,  and  forbiddin  by  act  of  i)ai- 
liament  f   yitt  would  the  rascall  multitude  of  Edinburgh  trouble 

'  Many  of  the  popular  games,  sports,  and  festivals,  which  Strutt  and  other  writers 
have  recorded  as  belonging  exclusively  to  England,  were  equally  common  to  Scot- 
land, in  consequence  of  the  Saxon  origin  of  both  nations  ;  but  the  May-day  play,  or 
pageant  of  Robin  Hood,  was  at  first  confined  to  England,  from  whence  it  was  intro- 
duced into  Scotland,  probably  about  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century.  As 
these  popular  festivals  were,  in  many  cases,  grossly  profane,  as  well  as  opportunities 
for  dissipation  and  licentiousness,  the  Scottish  Reformers,  at  the  commencement  of 
their  labours,  endeavoured  to  suppress  them. 

«  The  following  Act  of  the  Scottish  Parliament,  a.d.  1537,  >s  the  one  referred  to. 
"  It  is  statut  and  ordanit,  that  in  all  lymcs  cumming,  na  manor  of  per.soun  bo  cho.sin 

124  CALDEE wood's  iiistorie  1561. 

the  toun,  even  in  the  verie  night.  The  baihffe  tooke  frome  them 
some  swords  and  an  ensigne.  Ileerupon  they  possessed  the  gates 
of  the  toun,  and  intended  to  have  pursued  some  honest  men  in 
their  owne  houses.  The  mutinie  stayed  upon  restitutioun  of  their 
swords  and  ensigne  ;  yitt  ceassed  they  not  to  molest  the  inhabit- 
ants of  the  toun,  and  countrie  men  resorting  to  the  toun,  taking 
their  money  frome  them,  or  threatning  farther  violence.  The  ma- 
gistrats  apprehended  a  cheefe  actor,  one  named  KiUon,  a  cordiner, 
who  had  spoiled  one  named  Johne  Mowbray  of  ten  crownes.  He 
was  putt  to  an  assise,  and  a  gibbet  sett  up  beneath  the  croce. 
Whether  by  pactioun  of  the  proveist  and  some  other,  or  by  insti- 
gatioun  of  the  craftsmen,  it  is  uncertane  ;  but  certane  it  is,  that 
the  jayle  was  brokin  up,  and  not  onlie  the  said  Killon,  but  also  all 
other  malefactors,  sett  at  freedome,  the  gibbet  pulled  down,  and 
despitefidlie  brokin  in  peeces.  The  proveist  and  some  of  the  coun- 
sell  assembled  in  the  clerk's  chamber.  The  rascall  multitude,  to- 
gether with  some  cheefe  craftsmen,  ringleaders,  intended  to  invade 
the  chamber.  The  proveist,  and  suclie  as  were  with  him  in  com- 
panie,  went  to  the  tolbuith,  not  suspecting  they  would  make  ncAV 
pursute,  after  they  had  obteaned  their  intent.  But  they  came 
rushing  doun  frome  the  Castellhill,  and  Avith  stones,  gunncs,  and 

Robert  Hudc  nor  Littill  John,  Abbot  of  Unressoun,  Quenis  of  Maij,  nor  vthorw^-t-e, 
nouther  in  burgh  nor  to  landwart,  in  ony  tyme  to  cum  :  And  gif  ony  prouest, 
bailliesj  counsal,  and  communitie,  chesis  sic  ane  personage  as  Robert  Hude,  Lytill 
Johne,  Abbottis  of  Unressoun,  or  Quenis  of  Maij,  within  Iwrgh,  the  chesaris  of  sic 
sail  tyne  thair  fredome  for  the  space  of  fj'ue  zeiris,  and  vtherwise  salbe  punist  at  the 
quenis  grace  will,  and  the  acceptar  of  siclyke  office  salbe  banist  furth  of  the  rcalme  : 
And  gif  ony  sic  persounis  sic  as  Robert  Hude,  Lyttill  Johne,  Abbottis  of  Unressoun, 
Quenis  of  Maij,  beis  chosin  outwith  burgh,  and  uthers  land^vart  townis,  the  chesaris 
sail  pay  to  our  souerane  lady  x.  pundis,  and  thair  persounis  put  in  waird,  thair  to 
rcmaine  during  the  quenis  grace  i^lesoure  :  And  gif  ony  women  or  uthers,  about 
simmer  treis  singand,  makis  perturbatioun  to  the  quenis  licgis  in  tlie  passage  Ihrow 
burrowis  and  vther  landwart  townis,  the  women  perturbatouris  for  skafrie  of  money 
or  vtherwysc  salbe  takin,  handollit,  and  put  vpou  the  cukstulis  of  cuerie  burgh  or 
towne." — Acts  of  the  Parliaments  of  Scotland,  folio  edit.,  vol.  ii.  p.  500.  In  spite 
of  this  prohibition,  the  proscribed  festival  was  such  a  favourite,  that,  bv  the  end  of 
the  century,  the  General  Assembly  continued  to  complain  of  tlic  excesses  tliat  were 
occasioned  bv  "  the  making  of  Rol)in  Hude." 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  125 

other  Aveapons,  Ccanie  to  the  tolbuitli,  and  rushed  at  the  doore,  till 
they  were  forced  to  retire,  partlie  by  stones  cast  doun,  partlie  by  a 
pistol!  shott  by  Robert  Norwell,  wherewith  one  Twedie  was  hurt. 
Yitt  ceased  they  not  to  cast  stones,  and  shoot  at  the  windowes, 
threatning  death  to  all  that  were  within.  And,  indeed,  the  crafts- 
men, suspected  authors  of  that  tumidt,  careid  no  good  will  to  some 
that  were  with  the  proveist.  Archibald  Dewar,  Patrik  Changie, 
had  before  willed  Mr  Knox  to  solist  the  proveist.  He  had  an- 
swered, that  he  had  often  solicited  in  their  favours ;  but  his  con- 
science accused  him,  that  they  used  his  travells  for  no  other  end 
but  to  be  a  patrone  to  their  impietie.  He  had  intcrceeded  before 
for  William  Harlaw,  James  Frissell,  and  others  that  were  con- 
victed of  a  tumult.  They  threatned,  that  both  he  and  the  baillffes 
sould  have  caus  to  repent,  if  the  executioun  were  not  stayed.  He 
answered,  he  would  not  hurt  his  conscience  for  fear  of  man.  So 
they  departed,  and  the  tumult  rose  immediatlie,  which  continued 
frome  two  after  noone  till  eight  at  night.  When  the  craftsmen 
Avere  required  to  assemble,  and  to  free  the  proveist  frome  the  flirie 
of  the  multitude,  they  went  to  their  foure  houres  pennie,'  and  with- 
out regard  of  their  oath  or  duetic,  jesting,  they  said,  "  They  would 
be  magistrats  alone,  lett  them  rule  the  multitude  alone."  To  pa- 
cific the  multitude,  the  proveist  and  bailiffes  were  forced  to  sub- 
scrive,  that  they  sould  never  pursue  anie  of  these  who  were  guiltie 
of  that  tumult,  for  anie  crime  committed  in  that  behalfe.  This 
assm'ance  was  proclamed  at  the  Croce  after  nyne  of  the  clocke  at 
night.  The  nobilitie,  notwithstanding,  voAved  punishcment,  wher- 
upon  a  number  of  that  fjictioun  absented  themselves  till  the  arrivall 
of  the  queene.  The  cheefe  authors  were  reputed  as  excommunicat, 
till  they  satisfeid  the  magistrats,  and  made  humble  supplicatioun 
to  the  church. 

'  The  name  of  the  afternoon  refreshment  of  ale,  wine,  or  usquebaugh,  which  was 
taken  at  four  o'clock,  and  most  commonly  in  some  tavern  or  alehouse.  Hard  drink- 
ing was  at  this  period  a  particular  characteristic  of  the  Scots,  and  the  "  four  hours 
pennie"  was  one  of  the  many  practices  by  which  the  general  evil  had  been  confirmed. 
The  phrase  is  equivalent  to  our  modern  "  tea-time." 

12G  caldekwood's  iiistouie      '  15G1. 


The  Papists,  a  little  before  the  parliament,  resorted  in  diverse 
companeis  to  the  toun,  and  beganne  to  brag.  The  professours 
heereupon  assembled,  and  went  up  and  doun  the  streets  in  com- 
paneis, but  in  peaceable  manner,  so  that  the  bishops  and  their 
bands  forbare  the  High  Street.  The  brethrein,  understanding 
what  they  intended,  conveened  upon  the  twentie-seventh  of  May, 
and,  after  consultatioun,  concluded  that  an  humble  supplicatioun 
sould  be  presented,  together  with  some  articles,  to  the  Lords  of 
Secreit  CounseU,  and  the  whole  Assemblie  then  conveened.  The 
Master  of  Lindsay,  the  Laird  of  Lochinvar,  the  Laird  of  Phair- 
nihirst,  elder,  the  Laird  of  Quhittinghame,  Thomas  Menzeis, 
Proveist  of  Aberdeene,  and  George  Lowell,  Purges  of  Dundie, 
were  dii-ected  as  commissioners  to  present  the  Articles  and  Sup- 


1.  First,  That  idolatrie,  and  all  monuments  therof,  sould  be  sup- 
pressed throughout  the  whole  realme  :  that  the  sayers,  hearers, 
mainteaners,  and  frequenters  to  the  masse,  soidd  be  punished  ac- 
cording to  the  Act  of  Parliament. 

2.  That  speciall  and  certane  provisioun  be  appointed  for  tlic  sus- 
tentatioun  of  superintendents,  ministers,  exhorters,  and  readers : 
that  superintendents  and  ministers  be  planted  Avhere  none  were 
alreadie  planted,  in  places  convenient :  that  suche  as  disobeyed 
or  contemned  the  superintendents  in  their  functiouns  sould  be 

3.  That  some  punishement  be  appointed  for  the  abusers  of  the 
sacraments,  and  contemners  of  the  same. 

4.  That  no  letters  be  givin  furth  by  the  Lords  of  Sessioun,  to 
answere  or  pay  anie  persoun  their  tithes,  without  speciall  proviso, 
that  the  paroclnners  reteane  so  muclie  in  their  hands  as  is  alloAved 

15(51.  OF  THE  KIliK  OF  SCOTLAND.  127 

to  the  niinislrie  :  that  suchc  as  arc  ah'cadie  givln  be  called  in  and 
discharged ;  and  likcAvise,  that  no  shircfFes  give  precepts  to  that 

5.  That  neither  the  Lords  of  Sessioun,  nor  anie  other  judges, 
proceed  upon  suche  precepts  or  Avarning  past,  at  the  instance  of 
these  Avho  of  late  have  obteaned  fcwes  of  vicars'  and  parsons' 
manses  and  church-yards.  That  six  aikers,  if  there  be  so  muche 
of  the  gleeb,  be  alwayes  reserved  to  the  minister,  according  to  the 
appointment  of  the  Booke  of  Discipline,  and  that  everie  minister 
may  have  letters  therupon.  (This  last  claus  is  omitted  in  the 

6.  That  no  letters  of  the  Lords  of  Sessioun,  nor  others,  take 
place,  whill  the  stipends  conteaned  in  the  Booke  of  Discipline  for 
sustentatioun  of  the  ministers  be  first  consigned  in  the  hands,  at 
the  least,  of  the  principalis  of  the  parish. 

7.  That  some  punishement  be  appointed  for  suche  as  purchasse, 
bring  home,  or  execute  within  this  realm e,  the  Pope's  bulls. 


"  Please  your  honours,  and  the  wisdoms  of  suche  as  are  pre- 
sentlie  conveened  with  you  in  counsell,  to  understand,  that  by 
manic  arguments  we  may  perceave  Avhat  the  pestilent  generatioun 
of  the  Roman  Antichrist  within  this  realme  intendeth ;  to  witt, 
that  they  would  of  new  erect  their  idolatrie,  tak  upon  them  impyre 
above  our  conscience,  and  so  to  command  us,  the  true  subjects  of 
this  realme,  and  suche  as  God  of  his  mercie  hath  under  our  sove- 
rane  subjected  unto  us,  in  all  things  to  obey  their  appetites. 
Honestie  craveth,  and  conscience  moveth  us,  to  make  the  vcric 
secreets  of  our  hearts  patent  to  your  honours  in  that  bchalfc,  which 
is  this  :  that  bcfoi'c  that  ever  these  tyranns  and  dumbe  doggcs  im- 
pyre above  us,  and  above  suche  as  God  hath  subjected  unto  us, 
that  we,  the  barons  and  gentlemen  professing  Christ  Jesus  within 
this  realme,  are  fuUie  determined  to  hazard  life,  and  whatsoever  we 
have  reccavcd  of  God  in  tcmporall  things.     Most  humblie,  there- 

128  calderwood's  itistokie      '  15G1. 

fore,  beseeche  your  honours,  that  suche  order  may  be  takin,  that 
Ave  have  not  occasioun  to  take  again  the  sword  of  just  defense  into 
our  hands,  which  we  have  willinglie  (after  that  God  had  givin 
victorie  both  to  your  honours  and  us)  resigned  over  into  your 
hands,  to  the  end  that  God's  Gospell  may  be  pubhctlie  preached 
within  this  realme,  the  true  ministers  therof  reasonablie  susteaned, 
idolatrie  suppressed,  and  the  committers  therof  punished  according 
to  the  lawes  of  God  and  man.  In  doing  wherof,  yoiu"  honours  sail 
find  us  not  onlie  obedient  unto  you  in  all  things  lawfull,  but  also 
readie  at  all  times  to  bring  under  order  and  obedience  suche  as 
would  rebell  against  your  just  authoritie,  which,  in  absence  of  our 
soverane,  we  acknowledge  to  be  in  your  hands ;  beseeching  your 
honours,  with  upright  judgement  and  indifferencie,  to  looke  upon 
these  our  few  articles,  and  by  these  our  brethrein  to  signifie  unto 
us  suche  answere  again  as  may  declare  your  honours  worthie  of 
that  place,  wherunto  God,  after  some  danger  susteaned,  in  his 
mercie  hath  called  you.  And  lett  these  enemeis  of  God  assure 
themselves,  that  if  your  honours  putt  not  order  unto  them,  that  we 
sail  shortlie  take  suche  order,  that  they  sail  neither  be  able  to  doe 
what  they  list,  neither  yitt  to  live  upon  the  sweate  of  the  browes  of 
suche  as  are  no  debters  unto  them.  Lett  your  honours  conceave 
nothing  of  us  but  all  humble  obedience  in  God.  But  lett  the  Pa- 
pists be  yitt  once  again  assured,  that  their  pride  and  idolatrie  we 
will  not  suffer." 

Upon  this  supplicatioun,  and  articles  presented  by  the  Com- 
missioners of  the  Assemblie  of  the  Kirk,  an  act  and  ordinance 
was  made  by  the  Lords  of  Secreit  Counsell,  answering  to  everie 
head  of  the  forsaid  articles,  and  that  letters  be  answered  therupon 
which  were  raised  by  sindrie  ministers. 


After  the  quecne  resolved  to  come  home,  Lord  James  returned 
with  speed.     Beside  great  charges,  and  the  losse  of  a  boxe  whcrin 


1561.  OF  THE  KIItK  OF  SCOTLAND.  129 

he  putt  his  money,  he  escaped  a  great  danger  wlicn  he  was  to  enter 
in  his  journey.  The  Papists  intended,  that  Avhen  he  came  frome 
Rhems  in  Loraine,  where  the  quecne  remained  with  the  cardinall, 
to  besett  his  loodging  by  night  in  Parise,  or  to  assault  him  and  his 
companie  in  the  streets.  Lord  James  was  forewarned  of  that  dan- 
ger by  the  Ringrave,  with  whom  he  had  conti'acted  familiaritie  be- 
fore in  Scotland.  He  resolveth  to  depart  out  of  Parise  the  nixt 
day  after  he  came,  and  in  good  order.  Yitt  they  gett  knowledge. 
They  prepared  a  processioun  upon  the  Change-bridge,  where  he 
was  to  passe.  As  one  part  of  his  companie  passed  by  without  un- 
covering their  head,  some  were  suborned  to  crie  "  Huguenots  !" 
and  to  cast  stones.  But  the  Ringrave,  and  some  other  gentlemen 
accompaneing  Lord  James,  rebooked  the  foolish  multitude,  road 
over  some  of  the  foremost ;  and  so  the  rest  were  scattered, 


Lord  James  brought  letters  frome  the  queene  to  the  lords,  wher- 
in  she  required,  that  they  interteane  quietnesse,  and  suffer  nothing 
to  be  attempted  against  the  contract  of  peace  made  at  Leith  till 
her  owne  returne  ;  and  to  sniffer  religioun  prescntlie  established  to 
have  free  course. 


The  lords,  after  the  reading  of  these  letters,  gave  answcre  to  the 
Frenche  ambassader  as  followeth  :  First,  That  France  had  not  de- 
served at  their  hands,  that  either  they  or  their  posteritie  sould 
enter  Avith  them  againe  in  anie  league  or  confoderacie,  offensive  or 
defensive,  seing  they  had  so  cruellic  persecuted  tliem  and  their 
realme,  and  violated  their  liberteis,  under  pretence  of  mariage  and 
amitie,  and  would  have  brought  the  people  into  miserable  ser- 

Secund,  That  beside  conscience,  they  could  not  tak  upon  them 
suche  a  shame,  as  without  offense  committed  to  breake  the  league 
VOL.  n.  I 

130  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

which  in  God's  name  they  had  made  with  them,  whome  He  had 
made  instruments  to  sett  Scotland  at  freedome  frome  the  tyrannic 
of  the  Frenche,  at  least  of  the  Guisians  and  their  factioun. 

Last,  for  the  thrid  demand,  That  suche  as  they  called  bishops 
and  churchemen,  they  knew  neither  for  pastors  of  the  chm^ch,  nor 
yitt  for  anie  just  possessors  of  the  patrimonie  of  the  same ;  but 
knew  them  perfytelie  to  be  woolves,  theives,  murtherers,  and  idle 
belleis.  And,  therefore,  as  Scotland  hath  forsakin  the  Pope  and 
Poperie,  so  could  they  not  be  debtors  to  his  foresworne  vassalls. 
With  these  answeres  departed  the  said  ambassador. 


The  lords  made  an  act,  that  all  monuments  of  idolatrie  sould  be 
destroyed.  The  Erie  of  Arran  was  directed  to  the  west ;  the  Erles 
of  Argile  and  Glencarne,  together  with  the  Protestants  of  the 
west,  were  appointed  to  joyne  with  him.  They  demolished  FaUe- 
furde,  Kilwinning,  a  part  of  Cosraguell,  and  burnt  Pasley.  The 
bastard  bishop  escaped  narrowlie.  Lord  James  was  directed  to 
the  north,  where  he  made  suche  reformatioun  as  nothing  contented 
the  Erie  of  Huntlie  ;  yitt  seemed  he  to  approve  all  that  was  done. 


The  queene  addressing  herself  to  her  voyage,  her  most  inward 
freinds  advised  her  to  dissemble  in  maters  of  religioun.  Yitt  Du- 
rie.  Abbot  of  Dumfermline,  and  Johne  Sinclar,  designed  Bishop  of 
Brechin,  animated  her  to  crueltie,  wherto  she  inclyned,  partlie  by 
her  owne  dispositioun,  partlie  by  the  perswasioun  of  her  OAvne  kins- 
men. Sometimes  speeches  would  escape  out  of  her  mouth,  which 
did  bewray  her  inclinatioun.  She  would  boast  among  her  familiars, 
that  she  would  imitat  Queene  Marie.  Her  intention  was,  to  depresse 
by  little  and  little  the  other  factioun,  till  her  owne  was  sufficient- 
lie  strenthened.  Her  uncles  encuragcd  her  with  the  apparent  shcAV 
of  the  strenth  of  the  Popish  factioun,  wherof  their  eldest  brother. 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  131 

Francis,  Duke  of  Guise,  was  appointed  to  be  chiftane,  according- 
to  a  secreit  and  bloodie  decree  of  the  Councell  of  Trent.  In  the 
meane  time,  Charles,  Cardinal  of  Lorane,  counselled  her  to  leave 
beside  him  her  apparell  and  houshold  stufFe,  till  it  was  scene  what 
was  the  successe  of  her  voyage.  She  being  acquainted  with  his 
nature,  answered,  she  could  not  see  wherefore  she  sould  be  more 
care  full  of  her  stufFe  and  apparell  nor  of  her  OAvne  persoun. 


Monsieur  d'Osell  was  sent  frome  our  Queene  to  Queene  Eliza- 
beth, to  trie  her  good  will  before  she  enter  in  her  voyage.  He 
was  honourablie  receaved,  and  sent  backe  with  answere,  that  if  she 
woidd  come  through  Em^land,  she  would  take  it  as  a  great  bene- 
fite ;  but  if  she  would  eschew  to  come  by  her,  she  would  take  it  as 
a  contumelie.  There  was  jealousie  betwixt  the  two  queenes ;  for 
after  the  death  of  King  Francis,  the  Queene  of  England  had  beene 
eai'nest  with  the  Queene  of  Scots,  by  Francis  Erie  of  Bedfoi'd,  and 
Nicolas  Throgmorton,  to  ratiiie  the  treatie  of  Edinburgh.  She 
answered,  she  could  not  resolve  without  consent  of  the  Scottish 
nobiHtie  ;  wherupon  Queene  Elizabeth  did  not  absolutelie  grant  a 
safe  conduct,  neither  for  Monsieur  d'Osell  to  returne  through 
England,  nor  herself  to  passe  by  sea.  Our  queene  sent  for  Throg- 
morton, and  demanded  what  could  be  the  reasoun  of  this  indirect 
repulse.  The  other  answered,  he  had  no  commissioun  but  to  re- 
ceave  her  answere  anent  the  confirmatioun  of  the  treatie  at  Edin- 
burgh. What  passed  betwixt  them  may  be  collected  by  the  letter 
sent  by  Throgmorton  to  Queene  Elizabeth,  dated  at  Parise,  the 
23d  of  June.     The  marginall  observatiouns  are  Mr  Knox's. 


"  The  18th  of  this  present  June,  I  sent  Sommer  to  the  Queene 
of  Scots,  for  audience,  who  appointed  mc  to  come  to  her  the  same 

132  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

day  after  dinner,  which  I  did.  To  her  I  did  yom'  Majestie's  heartie 
commendations,  and  declared  unto  her  your  Majestie's  gladsomnesse 
of  her  recoverie  of  her  late  sickenesse,  whose  want  of  health,  as  it 
was  greevous  unto  your  Majestic,  so  did  yee  congratulate  and 
greatlie  rejoice  of  the  good  ty dings  of  health  she  was  presentlie  in. 
After  these  offices,  I  putt  her  in  remembrance  again  what  had 
passed  frome  the  beginning  in  the  mater  of  your  Majestie's  demand 
of  ratification,  according  to  the  proport  of  the  said  treatie,  as  weill 
by  me  at  the  first,  as  afterward  by  my  Lord  Bedford  at  his  being 
heere ;  and  also  followed  sithence  again  by  me  in  audience,  and  by 
my  letter  to  her,  being  in  Lorane ;  adding  heereto  your  Majestie's 
further  commandement  and  recharge  to  me  againe,  presentlie  to 
renue  the  same  demand,  as  before  had  beene  done. 

"  The  said  queene  made  answere  : 

"  '  Monsieur  L'Ambassader, — I  thanke  the  queene,  my  good 
sister,  for  this  gentle  visitatioun  and  congratulation  of  this  my  re- 
coverie ;  and  though  I  be  not  yitt  in  perfyte  health,  yitt,  I  thanke 
God,  I  feele  myself  in  verie  good  health  in  the  comming  to.  And 
for  answere  to  your  demand  of  my  ratificatioun,  I  doe  remember 
all  these  things  that  yee  have  recited  unto  me ;  and  I  would  that 
the  queene  my  good  sister  sould  thinke,  that  I  doe  respite  the  re- 
solute answere  in  this  mater,  and  perfomiing  therof,  untill  suche 
time  as  I  might  have  the  advice  of  the  nobles'  and  estats  of  myne 
owne  realme,  which  I  trust  sail  not  be  long  a  doing ;  for  I  intend 
to  make  my  voyage  thither  shorthe.  And  though  this  mater,' 
quoth  she,  *  doth  tuich  me  principaUie,  yitt  doth  it  also  tuich  the 
nobles  and  estats  of  my  realme  too.  And,  therefore,  it  sail  be 
meetc  that  I  use  their  advices  therin.  Heeretofore  they  have 
seemed  to  be  greevcd  that  I  sould  doe  anic  thing  without  them  ; 
and  now,  they  would  be  more  offended  if  I  sould  proceed  in  this 
mater  of  myself  without  their  advices.     I  doc  intend,'  quoth  she, 

'  "  The  nobles  were  no  farther  respected  than  they  might  serve  to  her  corrupt  af- 
fections." This  and  the  following  quotations,  which  are  here  introduced  in  the  form 
of  foot-notes,  are  in  the  original  MS.  placed  in  the  margin,  being  a  running  com- 
mentary on  Throgmorton's  Letter,  by  John  Knox. 

15G1.  OF  THE  KIllK  OF  SCOTLAND.  133 

'  to  send  Monsieur  d'Osell  to  the  queene,  your  mistrcsse,  my  good 
sister,  Avho  sail  declare  that  unto  her  frome  me  that,  I  trust,  sail 
suffice  her,  by  whom  I  will  give  her  to  understand  of  my  jom-ney 
into  Scotland.  I  meane  to  embark  at  Calice.  The  king  hath  lent 
me  certane  galeyes  and  ships,  to  convoy  me  home  ;  and  I  intend  to 
require  of  my  good  sister  these  favours  that  princes  use  to  do  in 
these  cases.  And  though  the  termes  wherin  we  have  stood  hecr- 
tofore  have  beene  somewhat  hard,  yitt,  I  trust  that  frome  hence- 
furth'  we  sail  accord  together  as  cousins  and  good  nighbours.  I 
meane,'  quoth  she,  '  to  retire  all  the  Frenchemen  from  Scotland 
who  have  givin  jealousie  to  the  queene,  my  sister,  and  miscontent- 
ment  to  my  subjects,^  so  as  I  will  leave  nothing  undone  to  satisfic 
all  parteis ;  trusting  the  queene,  my  good  sister,  will  doe  the  like, 
and  that  frome  hencefurth  none  of  my  disobedient  subjects  sail  find 
aide  or  support  at  her  hands.' 

"  I  answered,  that  I  was  not  desirous  to  fall  into  discourse  how 
these  hard  termes  first  beganne,  nor  by  what  meanes  they  were 
nourished,  becaus  therin  I  must  charge  some  partie  with  injurie 
and  perill  offered  to  the  queene,  my  mistrcsse,  which  was  the  verie 
ground  of  these  maters.^  But  I  was  weill  assured,  that  there  could 
be  no  better  occasion  offered  to  putt  the  former  unkindenesse  in 
forgetfulnesse,  than  by  ratifeing  the  treatie  of  peace,  for  that  sould 
repay  all  injureis  past.  '  And,  Madame,'  quoth  I,  '■  where  it  plcas- 
eth  you  to  suspend  the  ratificatioun,  till  yee  have  the  advices  of 
the  nobles  and  estats  of  your  realme,  the  queene,  my  mistrcsse, 
doth  nothing  doubt  of  their  conformitic  in  this  mater,  becaus  the 
treatie  was  made  by  then*  consents.' 

"  The  queene  answered,  '  Yea,  by  some  of  them,  but  not  by  all.* 
It  will  appeare,  when  I  come  amongst  them,  whether  they  be  of 
the  same  minde  that  you  say  they  were  then  of.  But  of  this  I  as- 
sure you.  Monsieur  I'Ambassader,'  quoth  she,  '  I  for  my  part  am 

'  "  Even  till  she  might  shew  her  evil  will." 

•^  "  If  France  wold  have  susteaned  them,  they  had  not  yitt  departed.  " 

*  "  The  armes  of  England  were  usurped." 

*  "  Your  Paiiists  and  our.s  liavc  practised,  and  .still  practise  division." 

134  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

verie  desirous  to  have  the  perfyte  and  assured  amitie  of  the  queene, 
my  good  sister,  and  will  use  all  the  meanes  I  can  to  give  her  occa- 
sioun  to  thinke  that  I  meane  it  indeed." 

"  I  answered,  '  Madame,  the  queene,  my  mistresse,  you  may  be 
assured,  will  use  the  like  towards  you,  to  move  you  to  be  of  the 
same  opinioun  towards  her.'  '  Then,'  said  she,  '  I  trust  the 
queene,  your  mistresse,  will  not  support  nor  encourage  none  of 
my  subjects  to  continue  in  their  disobedience,^  nor  to  tak  upon 
them  things  that  apperteane  not  to  subjects.^  You  know,'  quoth 
she,  '  there  is  muche  adoe  in  my  realme  about  maters  of  religioun. 
And  though  there  be  a  greater  number  of  the  contrare  religioun 
to  me  than  I  would  there  were,  yitt  there  is  no  reasovui  that  sub- 
jects sould  give^  a  laAV  to  their  soverane,  and  speciallie  in  maters  of 
religioun,  which  I  feare,'  quoth  she,  '  my  subjects  sail  take  in 
hand.'^  I  answered,  '  Madame,  your  realme  is  in  no  other  case 
this  day  than  all  other  realmes  through  Christendome  are,  the 
proofe  wherof  yee  see  verifeid  in  tliis  realme  ;  and  you  see  what 
great  difficultie  it  is  to  give  order  in  this  mater,  though  the  king 
and  all  his  counsell  be  verie  desirous  therunto.  Religioun  is  of  the 
greatest  force  that  may  be.  You  have  been  long  out  of  your  oAvne 
realme,  so  that  the  contrarie  religioun  to  yours  had  wonne  the 
upper  hand,  and  the  greatest  part  of  your  realme.  Your  mother 
was  a  woman  of  great  experience,  of  deepe  dissimulatioun,  and 
keeped  that  realme  in  quietnesse  till  she  beganne  to  constraine 
men's  consciences ;  and  as  you  think  it  unmeete  to  be  constrained 
by  your  subjects,  so  it  may  like  you  to  consider,  the  mater  is  als 

'  "  So  that  she  might  have  had  England  to  the  Pope's  religion,  I  think  she  leed 


2  "  The  fcare  of  God  in  the  heart  of  Elias  was  disobedience  to  cursed  Jezebel." 
^  "  This  we  may  answere  here ;  it  apperteaneth  to  subjects  to  worship  God  as  he 

hath  commanded,  and  to  suppresse  idolatrie,  by  whosoever  it  be  erected  or  main- 


*  "  God  giveth  his  law  as  wcill  to  the  prince  as  to  the  subjects. " 

5  "  Answere  for  the  part  of  Scotland  :  and  if  so  they  had  done,  they  escaped  God's 

indignation,  which  had  been  felt,  and  still  hanged  over  this  realme,  for  the  idolatrie 

and  other  abominations  committed  in  the  same,  which  shall  not  ceasse  till  that  it 

be  suppressed." 

15G1.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  135 

intolerable  to  them,  to  be  constrained  by  you  in  maters  of  con- 
science. For  the  duetie  due  to  God  cannot  be  given  to  anie  other 
without  offense  of  his  Majestic.' 

" '  Why,'  said  she,  '  God  doth  command  subjects  to  be  obedient 
to  their  princes ;  and  commandeth  princes  to  reade  his  law,  and 
governe  thereby  themselves  and  the  people  committed  to  their 
charges.'  '  Yea,  Madame,'  quoth  I,  '  in  tliese  things  that  be  not 
against  his  commandements.'  ['  WeiU,'  quoth  she,  '  I  will  be  plaine 
with  you :  the  religioun  which  I  professe,  I  tak  to  be  tlie  most 
acceptable  to  God,  and,  indeid,  neither  doe  I  know,  nor  desire  to 
know,  anie  other.'  Constancie  bccometh  all  folkes  weill,  but  none 
better  than  princes,  and  suche  as  have  ride  over  realmes,  and  spe- 
ciaUie  in  maters  of  rehgioun.^  I  have  been  brought  up,'  quoth 
she,  '  in  this  religioun  ;  and  who  might  credite  me  in  anie  thing 
if  I  sould  shew  myself  light  in  this  case  ?  And  though  I  be  yomig, 
and  not  weill  learned,  yitt  have  I  heard  this  mater  oft  disputed  by 
my  uncle,  my  lord  cardinall,  with  some  that  thought  they  could 
say  somewhat  in  the  mater ;  and  I  found  therin  no  great  reasoun 
to  change  my  opinioun.'  ^ 

"  '  Madame,'  quoth  I,  '  if  you  will  judge  weill  in  that  mater,  you 
may  be  conversant  in  the  Scriptures,  which  are  the  tuichstone  to 
trie  the  right  frome  the  wrong.  Peradventure  you  are  so  partiaUie 
affected  to  your  uncle's  argument,  tliat  you  could  not  indifferentlie 
consider  the  other  parteis.  Yitt  this  I  assure  you,  Madame,  your 
uncle,  my  lord  cardinall,  in  conference  with  me  about  these  maters, 
hath  confessed,  that  there  be  great  errours  and  abuses  come  into 
the  church,  and  great  disorders  in  the  ministers  and  cleargie,  inso- 
muche  that  he  desired  and  wished  that  there  might  be  a  reforma- 
tioun  of  the  one  and  the  other.'  ^     '  I  have  oftentimes  heard  liim 

'  "  The  consecration  of  the  Cardinall  will  not  suffer  you." 

2  "  The  Turk  is  als  constant  in  his  Alcoron,  as  the  Pope  and  his  sect  are  in  his 

3  u  Neither  yet  did  Caiphas,  when  Christ  Jous  did  reasoun  in  his  presence.     But 
what  was  the  Cardinall  compelled  to  confessc  at  Poissie  ?" 

'  "  But  the  devill  would  putt  order  to  himself." 

136  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

say  the  like,'  quoth  she.  Then  I  said,  '  Weill,  I  trust  God  will 
inspire  all  you  that  be  princes,  that  there  may  be  some  good  order 
takin  in  this  mater,  so  as  there  may  be  an  unitie  in  religioun  through 
all  Christendome.'  '  God  grant !'  quoth  she  ;  '  but  for  my  part, 
you  may  perceave  that  I  am  none  of  these  that  will  change  my 
religioun  cverie  yeere.^  And,  as  I  told  you  in  the  beginning,  I 
meane  to  constraine  none  of  my  subjects,  but  would  wish  they 
were  all  as  I  am ;  and  I  trust  they  sould  have  no  support  to  con- 
straine me.  I  will  send  Monsieur  d'Osell  to  you,'  quoth  she,  '  be- 
fore he  goe,  to  know  whether  yee  will  anie  thing  into  England. 
I  pray  you  so  order  yourself  in  his  mater  betwixt  the  queene,  my 
good  sister,  and  me,  that  there  may  be  perfyte  and  assured  amitie 
betwixt  us ;  for  I  know,'  quoth  she,  '  ministers  may  doe  muche 
good  and  harme.'  I  told  her,  I  would  faithftiUie  and  truelie  make 
declaratioun  of  all  that  she  had  said  to  me  unto  your  Majestic,  and 
trusted  that  she  sould  so  satisfie  your  Majestic  by  Monsieur  d'Osell 
in  all  things,  as  I  sould  heerafter  have  no  more  occasiouns  to  treate 
with  her  of  anie  things,  but  of  the  increasse  of  amitie.  There  sould 
be  no  want  therin  on  her  behalfc.  This  is  the  effect  of  the  Queene 
of  Scotland's  answere  to  your  Majestie's  demand  of  the  said  rati- 
ficatioun,  and  of  my  negociatioun  with  her  at  this  time." 


These  advertisements  somewhat  exasperated,  and  not  without 
caus,  the  Queene  of  England.  For  the  armes  of  England  were 
before  usurped  by  the  queene  and  her  husband,  and  Queene  Eliza- 
beth rci)utcd  by  the  Gwisians  little  better  than  a  bastard.  Our 
queene  tooke  no  little  pleasure,  speciallie  after  her  husband  was 
dead,  of  this  title  ;  for,  thought  she,  "  the  shew  of  England  sail 
allure  manic  wowcrs  to  me."     The  Gwisians  and  the  Papists  of 

'  "  Change  it  not  boforo  you  havo  it,  for  dancin;^  and  her  sister  is  the  ground  of 
that  which  yitt  yee  liave. ' 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  137 

both  the  reahnes  did  not  a  little  animate  her  in  that  persute.  The 
Queene  of  England,  according  to  her  promise,  ratifeid  the  treatie 
of  peace  contracted  at  Leith,  by  her  scale  and  subscriptioun  ; 
but  our  queene  frustrated  her  expectatioun  with  shifts  and  dela- 
tours ;  wherupon  this  Letter  following  was  sent  to  the  nobilitie  and 
states  of  Scotland  : 


"  Right  trustie  and  right  inteerlie  beloved  cousins,  we  greetc 
you.  We  doubt  not  but  as  our  meaning  is,  and  hath  beene  alwayes 
sithence  our  raigne,  in  the  sight  of  Almightie  God,  straight  and 
direct  towards  the  advancement  of  his  honour  and  truth  in  reli- 
gioun,  and,  consequentlie,  to  procure  peace  and  mainteane  concord 
betwixt  both  these  realmes  of  England  and  Scotland,  so  also  our 
outward  acts  have  weill  declared  the  same  to  the  world,  and  spe- 
ciallie  to  you,  being  our  nighbours,  who  have  tasted  and  proved  in 
these,  our  freindship  and  earnest  goodwill,  more  than  we  thinke 
anie  of  your  antecessors  have  ever  receaved  frome  hence ;  yea, 
more  than  a  great  number  of  yourselves  could  weill  hope  of  us, 
all  former  exemplcs  being  weill  weighed  and  considered.  And  this 
we  have  to  rejoice  of.  And  so  may  yee  be  glade  that  where,  in  the 
begmning  of  the  troubles  in  that  countrie,  and  of  our  succours 
meant  for  you,  the  jealousie,  or  rather  the  malice  of  diverse,  both 
in  that  realme  and  others,  was  suche,  both  to  deprive  us  in  the  yecld- 
ing,  and  you  in  requiring,  our  aide,  that  we  were  noted  to  have 
meaned  the  surprise  of  that  realme,  by  depriving  your  soverane,  the 
queene,  of  her  crowne  ;  and  you,  or  the  greatest  part  of  you,  to  have 
intended  by  our  succours  the  like  ;  and  either  to  prcfcrrc  some 
others  to  the  crowne,  or  eUis  to  make  of  that  monarchic  a  commoun 
weale ;  maters  verie  slanderous  and  false.  But  the  end  and  dcter- 
minatioun,  yea,  the  whole  course  and  processe  of  the  actioun  on 
both  our  parts  have  manifested,  both  to  the  slandcrert;  and  to  all 
others,  that  nothing  was  more  meant  and  pro.scciitcd  than  to  csta- 
blishc  your  soverane,  the  queene,  our  cousin  and  si^-tcr,  in  her  estate 

138  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

and  crowne,  the  possessioun  wherof  was  in  the  hands  of  strangers. 
And  although  no  words  coukl  weill  satisfie  their  maHce,  yitt  our 
deeds  doe  declare,  that  no  thing  was  sought,  but  the  restitutioun 
of  that  realme  to  the  ancient  libertie,  and  as  it  were,  to  redeeme 
it  from  captivitie. 

"  Of  these  our  purposes  and  deeds  there  remaineth,  among  other 
arguments,  good  testimonie,  by  a  solemne  treatie  and  accord  made 
the  last  yeere  at  Edinburgh,  by  commissioners  sent  from  us  and 
your  queene  with  full  authoritie  in  writting  under  both  om*  hands, 
and  the  Great  Scales  of  both  our  realmes,  in  suche  maner  as  other 
princes,  our  progenitors,  have  alwise  used.  By  which  treatie  and 
accord,  either  of  us  have  fullie  accorded  with  other,  to  keepe  good 
peace  and  amitie  betwixt  ovu'selves,  our  countreis,  and  subjects. 
And,  in  the  same  also,  a  good  accord  is  made,  not  onlie  of  certan 
querrells  happened  betwixt  us,  but  also  of  some  differences  betwixt 
the  ministers  of  the  late  Frenche  king,  your  soverane's  husband, 
and  you,  the  estats  of  that  realme,  for  the  alteratioun  of  lawes  and 
customes  of  that  countrie  attempted  by  them.  Upon  which  accord, 
there  made  and  concluded,  hath  hitherto  followed,  as  you  know, 
suretie  to  your  soverane's  estate,  quietnesse  to  yourselves,  and  a 
better  peace  betwixt  both  the  realmes  than  ever  was  heard  of  in 
anie  time  past. 

"  Neverthelesse,  hoAV  it  happeneth  we  know  not,  that  yom*  sove- 
rane,  either  not  knowing  in  this  part  her  owne  fclicitie,  or  eUes 
dangerouslie  seduced  by  perverse  counsell,  wherof  we  woiUd  be 
most  soric,  being  of  late  at  sundrie  times  required  by  us,  according 
to  her  band  remaining  with  us,  signed  with  her  owne  hand,  and 
sealed  with  the  Great  Scale  of  that  realme,  and  allowed  by  you, 
being  the  estats  of  the  same,  to  ratifie  her  said  treatie  in  like  maner 
as  we  by  writting  have  done,  and  are  readie  to  deliver  it  to  her, 
maketli  suche  dilatorie  answcrcs  therunto,  as  Avhat  Ave  sail  judge 
therof,  we  perceave  by  her  answere,  that  it  is  meetc  to  requu'e  of 
you.     For,  although  she  had  alwayes  answered  since  the  death  of 
lier  husband,  that  in  this  mater  she  would  first  understand  the 
mindes  of  certan  of  you  before  she  would  make  answere  ;  and  so 
having  now,  of  long  time,  suspended  our  expectatioun,  in  the  end. 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLiVND.  139 

notwithstanding  that  she  had  conference  both  by  messingers,  and 
by  some  of  yourselves  being  with  her,  yitt  she  still  delayed  it ;  al 
ledging  to  our  ambassader  in  France,  (who  said  that  this  treatie 
was  made  by  your  consents,)  it  was  not  by  consent  of  you  all,  and 
so  would  have  us  to  forbeare,  untill  she  sail  returne  in  that  her 

"  And,  now,  seing  this  lier  answere  depended,  as  it  sould  seeme  by 
her  words,  upon  your  opinions,  we  cannot  but  plainlie  lett  you  all 
understand,  that  this  mauer  of  answere,  without  some  more  fruict, 
cannot  long  content  us.  We  have  meant  weill  to  our  sister,  your 
qucene,  in  time  of  offence  given  to  us  by  her.  We  did  plainlie, 
without  dissimulatioun,  charge  her  in  her  owne  doubtful!  state ; 
Avhill  strangers  possessed  her  realme,  we  stayed  it  frome  danger ; 
and  now  having  promised  to  keep  good  peace  with  her  and  you, 
her  subjects,  we  have  hitherto  observed  it,  and  sail  be  sorie  if  either 
yee  or  she  sail  give  us  contrarie  cans.  In  a  mater  so  profitable  to 
both  the  realmes,  w^e  think  it  strange,  that  your  queene  hath  no 
better  advice ;  and,  therefore,  we  doe  require  you  all,  being  the  es- 
tates of  that  realme,  upon  whome  the  burthein  resteth,  to  consider 
this  mater  deepelie,  and  to  make  us  answere  whereunto  we  may 
trust.  And  if  yee  sail  thinke  meete  she  sail  thus  leave  the  peace 
imperfyte,  by  breaking  her  solemne  promise,  contrarie  to  the  order 
of  all  princes,  we  sail  be  wcill  content  to  accept  your  answere,  and 
sail  be  als  carelesse  to  see  the  peace  keeped,  as  yee  sail  give  us  cans. 
And  doubt  not,  by  the  grace  of  God,  but  whosoever  of  you  sail  first 
inclyne  thereto,  sail  soonest  repent.  You  must  be  content  with 
our  plaine  writting.  And,  on  the  other  side,  if  you  continue  all  in 
one  minde  to  have  the  peace  inviolablie  keeped,  and  sail  so  by 
your  advice  procure  the  queene  to  ratifie  it,  we  also  promise  you, 
that  we  will  also  continue  our  good  dispositioun  to  keepe  tlic  same 
in  suche  good  termcs  as  noAV  it  is  :  and  in  so  doing,  the  honour  of 
Almightie  God  saU  be  duelie  sought  and  promoted  in  both  realracs, 
the  queene,  your  soverane,  sail  injoy  her  estate  Avith  surctie,  and 
yourselves  possessc  that  which  you  have  with  tranquilitic,  to  the 
inci'easse  of  yom*  familcis  and  posteriteis,  whicli,  by  the  frequent 

140  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

warres  heeretoforej  your  antecessors  never  had  long  in  one  estate. 
To  conclude,  we  require  you  to  advertise  us  of  what  minde  yee  be  ; 
speciallie,  if  you  all  continue  in  that  minde,  that  you  meane  to  have 
the  peace  betwixt  both  the  realmes  perpetuallie  keeped.  And  if 
yee  sail  forbeare  anie  long  time  to  advertise  us,  yee  sail  give  to  us 
some  occasioun  of  doubt,  wherof  more  hurt  may  grow  than  good. 
From,"  etc. 



These  letters  receaved  and  perused,  albeit  the  estats  could  not  be 
conveened,  yitt  did  the  counsell,  and  some  others  also  in  parti- 
cular, returne  answeres  with  reasonable  diligence.  The  tenor  of  the 
counsell's  letter  was  this  :— 

"  Please  your  Majestic,  that  with  judgement  we  have  advised 
your  Majestie's  letters.     And,  albeit  the  whole   estats   could  not 
suddanlie  be  assembled,  yitt  we  thought  expedient  to  signifie  some- 
what of  our  mindes  unto  your  Majestic.    Farre  be  it  frome  us,  that 
either  we  take  upon  us  that  infamie  before  the  world,  or  grudge  of 
conscience  before  our  God,  that  we  sould  lightlie  esteeme  the  ob- 
servatioun  of  that  peace  latelie  contracted  betwixt  these  two  reahnes. 
By  what  motives  our  soverane  delayed  the  ratification  therof,  we 
cannot  tell.    But  of  us  (of  us,  we  say,  Madame,  that  have  in  God's 
presence  protested  fidelitie  in  our  promise)  her  Grace  had  none. 
Your  Majestic  cannot  be  ignorant,  that  in  this  realme  there  are 
manic  enemeis  ;  and,  farther,  that  our  soverane  hath  counsellers, 
whose  judgement  she  in  all  causes  preferred  to  ours.     Our  obedi- 
ence bindeth  us,  not  onlie  reverentlie  to  speeke  and  write  of  our  so- 
verane, but  also  to  judge  and  thinke.    And  yitt  your  Majestic  may 
be  Weill  assured,  that  in  us  sail  be  noted  no  blame,  if  that  peace  be 
not  ratifeid  to  your  Majestie's  contentment :  for  God  is  our  witnesse, 
that  our  clicefe  care  in  this  earth,  nixt  the  glorie  of  our  God,  is  that 
constant  peace  may  remainc  betwixt  these  two  realmes,  wherof  your 
Majestic  and  realme  may  have  sure  experience  so  long  as  our  coun- 

loGl.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  141 

sell  or  votes  may  stay  the  contrarie.  The  benefite  that  we  have 
receaved  is  so  recent,  that  we  cannot  suddanlie  burie  it  in  forget- 
fulnesse.  We  would  desire  your  Majestic  rather  to  be  pers waded 
of  us,  that  we,  to  our  power,  will  studie  to  leave  it  in  remembrance 
to  om*  posteritie.  And  thus,  with  lawfull  and  humble  commenda- 
tioun  of  our  service,  we  committ  your  Majestic  to  the  protectioun 
of  the  Omnipotent.     At  Edinburgh,  the  16th  day  of  Julie,  1561." 


Some  dealt  more  sharplie  with  the  messingcrs,  and  willed  them 
not  to  accuse  nor  threaten  so  sharpelie,  till  they  were  able  to  con- 
vict suche  as  had  promised  fidelitie  of  some  evident  faile ;  which, 
although  they  were  able  to  lay  to  the  charge  of  some,  yitt  respect 
would  be  had  to  suche  as  long  had  declared  themselves  constant 
procurers  of  peace  and  quietnesse.  In  the  meane  time,  IMr  Stephen 
Wilson,  Mr  Johne  Leslie,  called  Nolumus  and  Volumus,  Mr  James 
Thornton,  and  others  that  lived  by  ti'affick  with  the  Roman  Anti- 
christ, directed  letters,  some  to  the  Pope,  some  to  the  Cardinall  of 
Lorane,  some  to  our  queene, 


The  English  queene  not  being  satisfeid  with  the  answxres  of  our 
queene,  neither  for  the  wrong  that  was  done  in  usurping  her  armes, 
nor  by  anie  securitie  of  absteaning  in  time  to  come,  was  not  a  little 
discontented.  Monsieur  d'Osell,  who  was  sent  to  receave  the  forts 
of  Dumbar  and  Inchkeith  from  Monsieur  Charle  Boys,  and  to  keepe 
them  till  her  comming,  was  stayed  in  his  passage  through  England, 
and  came  no  farther  than  Londoun.  Our  queene  was  convoyed 
from  Parise  to  Calice,  with  her  six  uncles,  the  Dukes  of  Gwise 
and  d'Awmall,  the  Cardinall  of  Lorane  and  Gwise,  the  Grand 
Pryour,  and  the  Marquesse  d'Albeuf,  the  Duke  of  Nemeurs,  and 
other  her  freinds  and  kinsmen.  Two  galeycs  and  certane  other 
shippes  were  px'epared  for  her  convoy  to  Scotland.     Her  uncles, 

142  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

d'Awmall,  the  Grand  Pryour,  d'Albeuf,  Monsieur  d'Anveill,  the 
Constable's  sonne,  and  others  of  inferiour  rank,  accompaneid  her. 
She  arrived  at  Leith,  the  20th  day  of  August.  The  English  queene 
had  a  navie  in  readinesse,  under  colom-  to  pursue  pyrats.  Others 
doe  interpretc,  that  there  was  an  intentioun  to  intercept  the  queene 
by  the  way,  in  case  she  intended  to  passe  by  without  her  consent. 
That  Lord  James  was  privie  to  this  plott,  as  some  maliciousHe  al- 
ledo-e,  there  is  no  likelihood  ;  for  our  queene  was  so  farre  from  sus- 
pecting hhn,  that  she  created  him  Erie  of  Murrey,  she  Avas  so  weill 
pleased  with  his  service.  Whatsoever  was  the  Queene  of  England 
her  intent,  the  mist  was  so  thicke,  that  our  queene  past  by ;  and 
onhe  one  shippe,  wherin  the  Eric  of  Eglinton  was  a  passinger,  was 
takin,  and  brought  to  London,  but  soone  after  sett  free  againe. 


Queene  Marie  arrived  betwixt  seven  and  eight  houres  in  the 
morning,  the  20th  of  August.  She  brought  with  her  als  faire  Jew- 
ells, pretious  stones,  and  pearles,  as  were  to  be  found  in  Europ. 
Her  tapis  trie  and  other  stufFe  was  brought  to  Leith  in  October  fol- 
lowing. In  the  memorie  of  man  was  never  scene,  that  day  of  the 
yeere,  a  more  darke  and  unpleasant  face  of  the  heaven,  than  was  at 
her  arrivall,  which  continued  two  dayes  after;  for  beside  muche 
raine,  the  mist  was  so  thicke,  and  the  day  so  darke,  that  skarse 
could  anie  man  espie  another  the  lenth  of  two  paire  of  butts.  The 
sunne  was  not  scene  to  shyne  two  dayes  before,  nor  two  dayes 
after.  The  multitude  understanding  of  her  arrivall  by  the  sound 
of  the  galey  cannons,  repaired  in  great  numbers  to  Leith.  She 
was  honorablie  receavcd  by  the  Erie  of  Argile,  the  Lord  Areskine, 
Lord  James,  and  other  noblemen,  and  the  citicens  of  Edinburgh. 


Becaus  the  palace  of  llalyrudhous  was  not  sufhcientlie  prepared, 
by  reasoun  of  her  suddan  comming,  she  stayed  in  Leith  till  towards 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  143 

the  evening.  The  seditious  craftsmen,  who  had  latelie  violated  the 
authoritie  of  the  magistrats,  mett  her  betwixt  Leith  and  Edinburgh, 
and  craved  her  pardoun ;  which  was  easiUe  granted,  becaus  what 
was  done  was  done  in  contempt  of  rehgioun.  Fires  of  joy  w^ere 
sett  fiu'th  that  night.  Some  honest  citicens  went,  accompaneid 
with  some  musicians,  and  saluted  her  at  her  chamber  window  with 
musicke.  She  was  so  Aveill  pleased  with  the  melodic,  as  she  al- 
ledgcd,  that  she  willed  the  same  to  be  continued  some  nights 


The  lords  repaired  to  her  from  all  quarters.  Nothing  was  knowne 
but  mirth  till  the  Lord's  day  following,  which  was  the  24th  of  Au- 
gust, when  preparatioun  beganne  to  be  made  for  the  idol,  the 
masse.  The  hearts  of  the  godlie  beganne  to  swell.  Some  said 
plainlie,  "  Sail  that  idol  be  suffered  to  take  place  againe  witliin  this 
realme  ?  It  sail  not."  The  Master  of  Lindsay,  the  gentlemen  of 
Fife,  and  others,  cried  out  plainlie,  in  the  Abbey  closes,  "  The  ido- 
latrous preest  sail  dee  the  death,  according  to  God's  law  !"  Whill 
one  was  careing  the  wax  candels  through  the  haU  to  the  chappell, 
the  candels  were  brokiu,  and  if  some  of  the  queene's  houshold  had 
not  come  in  time  to  helpe,  the  rest  of  the  furnitm-e  had  bccne 
throwne  doun.  This  fact  was  interpreted  divcrsHe.  Some  blamed 
it  as  too  great  boldnesse ;  others  thought  that  men's  patience  was 
tryed.  Some  said,  the  preest  was  worthic  to  be  punished  ac- 
cording to  God's  law.  No  Papist,  nor  anie  that  came  from  France, 
durst  whisper.  But  Lord  James,  the  man  whome  all  the  god- 
lie  did  reverence,  tooke  upon  him  the  keeping  of  the  chappell 
doorc.  lie  pretended  he  would  stoppe  all  Scots  to  enter  ;  but  the 
truthe  was,  he  did  it,  that  none  sould  trouble  the  preest.  After 
masse  said,  the  preest  was  committed  to  the  protectioim  of  Lord 
Jolme,  Pryour  of  Coldinghame,  and  Lord  Robert,  Pry  our  of  Ilaly- 
rudhous,  who  then  were  both  professours.  So  the  godlie  departed 
with  greefe  of  heart.     After  noone  they  repau'cd  to  the  Abbey  in 

144  calderwood's  historie  1501. 

great  companeis,  and  signifeid  plainlie,  that  tliey  could  not  suffer 
the  land  which  God,  by  his  mightie  power,  had  delivered  fi-om  ido- 
latrie,  to  be  polluted  againe  before  their  eyes.  Then  followed 
complaint  upon  complaint.  Her  OAvne  servants,  who  had  no  re- 
missioun  of  sinnes  but  by  vertue  of  the  masse,  cried  out,  that  they 
would  returne  to  France  without  delay :  they  would  not  live  with- 
out the  masse.  The  counsell  considered  upon  the  nixt  remedie. 
Politick  men  were  sent  to  the  gentlemen  with  these  and  the  like 
perswasiouns  :  "  Fy,  alas !  will  we  chase  our  soverane  frome  us  ?  She 
will  returne  incontinent  to  her  galeyes,  and  then,  what  will  all  the 
realme  say  of  us  ?  May  we  not  suffer  her  a  little  while  ?  We 
doubt  not  but  she  will  desist.  If  we  were  not  assured  she  might 
be  wonne,  we  sould  be  as  great  enemeis  to  her  masse  as  yee  sould 
be.  Her  uncles  will  not  stay ;  and  after  their  departure,  we  sail 
rule  all  at  our  pleasure.  Would  we  not  be  als  loath  to  endanger 
religioun  as  anie  of  you  ?"  With  these  and  the  like  speeches  the 
fervencie  of  the  brethrein  was  quenched,  and  an  act  framed,  the 
tenor  wherof  followeth  : — . 

"  Apud  Edinburgh,  25  Augusti,  156] . 

"  Forsamekle  as  the  queene's  Majestic  hath  understand  the  great 
inconveniences  that  may  come  through  the  divisioun  presentlie  stand- 
ing in  this  realme  for  the  difference  in  maters  of  religioun,  that  her 
Majestic  is  most  desirous  to  see  it  pacifeid  by  a  good  order,  to  the 
honour  of  God,  and  tranquilitie  of  her  realme,  and  meanes  to  make 
the  same  by  the  advice  of  her  estats,  so  soone  as  convenientlie 
may  be  ;  and  that  her  Majestie's  godlie  resolutioun  may  be  hindered 
greatlie,  in  case  anie  tumult  or  sedition  be  raised  among  the  leiges, 
if  anie  alteration  or  novation  be  preassed  at,  or  attempted,  before 
that  the  order  be  established;  therefore,  for  eshcwing  these  in- 
conveniences, her  Majestic  ordeans  letters  to  be  directed,  to  charge 
all  and  sundrie  her  leiges,  by  open  proclamation  at  the  Mercat 
Croce  of  Edinburgh,  and  other  places  needfuU,  thu  t  they  and  everie 
one  of  them  content  themselves  in  quietnesse,  keep  silence  and 
civill  societie  among  themselves,  and  in  the  meano  time,  whill  the 


1501.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  145 

estats  of  the  realme  may  be  assembled,  and  that  her  Majestic  have 
takin  a  finall  order  by  their  advice,  and  publick  consent,  which  her 
Majestic  hopeth  sail  be  to  the  contentment  of  the  whole :  That 
none  of  them  tak  upon  hand,  privatlie  or  publicklic,  to  make  anie 
alteratioun  or  innovatioim  of  the  estate  of  religioun,  or  attempt  anie 
thing  against  the  same,  which  her  Majestic  found  publicklie  and 
universalhe  standing  at  her  Majestic's  arrivall  in  this  her  realme, 
under  the  paine  of  death.  With  certification,  if  anie  subject  in  the 
realme  sail  come  in  the  contrarie  hccrof,  he  sail  be  esteemed  and 
holdin  a  seditious  person,  and  raiser  of  tumult ;  and  the  said  paine 
sail  be  executed  against  him  with  all  rigour,  to  the  exemplc  of 
others.  Attour,  her  Majestic,  with  advice  of  her  Lords  of  Secreit 
Counsell,  commands  and  charges  all  her  leiges,  that  none  of  them 
take  upon  hand  to  molest  or  trouble  anie  of  her  domestical!  ser- 
vants, or  persons  whatsomever,  come  furth  of  France  in  her  Grace's 
companie  at  this  time,  in  word,  deed,  or  countenance,  for  anie  cans 
whatsomever,  either  within  the  palace  or  without,  or  mak  anie  de- 
risioun  or  invasioun  upon  anie  of  them,  under  whatsomever  colour 
or  pretence,  under  the  said  paine  of  death ;  albeit  her  Majestic  be 
sufficientlie  perswaded,  that  her  good  and  loving  subjects  would 
doe  the  same,  for  the  reverence  and  feare  they  beare  to  her  persoun 
and  authoritie,  notwithstanding  no  suche  commandement  were 


This  act,  made  by  suche  as  professed  true  religioun,  (for  Papists 
had  neither  power  nor  vote  at  thiit  time  in  counsell,)  was  proclamed 
at  the  Mercat  Croce  of  Edinburgh,  upon  Monday  the  25th  of  Au- 
gust. None  made  oppositioun,  but  onlie  the  Erie  of  Arraii,  who 
protested,  that  the  lawes  of  God  and  the  countrie  made  against 
idolaters,  hearers  and  sayers  of  masse,  be  not  violated.  The  tenor 
of  the  protestation  followeth  : — 

"  In  so  farre  as  by  this  proclamatioun  it  is  understand  by  the 
VOL.  II.  K 

14()  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

Kirk  of  God,  and  members  therof,  that  the  queene's  Grace  is 
mynded,  that  the  true  rehgioun  and  worship  elles  established  pro- 
ceed fordward  that  it  may  daylie  increasse  untill  the  parhament, 
that  order  may  then  be  taken  for  extii'pation  of  all  idolatrie  within 
this  realme ;  we  render  most  heartie  thankes  unto  the  Lord  our 
God  for  her  Grace's  good  minde  ;  eamestlie  praying  that  it  might 
be  encreassed  in  her  Highness,  to  the  honour  and  glorie  of  his  name, 
and  Weill  of  his  Kirk  within  this  realme.  And  as  tuiching  the  mo- 
lestatioun  of  her  Highness'  servants,  we  suppose  that  none  darre  be 
so  bold  as  once  to  move  their  finger  at  them,  in  doing  of  their  law- 
full  bussinesse.  And  as  for  us,  we  have  learned  at  our  Master 
Christ's  schoole  to  keepe  peace  vnth  all  men.  And,  therefore,  for 
om'  part,  we  will  promise  that  obedience  unto  her  Majestic,  (as  is 
our  duetie,)  that  none  of  her  servants  sail  be  molested,  troubled,  or 
once  tuiched  by  the  Kirk,  or  anie  member  tlierof,  in  doing  their 
lawfull  efFaires.  But  since  that  God  hath  said,  that  the  idolater 
sail  dee  the  death,  we  protest  solemnlie  in  the  presence  of  God,  and 
in  the  eares  of  the  whole  people  that  heare  this  proclamation,  and 
speciallie  in  presence  of  you,  Lyon  Herald,  and  the  rest  of  your 
colleagues,  etc.,  makers  of  this  proclamatioun,  that  if  anie  of  her 
servants  sail  committ  idolatrie,  specialhe  say  masse,  participat  there- 
with, or  take  the  defense  therof,  (which  we  were  loath  sould  be  in 
her  Grace's  companie,)  in  that  case,  that  this  proclamation  be 
not  extended  to  them  in  that  behalfe,  no  more  nor  if  they  com- 
mitt slaughter  or  murther,  seing  the  one  is  muche  more  abominable 
and  odious  in  the  sight  of  God  than  the  other ;  but  that  it  may  be 
lawfull  to  inflict  upon  them  the  pames  conteaned  in  God's  Word 
against  idolaters,  where  ever  they  may  be  apprehended,  without  fa- 
vour. And  this  our  protestatioun  we  desire  you  to  notifie  unto  her 
Grace,  and  give  her  the  copie  therof,  least  her  Highness  sould  sus- 
pect an  uproare,  if  we  sould  all  come  and  present  the  same. 
"  At  Edinburgh,  the  day  and  yeere  forsaid." 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  147 


This  boldncssc  did  somwhat  exasperat  the  qucene,  and  suche  as 
favoured  lier  in  that  point.  As  the  Lords,  then  called  of  the  Con- 
gregatioun,  repaired  to  the  toun,  at  the  first  they  seemed  wonder- 
fullie  offended  that  the  masse  was  permitted.  Evcrie  man,  as  he 
came,  accused  them  that  were  before  him.  But  after  they  had  re- 
mained a  space,  they  were  as  calme  themselves.  Heerupon,  a  zeal- 
ous man,  Kobert  Campbell  of  Kingzeancleughe,  said  to  the  Lord 
Uchiltrie,  "  Now,  my  lord,  yee  are  come,  and  almost  the  last  of  all. 
I  perceave  that  the  fierie  edge  is  not  yitt  off  you.  But  I  feare  yee 
become  als  calme  as  the  rest,  when  the  holie  water  of  the  court  sail 
be  sprinkled  upon  you.  For  I  have  beene  heere  now  five  daycs. 
At  the  first,  I  heard  everie  man,  when  he  came,  say,  '  Lett  us  hang 
the  preest !'  But  after  they  had  beene  twice  or  thrice  in  the  Abbey, 
aU  their  fervencie  was  cooled.  I  thinke  there  be  some  enchantment 
in  the  court,  wherby  men  are  bewitched."  And,  indeid,  the  queene's 
flattering  words,  on  the  one  side,  ever  crying,  "  Conscience !  con- 
science !  it  is  a  sore  mater  to  constraine  the  conscience  ;"  and  the 
subtile  perswasiouns  of  her  supposts,  men  judged  to  be  otherwise 
fervent  for  religion,  upon  the  other  part,  putting  men  in  hope  she 
would  be  content  to  heare  the  preachings,  and  might  be  Avonne, 
made  all  to  suflfer  and  winke  at  her  masse  for  a  time. 



The  nixt  Lord's  day  Mr  Knox  inveyed  against  idolatrie,  and  de- 
clared what  plagues  God  had  inflicted  upon  nations  for  the  same, 
lie  added,  that  one  masse  was  more  fearful!  to  him  than  if  ten 
thowsand  armed  enemeis  were  landed  in  anie  part  of  the  rcahnc, 
to  suppresse  religioun.    "  For,"  said  he,  "  in  our  God  there  is  strenth 


to  confound  multitudes,  if  we  unfainedlic  depend  upon  hiui ;  wlier- 
of  we  have  had  experience.  But  Avhen  Ave  joyne  hand  Avith  idola- 
trie,  there  is  no  doubt  but  God's  amiable  presence  and  comfortable 
defense  sail  depart  fi'ome  us.  And,  then,  I  feai*e,  alas  !  that  expe- 
rience sail  teache,  to  the  greefe  of  manie,  what  sail  then  become  of 
us."  The  guiders  of  the  court  jested,  and  said  plainlie,  that  suche 
feare  was  no  point  of  their  faith;  that  his  admonitioun  was  untyme- 
lie,  and  beside  his  text.  But  he  repeated  the  same  words  and 
manie  moe,  in  December,  15G5,  Avhen  suche  as  noAv  onlie  main- 
teaned  her  masse  Avere  exiled,  summouned  upon  treasoun,  a  decreit 
of  forfalture  intended  against  them.  He  asked  God  mercic,  in 
the  audience  of  manie,  that  he  was  not  more  A^ehement  and  up- 
right for  suppressing  of  that  idol  in  the  beginning  :  "  For,"  said  he, 
"  albeit  I  spake  that  wliich  offended  some,  Avhich  this  day  they  feele 
to  be  true,  yitt  did  I  not  all  that  I  might  have  done.  For  God 
not  onlie  hath  givin  to  me  knoAvledge,  and  a  tongue,  to  make  the 
impietie  of  that  idol  knowne,  but  also  credite  Avith  manic,  who  Avoidd 
have  putt  in  executioun  God's  judgements,  if  I  Avould  have  con- 
sented thereto.  But  so  carefull  was  I  of  the  commoun  tranquillitie, 
and  loath  to  offend  these  of  Avhome  Fconceaved  a  good  opinioun, 
that  in  secreit  I  travelled  to  mitigat  and  coole  the  fervencie  Avliich 
God  kindled  in  others,  rather  than  to  encurage  them  to  putt  to 
their  hands  to  the  Lord's  warke.  Wherin,  unfainedlie,  I  acknoAA^- 
ledge  myselfe  to  have  done  most  Avickedlie  ;  and  frome  the  bottome 
of  my  heart  crave  God  pardoun,  for  that  I  did  not  Avhat  in  me  lay 
to  suppressc  that  idol  in  the  beginning." 


The  queene,  Avhether  by  the  counsell  of  others,  or  moved  by  herself, 
it  is  uncertan,  had  long  conference  Avith  Mr  Knox,  none  being  pre- 
sent except  Lord  James.  Tavo  gentlemen  stood  in  the  other  end 
of  the  hous.  The  queene  layed  to  his  charge,  that  he  had  raised  a 
number  of  her  subjects  against  her  mother  and  herself:  that  he  had 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  141) 

Avrittiii  ti  booke  against  licr  just  authoritie,  (she  meant  the  treatise 
against   the  regiment    of  weomen,)  which    she  had,  and  against 
which  she  Avould  cans  the  most  learned  in  Europe  to  write  :  that 
he  was  the  author  of"  a  great  seditioun  and  slaughter  in  Enohvud  : 
that  all  that  he  did,  he  did  it  by  necromancie,  as  she  was  informed. 
He  answered,  "  Madame,  will  please  your  Majestic  patientlie  to 
heare  my  simple  answercs  ?     First,  if  to  teache  the  truthe  in  sin- 
ceritie,  to  rebooke  idolatrie,  to  exhort  people  to  worshi])  God  ac- 
cording to  his  Word,  be  to  raise  subjects  against  their  princes, 
then  cannot  I  be  excused.    But,  Madame,  if  the  true  knowledge  of 
God,  and  his  right  worship,  be  the  cheefe  causes  which  must  move 
men  to  obey  frome  their  heart  their  lawflill  princes,  as  it  is  cex'tane 
they  are,  wherin  can  I  be  blamed  ?  I  am  perswaded,  your  Grace 
both   had,    and  prescntlie    hath,  als  unfained  obedience   of  suche 
as  professe  the  truthe  in  this  realme,  as  ever  your  father  or  other 
progenitors  had,  of  these  who  were  called  Bishops.     Tuiching  that 
booke  which  seemeth  so  higlilie  to  offend  your  Majestic,  it  is  true  I 
wrote  it,  and  am  content  that  all  the  learned  in  the  world  judge  of 
it.    I  heare  that  an  English  man  hath  written  against  it,  but  I  have 
not  read  him.     If  he  have  sufiicientlie  improved  my  reasouns,  and 
established  his  owne  assertions,  with  als  evident  testimoneis  as  I 
have  done  mync,  I  sail  confesse  my  errour.    But  I  have  ever  thought, 
and  doe  still  thinke,  that,  by  myself  alone,  I  am  more  able  to  sus- 
teane  my  assertions  in  that  Avorkc,  than  anie  tenne  in  Europe  sail 
be  able  to  confute."     "  Yee  thinke,"  quoth  she,  "  that  I  have  no 
just  authoritie."     "  Please  your  Majestic,"  said  he,  "  learned  men, 
in  all  ages,  have  had  their  judgements  free,  and  often  disngrecing 
from  the  commouu  judgements  of  the  world  ;  and  have  published 
the  same,  both  by  penne  and  tongue.     They  have  borne,  notwith- 
standing, Avith  the  errours  whicli  they  could  not  amend.     Plato,  in 
his  booke  of  the  Commoun  wealth,  damned  manic  things  mainteaned 
in  the  world  ;  yitt  lived  under  suche  formes  of  policic  as  were  re- 
ceaved,  without  troubling  the  estate.     So  have  I,  ]\Iadamo,  coni- 
municat  my  judgement  to  the  world.     If  tlie  estate  find  no  incon- 
venience in  the  regiment  of  a  woinan,  that   which  they  sail  allow. 

150  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

I  sail  not  dissallow,  farther  than  withm  my  owne  breast,  but  sail  be 
als  Weill  content  to  live  under  your  Grace  as  Paul  was  to  live  under 
Nero.  I  trust,  so  long  as  yee  defile  not  your  hands  with  the  blood 
of  the  sancts,  that  neither  I,  nor  that  booke,  sail  harme  you  of  your 
authoritie ;  for  that  booke  was  writtin  speciallie  against  that  wicked 
Jesabell  of  England."  "  But,"  said  she,  "  yee  speeke  of  weomen 
in  general."  "  True  it  is,"  said  he  ;  "  but  wisdome  sould  teache 
your  Grace,  not  to  call  in  question  that  which,  to  this  day,  hath 
not  troubled  your  Majestic,  either  in  person  or  in  authoritie  ;  for 
manie  things  have  beene  impugned  of  late,  which  before  were 
holdin  for  certane  veriteis.  No  man  is  able  to  prove,  that  anie  suche 
questioun  hath  been  moved  in  publick  or  in  secreit.  If  I  would  have 
troubled  your  estate  becaus  yee  are  a  woman,  I  might  have  chosin 
a  time  more  convenient  than  this,  when  your  Majestic  is  at  home. 
But,  Madame,  to  answere  to  the  other  two  imputations ;  I  praise 
God,  that  the  wicked  have  no  other  crimes  to  lay  to  my  charge, 
than  suche  as  the  world  knoweth  to  be  false  :  for  I  was  resident  in 
England  onlie  five  yeeres  ;  two  at  Berwick,  two  at  Newcastell,  one 
at  Londoun.  Now,  if,  during  these  times,  anie  can  prove  there 
was  either  seditioun  or  mutinie  in  these  places,  I  sail  confesse  my 
self  to  have  beene  the  shedder  of  the  blood,  or  mover  of  the  sedi- 
tioun. I  am  not  ashamed  to  averre  farther,  that  God  so  blessed  my 
weake  labours,  that  in  Berwick,  where  there  used  commounlie  to 
fall  furth  slaughter  by  reasoun  of  querells  rysing  among  souldiours, 
there  was  als  great  quietnesse  all  the  time  I  was  there  as  there  is 
this  day  in  Edinburgh.  As  for  the  slaunder  of  magick,  necroman- 
cie,  or  anie  other  art  forbidden  by  God,  I  have  witnesses,  beside  my 
owne  conscience,  all  the  congregatiouns  that  ever  heard  me,  what  I 
spake  against  suche  arts,  and  the  practisers  of  suche  impietie.  It 
behoveth  me  to  beare  patientlie  the  slaunders  of  suche  as  never  de- 
lyted  in  the  veritie,  seing  my  Master  was  slaundered,  as  one  pos- 
sessed with  Belzcbub."  "  Yit,"  said  she,  "  yee  have  taught  the 
people  to  receave  another  religioun  than  their  princes  can  allow. 
How  can  that  doctrine  be  of  God,  seing  God  commandeth  subjects 
to  obey  their  princes  ?"     "  Madame,"  said  he,  "•  as  right  religioun 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  151 

tooke  neither  originall  nor  authoritie  from  worldlie  princes,  but 
frome  the  eternal]  God  above,  so  are  not  subjects  bound  to  frame 
their  religioun  according  to  the  appetite  of  princes  ;  for  often  it  fall- 
eth  flu'th,  that  princes  are  the  most  ignorant  of  all  others  of  true 
religioun.  If  the  people  of  Israel  had  beene  of  the  religioun  of 
Pharaoh,  to  whome  they  were  a  long  time  subjects,  what  religioun 
would  they  have  beene  of  ?  If,  in  the  dayes  of  the  Apostles,  men 
had  reteaned  the  religioun  of  the  Roman  Emperours,  wliat  reli- 
gioun sould  have  beene  upon  the  face  of  the  earth  ?  The  tliree 
childrein  said  expressUe  to  Nebuchadnezar,  '  We  Avill  make  it 
knowne  to  thee,  O  king,  that  we  wiU  not  worship  thy  gods.'  Da- 
niel prayed  publicklie  to  his  God,  against  the  expresse  commande- 
ment  of  Darius."  "  Yitt,"  said  she,  "  none  of  these  lifted  the 
sword  against  their  princes."  "  They  who  obey  not  the  commande- 
raent  givin  doe,"  said  he,  "  in  some  sort  resist."  "  Yitt,"  said  she, 
"  they  resisted  not  by  the  sword."  "  God,"  said  lie,  "  Madame, 
had  not  givin  to  them  the  power  and  the  meanes."  "  Thinke  you, 
then,"  quoth  she,  "  that  subjects,  having  power,  may  I'csist  their 
princes  ?"  "  If  theu*  princes  exceede  bounds,"  quoth  he,  "  Madame, 
they  may  be  resisted  even  by  power  :  for  there  is  not  greater  hon- 
om-  or  obedience  to  be  givin  to  kings  and  princes,  than  God  hath 
commanded  to  be  givin  to  father  and  mother.  If  childrein  joyne 
together  against  their  father,  stricken  with  a  phrenesie,  and  seek- 
ing to  slay  his  owne  childrein ;  apprehend  him,  take  his  sword 
or  other  weapons  frome  him,  bind  his  hands,  and  keepe  him  in  pri- 
son till  his  phrenesie  overpasse ;  doe  they  anie  wrong  ?  or  will  God 
be  offended  with  them  for  hindering  their  father  frome  committing 
horrible  murther  ?  Even  so,  Madame,  if  princes  would  murther  the 
childrein  of  God,  their  subjects,  their  blind  zeale  is  but  a  mad 
phrenesie.  To  tak  the  sword  from  them,  to  bind  their  hands,  and 
cast  them  in  prison,  till  they  be  brought  to  a  sober  minde,  is  not 
disobedience,  but  just  obedience,  becaus  it  agreeth  Avith  the  "Word 
of  God."' 

'   "  No  appearance  at  this  time  of  the  imprisonment  of  Queenc  Mario." — Note  iv 
4hc  MS. 


The  queeue  stood  still,  as  one  amazed,  more  than  a  quarter  of  an 
hour,  and  her  countenance  was  changed.  Lord  James  beganne  to 
interteane  her  with  faire  speeches,  and  demanded,  "  What  hath  of- 
fended you,  Madame  ?"  At  lenth  she  said,  "  Weill,  then,  I  perceave 
my  subjects  must  obey  you,  and  not  me ;  and  sail  doe  what  they 
please,  and  not  what  I  command."  "  God  forbid,"  said  he,  "  that  I  tak 
upon  me  to  command  anie  to  obey  me,  or  to  sett  subjects  at  liber- 
tie  to  doe  what  pleaseth  them.  It  is  my  care,  that  both  princes 
and  subjects  obey  God.  Think  not,  Madame,  that  wrong  is  done 
to  you,  when  yee  are  willed  to  be  subject  to  God ;  for  it  is  he  that 
subjecteth  people  under  princes.  Yea,  God  craveth  that  kings  be 
foster  fathers,  and  queenes  nurses  to  his  people.  This  subjectioun 
to  God,  and  service  to  his  church,  is  the  greatest  dignitie  fleshe  and 
blood  can  gett  upon  earth."  "  But  yee  are  not  the  kirk,"  said  she, 
"  which  I  will  noiu'ish.  I  will  defend  the  kirk  of  Rome,  which  I 
thinke  to  be  the  true  kirk."  "  Your  will,"  said  he,  "  is  no  reasoun, 
nor  will  your  judgement  make  that  Roman  harlot,  polluted  with  all 
kinde  of  spirituall  fornicatioun,  as  weill  in  doctrine  as  in  maners,  to 
be  the  true  spous  of  Christ.  I  offer  to  prove  that  the  kirk  of  the 
Jewes,  which  crucifeid  Christ,  and  denyed  the  Sonne  of  God,  de- 
generated not  so  farre  frome  the  ordinances  and  statuts  of  God, 
as  the  kirk  of  Rome  hath  declynned,  more  than  five  hundreth  yeeres 
since,  frome  that  puritie  of  rehgioun  whicb  was  in  the  day es  of  the 
apostles."  "  My  conscience,"  said  she,  "  perswadeth  me  not  so." 
"  Conscience,"  said  he,  "  requireth  knowledge,  which  I  feare  yee 
want."  "  I  have  both  heard  and  read,"  said  she.  "  So,"  said  he, 
"  did  the  Jewes  who  crucifeid  Christ.  But  have  yee  heard  anie 
teache,  but  suche  as  were  allowed  by  the  Pope  and  his  cardinalls  ?" 
"  Yee  interprete  Scripture,"  said  she,  "  after  one  maner,  and  they 
after  another :  whom  sail  1  beleeve,  or  who  sail  be  judge  ?"  "  Fur- 
ther than  the  AVord  teacheth  you,"  said  he,  "  yee  sail  neither  be- 
leeve the  one  nor  the  other.  The  Word  of  God  is  plaine  in  itself. 
If  there  appeare  anie  obscuritie  in  one  place,  the  Ilolie  Ghost,  who 
is  never  contrarious  to  himself,  cxplaneth  the  same  in  other  places. 
Papists  allcdgo,  that  the  masse  is  the  institutioiui  of  Christ  Jesus,  and 

1561.  or  TliE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  153 

:i  sacrifice  for  the  quicke  and  the  dead ;  we  say,  it  is  but  the  inven- 
tioun  of  man,  and  therefore  an  abomination  before  God,  and  no  sa- 
crifice commanded  by  God.  So  k)ng  as  they  are  able  to  prove  no- 
tliing,  lioAvbeit  all  the  world  beleeve  them,  they  doe  reccave  but 
the  lees  of  men  for  the  truthe  of  God.  The  Word  of  God  doth 
plainlie  assm*e  us,  that  Christ  neither  said,  nor  commanded  to  be 
said,  masse  at  the  last  Supper."  "  Yee  are  too  hard  for  me,"  said 
she  ;  "  but  if  they  were  heere,  whom  I  have  heard,  they  would  an- 
swere  you."  "  Would  to  God,"  said  he,  "  Madame,  the  most 
learned  Papist  in  Europe,  or  whome  yee  would  most  beleeve,  were 
heere  present,  and  that  yee  would  heare  patientlie  the  mater  rea- 
souned  to  the  end  !"  "  Weill,"  said  she,  "  yee  will,  perhaps,  gett 
that  sooner  than  yee  beleeve."'  "  Assuredlie,"  said  he,  "  if  ever  I 
gett  it  in  my  life,  it  is  sooner  than  I  beleeve  :  for  the  ignorant  Pa- 
pist cannot  reasoun  patientlie ;  the  learned  will  never  come  in  your 
audience,  to  have  the  ground  of  their  religioun  searched.  They 
know  they  are  not  able  to  susteane  reasouning,  except  fire  and  sword 
and  their  o^vne  laAves  be  judges."  "  So  say  yee,"  quoth  the  queene. 
"  So  we  have  scene,"  said  he,  "  to  this  day.  For  how  oft  have  they 
beene  required  to  come  to  conference  ;  but  it  could  not  be  obteaned, 
unlesse  themselves  were  admitted  judges.  Therefore,  Madame,  it 
behoveth  me  to  say  againc,  that  they  daiTC  never  dispute,  but 
where  themselves  are  both  judge  and  partie." 

The  queene  was  called  upon  to  dinner.  At  parting  Mr  Knox 
said  to  her,  "  I  pray  God,  Madame,  that  yee  may  be  als  blessed 
within  the  commoun  wealth  of  Scotland,  as  ever  Deborah  was  in 
the  commoun  wealth  of  Israel."  The  Papists  grudged  and  feared 
that  which  they  needed  not.  The  godlie  rejoiced,  and  thought, 
that  at  least  she  would  heare  sermons :  but  they  were  deceaved. 
Mr  Knox  being  asked  by  some  of  his  familiai's,  Avhat  opinion  he  had 
himself  of  the  queene?  "If  there  be  not  in  her,"  said  he,  "a  proud 
minde,  a  craftie  witt,  and  an  indured  heart  against  God  and  his 
truthe,  my  judgement  faileth  me." 

154  calderwood's  histokie  1561. 


When  the  nobilitie  were  convecned,  the  Lords  of  Privie  Coun- 
sell  were  chosm  :  the  duke,  the  Erles  of  Huntlie,  Argile,  Atholl, 
Morton,  Glencarne,  Marshall,  Bothwell;  Lord  Areskine,  Lord 
James,  etc.  Some  were  appointed  to  waite  upon  the  court  by 
course,  but  that  order  endured  not  long. 


Duke  d'AAvmall  returned  with  the  galeyes  to  France,  after  he 
had  stayed  for  a  certane  time.  The  Grand  Pryour  and  d'Anveill 
stayed  somewhat  longer,  and  went  through  England.  D'Albeuf 
stayed  till  the  nixt  spring. 


The  queene  entered  in  her  Progresse  in  September.  She  tra- 
velled frome  Edinburgh  to  Linlithquo ;  from  thence  to  Stirhne ; 
frome  Stirline  to  Sanct  Johnstoun,  Dundie,  and  Sanct  Andrewes, 
all  which  pai'ts  she  polluted  with  the  masse.  Fire  followed  her  in 
the  most  places.  The  Frenche  were  eni'iched  with  the  propynes, 
which  were  givin  by  the  touns  verie  liberaUie. 


In  the  beginning  of  October,  the  queene  returned  to  Edinburgh. 
Great  preparations  were  made  for  her  entric  to  the  toun.  Faine 
would  fooles  have  counterfooted  France.  The  keys  were  delivered 
to  her  by  a  prettic  boy,  descending,  as  it  were,  frome  a  cloud.  She 
heard  the  verses  made  in  her  ownc  commcndatioun  with  delyte, 
and  smyled.     But  when  the  Bible  was  presented,  and  the  praise 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  155 

tlierof  sett  furth,  she  beganne  to  frowne.'  She  could  not  refuse  it 
for  shame ;  but  she  did  little  better,  for  she  gave  it  to  Arthure 
Areskine,  one  of  the  most  pestilent  Papists  Avithin  the  realme. 
The  liquor  of  their  prodigalitie  was  so  sweete  to  her  taste,  that  she 
licked  twice  of  that  boxe  after.  This  was  Balfoui-'s  rule.  The 
queene  cannot  laike  if  the  subjects  have. 



Ai-chibald  Dowglns,Proveist  of  Edinburgh,  Edward  Hope,  Adame 
Foullerton,  etc.,  Bailiffes,  caused  proclame,  according  to  the  cus- 
tome,  the  statuts  of  the  toun  ;  and  among  the  rest,  that  no  adul- 
terer, fornicator,  notorious  drunkard,  masse-moonger,  or  obstinat 
Papist,  that  corrupted  the  people,  suche  as  preests,  friers,  and 
others  of  that  sort,  sould  be  found  within  the  toun,  within  fourtie- 
cight  houres,  under  the  paines  conteaned  in  the  statuts.'^  Without 
cognitiovm  of  tlie  cans,  the  queene  caused  the  proveist  and  bailiifes  to 
be  charged  to  Avaird  in  the  castell,  and  commanded  a  ne^v  electioun 

'  Of  this  part  of  the  pageant  with  Avhich  Mary  was  welcomed  in  her  public  entry 
into  Edinburgh,  the  following  account  is  given  in  the  "  Diurnal  of  Occurcnts  in  Scot- 
land," p.  G8 — "  Quhen  hir  grace  come  fordward  to  the  butter  trone  of  the  said 
burgh,  the  nobilitie  and  convoy  foirsaid  precedaud,  at  the  quhilk  butter  trone  thair 
was  ane  port  made  of  tymber,  in  maist  honourable  maner,  cullorit  with  fyne  coUouris, 
hungiu  with  syndrie  armes  ;  upon  the  quhilk  port  was  singand  certanc  barneis  in  the 
maist  hevinlie  wyis  ;  under  the  quhilk  port  thair  wes  ane  cloud  opynnand  with  four 
levis,  in  the  quhilk  was  put  ane  bony  barne.  And  quhen  the  quenes  hienes  was 
cumand  throw  the  said  port,  the  said  cloud  opynnit,  and  the  barne  discendlt  doun  as 
it  had  beene  ane  angel  1,  and  deliueret  to  her  bicnes  the  keyis  of  the  toun,  togidder 
with  ane  Bybill  and  ane  Psalme  Bulk,  couei'it  with  fyne  purpourit  veluot ;  and  efter 
the  said  barne  had  spoken  some  small  speitches,  he  deliuerit  alsua  to  her  hienes 
three  writtings,  the  tennour  thairof  is  vncertane.  That  being  done,  the  bai'ue  as- 
cendit  in  the  cloud,  and  the  said  cloud  stckit ;  and  thairafter  the  quenis  grace  come 
doun  to  the  tolbuith."  In  the  solemn  pageantries  with  which  the  first  visit  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  into  the  city  of  London  was  welcomed,  only  two  years  previous,  a  similar 
exhibition  was  made,  where  a  child,  personating  Truth,  presented  her  with  an  Eng- 
lish Bible.  The  more  devout  or  more  politic  English  queen  kissed  the  gift,  and 
pressed  it  to  her  bosom. 

-  The  penalties  were,  being  branded  on  the  cheek,  and  carted  through  the  town. 

150  calderwood's  historie  15GI. 

to  be  made  of  proveist  and  bailliffes.  Some  oppouned  to  the  new 
electiouu  for  a  while.  But  when  charge  was  doubled  upon  charge, 
no  man  was  found  to  oppone  himself.  Mr  Thomas  Mackalzean 
was  chosin  proveist.  The  man  was  sufficientlie  qualifeid  for  the 
charge,  but  the  depositioun  of  the  other  was  against  order.  Some 
of  the  burgesses  tliemselves  were  blamed,  that  her  will  was  so  farre 
obeyed.  A  contrarie  proclamatioun  Avas  made,  that  the  toun  sould 
be  patent  to  all  the  queene's  leiges  :  so  murtherers,  adulterers, 
thceves,  Avhoores,  drunkards,  idolaters,  and  all  sort  of  offenders,  gott 
protectioun  under  her  wings. 


Mr  Knox,  in  a  letter  Avrittin  to  Mastresse  Anna  Locke,  the  se- 
cund  of  October,  hath  these  Avords  : — "  The  permissioun  of  that 
odious  idol,  the  masse,  by  suche  as  have  professed  themselves  ene- 
meis  to  the  same,  doth  hourlie  threaten  a  suddane  plague.  I  thrist 
to  change  this  earthlie  tabernacle,  before  that  my  Avretched  heart 
sould  be  assaulted  with  anie  suche  ncAV  dolours.  I  feare  this  my 
long  rest  sail  not  continue.  If  yee,  or  anie  other  thinke  that  I,  or 
anie  other  preacher  within  this  realme,  may  amend  suche  enormi- 
teis,  yee  arc  deceaved ;  for  avc  have  discharged  our  consciences, 
but  rcmedic  appeareth  none,  unlcsse  Ave  Avould  armc  the  hands  of 
the  people  in  Avhome  abideth  yitt  some  sparke  of  God's  feare.  Our 
nobilitie  (I  write  Avith  dolour  of  heart)  beginne  to  find  ease,  good 
service  of  God.  If  they  be  not  troubled  in  their  professioun,  they 
can  Weill  cneugh  abide  the  queene  to  haA'e  her  masse,  yea,  in  her 
owne  chappell,  if  she  like.  She  hath  becne  in  her  progresse,  and 
hath  considered  the  mindcs  of  the  people  for  the  most  part  repug- 
nant to  her  devilish  opinioun ;  and  yitt,  in  her  appeareth  no 
amendiment,  but  an  obstinat  proceeding  frome  evill  to  Avorse.  I 
have  finished  in  open  preaching  the  Gospell  of  Sanct  Johne,  saving 
onlie  one  chapter.  Oft  have  I  craved  the  misereis  of  my  dayes  to 
end  with  the  same." 

150  I.  OF  TIIK  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  157 


The  queene  tooke  upon  her  greater  bolduesse  than  she  and  her 
bleethig  preests  had  attempted  before  ;  for  upon  Alhallow-day  they 
bended  up  their  masse  with  all  mischeevous  solemnitie.  The  mini- 
sters declared  in  publick  the  inconveniences.  Tlie  nobilitie  were 
sufficientlie  admonished  of  their  duetie.  But  as  men,  ledde  Avitli 
afFectioun,  called  in  doubt  that  wherin  they  seemed  not  long  before 
to  have  beene  most  resolute,  to  Avitt,  whether  subjects  might  putt 
to  their  hands  to  suppresse  the  idolatrie  of  the  prince,  there  was 
reasonning  upon  this  questiovm  in  ISIr  James  Makgill,  Clerk  of  Re- 
gister his  house,  betwixt  the  Lord  James,  the  Erles  Morton  and 
Marishall,  Secretarie  Lethington,  the  Justice-Clerk,  ]\Ir  James 
Makgill,  on  the  one  side,  IVIr  Knox,  Mr  Johne  Row,  Mr  George 
Hay,  Mr  Robert  Hammilton,  ministers,  on  the  other  side.  The 
noblemen  and  their  assisters  affirmed,  that  the  subjects  might  not 
lawfullie  take  the  masse  frome  her ;  the  ministers  susteaned  the 
contrarie.  It  was  concluded,  that  the  questioun  sould  be  formed 
and  directed,  with  some  letters,  to  Geneva  for  resolutioun.  Mr 
Knox  offered  his  travells.  Secretare  Lethington  alledged,  that 
there  stood  muche  in  right  informatioun ;  promised  to  write.  The 
event  declared,  that  his  promise  was  onlie  a  shift,  to  drive  time. 
These  that  favoured  the  queene  urged,  that  the  queene  might  have 
free  use  of  her  owne  religioun  in  her  owne  chappell,  for  her  and 
her  houshold.  The  ministers  mainteaned  the  contrarie,  adding, 
that  her  libertie  would  turne  to  their  thraldome  ere  it  was  lone:. 
But  nothing  could  move  suche  as  were  creeping  in  credite ;  so  the 
votes  of  the  lords  prevailed. 


Whill  the  court  was  mindefuU  of  nothing  but  pleasures  and  pro- 
digalitie,  the  borderers  brake  louse.  Lord  James,  made  Lieutenant 
since  the  queene's  arrivall,  as  David  was  made  captan  by  Saul 
against  the  Philistins,  as  was  suspected,  was  sent  to  the  borders  to 

158  oalderwood's  historie  1561. 

represse  them.  Yitt  God  assisted  him,  and  bowed  the  hearts  of 
men  to  fearc  and  obedience.  Bothwell  himself  assisted  him,  but 
he  had  a  remissioun  for  LiddesdaUl.  There  were  hanged  at  the 
court  in  Jedburgh  twentie-eight  of  one  clan.  He  mett  with  the 
Lord  Gray  at  Kelso.  They  agreed  upon  good  order  to  be  keeped 
in  the  borders. 


Whill  Lord  James  was  in  the  borders,  the  queene  tooke  greater 
libertie.  Speeches  escaped  some  time,  which  bewrayed  her  incli- 
natioun  to  tyrannic.  She  consulteth  Avith  her  base  brother,  Johne, 
how  to  gett  a  guard  of  hyred  souldiours.  The  ambitious  man  was 
resolved  to  obey  her  in  all  things,  and  was  therefore  the  deerer  to 
her.  A  fray  was  fained,  as  though  the  Erie  of  Arran  had  enclosed 
the  palace  of  Halyrudhous  about,  and  by  force  would  carie  the 
queene  to  his  castell,  fourteene  myle  frome  thence.  The  inven- 
tioun  had  some  appearance,  becaus  it  was  not  unknowne  to  the 
people  that  the  erle  bare  immoderat  love  to  her,  and  that  her  af- 
fectioun  was  estranged  frome  liim.  The  toun  of  Edinburgh  was 
called  to  watche.  Robert  Lord  Halyrudhous,  and  Johne  Lord 
Coldinghame,  keeped  watche  by  course.  Scouts  were  sent  fiirth, 
and  centinells  commanded,  under  the  paine  of  death,  to  keepe  their 
stations.  These  who  skowred  the  feilds  all  the  night  shew  them- 
selves before  the  palace  gates.  Some  were  offended,  others  jested 
at  this  sport.  The  authors  or  devisers  kno"wing  no  man  durst  con- 
troll  them,  regarded  not  men's  secreit  judgements. 


Soone  after  the  returning  of  Lord  James  frome  the  borders.  Sir 
Peter  Mewtas  came  with  commissioun  frome  the  Queene  of  Eng- 
land, to  require  ratificatioun  of  the  peace  contracted  at  Leith.  She 
answered  as  before,  she  behoved  to  advise,  and  then  sould  send 
answere.     In  pi'csence  of  the  counsell  she  was  grave ;   but  when 

1561.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  159 

she,  her  ficllers,  and  other  dauncing  companiouns,  gott  the  hous 
alone,  there  might  be  seene  unseemelie  scripping,  notwithstanding 
that  she  was  wearing  the  doole  weid.  Her  commoun  spccche  in 
secreit  w^as,  she  saw  nothing  in  Scotland  but  gravitic,  w'hich  she 
could  not  agree  weill  with,  for  she  was  brought  up  in  joyousitic. 
So  termed  she  dancing,  and  other  things  thereto  belonging. 



The  Generall  Assemblie  was  holdin  at  Edinburgh  in  December. 
The  rulers  of  the  court  beganne  to  di^aw  themselves  apart  fi-om 
the  brethrein,  and  to  rage,  that  anie  thing  sould  be  consulted  upon 
without  their  advice.  They  draw  to  themselves  some  of  the  lords, 
and  remained  in  the  Abbey.  The  cheefe  commissioners  of  the 
kirks,  the  superintendants,  and  some  ministers,  Avent  to  them,  where 
they  were  conveened  in  the  abbot's  loodging,  within  Halyrudhous. 
The  lords  compleaned  that  the  ministers  held  their  secreit  coun- 
sels with  gentlemen  without  their  knowledge.  The  ministers  deny- 
ed  that  they  had  done  anie  thing  otherwise  than  commoun  order 
required ;  and  reproved  them  for  not  conveening  with  their  bre- 
tlirein,  seing  they  knew  the  order,  and  that  the  same  was  appoint- 
ed by  themselves,  as  the  Booke  of  Discipline,  subscrived  by 
the  most  part  with  their  owne  hands,  would  beare  witnesse. 
Some  beganne  to  denie  that  ever  they  knew  such  a  thing  as  the 
Booke  of  Discipline ;  and  called  also  in  doubt  whether  it  was  ex- 
pedient that  suche  conventions  sould  be  holdin  :  for  gladelle  Avould 
the  queene  and  her  flatterers  have  had  all  the  assemblcis  of  the 
godlie  discharged.  Her  favourers  alledged,  that  it  was  a  mater  of 
jealousie,  that  subjects  sould  hold  Assembleis  Avithout  knowledge 
of  their  prince.  It  was  answered.  That  the  prince  understood  there 
was  a  reformed  kirk  within  this  realme,  and  that  they  had  their 
orders,  and  appointed  times  for  conveening.  "  The  queene  knoweth 
Weill  enough,"  said  Lethington  :  "  But  the  questloun  is,  whether 
the  queene  allowetli  suche  conventiouns  ?"'     It  was  rcplyed,  "  If 

IGO  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

the  libertie  of  the  kh-k  sould  stand  upon  the  queene's  allowance  or 
dissallowance,  we  are  assured  we  sail  be  deprived,  not  onlie  of  As- 
sembleis,  but  also  of  the  publick  preaching  of  the  Gospell."  This 
reply  was  contemned,  and  the  contrarie  affirmed.  "  Time  will  try," 
said  the  replyer ;  "  and  I  adde,  take  frome  us  the  freedome  of  As- 
sembleis,  and  take  frome  us  the  Evangell ;  for  without  Assembleis, 
how  sail  good  order  and  unitie  in  doctrine  be  keeped  ?  It  is  not 
to  be  supposed  that  all  ministers  sail  dischai'ge  their  office  so  duehe, 
or  behave  themselves  so  weUl  in  their  conversatioun,  as  that  they 
sail  not  need  admonitioun.  It  may  be,  also,  some  refractorie  per- 
sons will  not  admitt  the  admonitioun  of  simple  ministers  ;  for  re- 
meed  wherof,  it  is  necessar  that  there  be  Generall  Assembleis 
holdin,  in  which  the  judgement  and  gravitie  of  manic  may  correct 
and  represse  the  folleis  and  errours  of  a  few."  The  most  part  of  the 
nobilitie  and  barons  approved  this  reason,  and  willed  the  reasoners 
for  the  queene  to  counseU  her  Grace,  if  she  were  jealous  of  anie 
thing  to  be  treated,  to  send  suche  as  she  would  appoint  to  heare. 


Thereafter  it  was  propouned,  that  the  Booke  of  Discipline  might 
be  ratifeid  by  the  queene's  Majestic.  Lethington  scripped^  at  this 
motioun,  and  asked,  how  manic  of  these  that  had  subscrived  it 
would  be  subject  to  it  ?  It  was  answered,  "  All  the  godlie."  "  Will 
the  duke  ?"  said  Lethington.  "  If  he  will  not,  I  wishe  he  were 
scrapped  out,"  said  Uchiltrie,  "  not  onlie  out  of  that  booke,  but 
also  out  of  our  number  and  companie  ;  for  to  what  purpose  sail 
travell  be  takin  to  sett  the  ku-k  in  order,  if  it  be  not  keeped ;  or  to 
what  end  sail  men  subscrive,  if  they  never  meane  to  performe  ?" 
Lethington  answered,  "  Manie  subscrived  them,  in  fide  parentum, 
as  the  barncs  are  baptized."  "  Ye  thinke  that  stufFe  proper,"  an- 
swered Mr  Knox,  "  but  it  is  als  untrue  as  unproper.  That  booke 
was  read  in  publick  audience,  and  the  heads  therof  reasouned  upon 
diverse  dayes,  as  all  that  sitt  heere  knowe  verie  weil],  and  yourself 

'  Sneered. 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  161 

cannot  denie.  No  man,  therefore,  was  desired  to  subscrive  that 
which  he  understood  not."  "  Stand  content,"  quoth  one ;  "  the  ra- 
tificatioun  of  the  booke  will  not  be  obteaned."  "  Lett  God,"  said 
the  other,  "  require  the  detriment  Avhich  this  kirk  and  commoun- 
wealth  sail  find  by  the  want  of  things  therin  prescribed,  from  the 
hands  of  suche  as  stoppe  the  same." 


The  barons  perceaving  that  the  ratification  of  the  Booke  of  Dis- 
cipline was  refused,  presented  certan  articles  to  the  counsell,  crav- 
ing idolatrie  to  be  suppressed,  kirks  to  be  planted  with  qualifeid 
ministers,  sufficient  stipends  to  be  provided  for  them  according  to 
equitie  and  conscience  ;  for  till  that  time  the  ministers  lived  upon 
men's  benevolence.  Manie  deteaned  in  their  owne  hands  the  fruicts 
which  the  bishops  and  others  of  that  sect  had  before  abused,  and 
so  some  part  was  bestowed  upon  the  ministers ;  but  then  the  bi- 
shops beganne  to  grippe  againe  to  that  Avhich  most  unjustlie  they 
called  their  o^vne.  The  Erie  of  Arran  Avas  discharged  to  intromett 
with  the  rents  of  Sanct  Andrewes  and  Dumfermline,  wherwith  he 
had  intrometted  before  in  name  of  factorie ;  and  so  were  manie 
others.  The  barons  required,  therefore,  that  their  ministers  might 
be  provided,  or  ellis  they  would  not  suffer  anie  longer  anic  thing  to 
be  lifted  to  the  bishop's  use,  more  than  they  did  before  the  queene's 
arrivall ;  for  their  religioun,  which  the  qvieene  promised  not  to 
alter,  could  not  continue  without  ministers,  and  ministers  could 
not  live  without  provisioun.  The  court  flatterers  were  somewhat 
moved,  for  the  rod  of  impietie  was  not  then  strenthened  in  her 
and  their  hands.  To  please  the  queene,  and  to  satisfie  the  godlie 
on  the  other  side,  they  devised  that  the  kirk-men  sail  intromett 
with  the  two  parts  of  their  benefices,  and  that  the  thrld  part  be 
lifted  up  to  the  ministers'  and  the  queene's  use. 

VOL.  n. 

162  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

a  ryot  in  edinburgh. 

This  winter,  the  Erie  Bothwell,  the  Marquesse  d'Albeuf,  Johne 
Lord  Coldinghame,  brake  up  Cuthbert  Eamsaye's  gates  and  doores, 
searched  his  hous  for  his  daughter-in-law,  Alesone  Craik,  in  despite 
of  the  Erie  of  Arran,  whose  harlot  she  was  suspected  to  have 
beene.  The  Assemblie,  and  also  the  nobiUtie  for  the  most  part, 
were  in  the  toun.  They  were  so  commoved,  that  they  concluded 
to  crave  justice,  as  they  did,  by  this  subsequent  supplicatioun : 

"  To  the  Queen's  Majestic  and  her  Secreit  and  Great  Counsell, 
Her  Grace's  faithfull  and  obedient  Subjects,  the  Professors 
of  Christ  Jesus  his  holie  Evangell,  wish  the  spirit  of  right- 
eous judgement. 

"  The  feare  of  God,  conceaved  of  his  holie  Word,  the  natm-all 
and  unfained  love  we  beare  to  your  Grace,  the  duetie  which  we 
owe  to  the  quietnesse  of  our  countrie,  and  the  terrible  threatenings 
which  om*  God  pronoiuiceth  against  everie  realme  and  citie  where 
horrible  crimes  are  committed  openlie,  and  then  by  the  committers 
obstinatlie  defended,  compeU  us,  a  great  part  of  yovu'  subjects, 
humblie  to  crave  at  your  Grace  upright  and  true  judgement  against 
suche  persons  as  have  done  what  in  them  ly  to  kindle  God's  wrathe 
against  this  whole  realme.  The  impietie  by  them  committed  is  so 
haynous  and  so  horrible,  that  as  it  is  a  fact  most  vile  and  rare  to 
be  heard  witliin  this  realme,  and  principaUie  within  the  Bowes  of 
this  citie,  so  soidd  we  thinke  ourselves  guiltie  of  the  same,  if  negli- 
gentlie,  or  yitt  for  worldlie  feare,  we  passed  over  with  silence. 
Therefore,  your  Grace  may  not  thinke  that  when  we  crave  open 
malefactors  condignelie  to  be  punished,  that  we  crave  anie  thing 
but  that  which  God  hath  commanded  us  to  crave,  and  also  hath 
commanded  your  Grace  to  give  to  everie  one  of  your  subjects. 
For  by  this  hooke  hath  God  knitt  together  the  prince  and  the 
people ;  that  as  he  commandeth  honom*,  feare,  and  obedience  to  be 
givin  to  the  powers  established  by  him,  so  doth  he  in  expresse 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAJSt).  163 

words  command  and  declare  what  the  prince  owes  to  the  subjects, 
to  witt,  that  as  he  is  the  minister  of  God,  bearing  the  sword,  for 
vengeance  to  be  takin  upon  evill  doers,  and  for  defence  of  peace- 
able and  quiett  men,  so  ought  he  to  draw  the  sword  without  par- 
tiahtie,  so  oft  as  in  God's  name  he  is  requu-ed  thereto.  Seing  so  it 
is,  Madame,  that  this  crime  so  recentlie  committed,  and  that  in  the 
eyes  of  the  whole  realme  now  prescntlie  assembled,  is  so  haynous, 
(for  who  heertofore  hath  heard  within  the  Bowes  of  Edinburgh, 
gates  and  doores  under  silence  of  night  burst  up,  houses  riped,  and 
that  with  hostilitie,  seeking  a  woman,  as  appeareth,  to  oppresse 
her  ?)  seing,  we  say,  this  cryme  is  so  heynous,  that  all  godlie  men 
feare  not  onlie  God's  sore  displeasure  to  fall  upon  you  and  your 
whole  realme,  but  also  that  suche  libertie  breede  contempt,  and  in 
end  seditioun,  if  remedie  in  time  be  not  provided ;  which,  in  our 
judgement,  is  impossible,  if  severe  punishement  be  not  executed  for 
the  crime  committed.  Therefore,  we  most  humblie  beseeke  your 
Grace,  that,  all  affectioun  sett  aside,  yee  declare  yom'self  so  upright 
in  this  case,  that  yee  may  give  evident  demonstration  to  all  your 
subjects,  that  the  feare  of  God,  joyned  with  the  love  of  commoun 
tranquilitie,  hath  principallie  seate  in  your  Grace's  heart.  This 
farther,  Madame,  of  conscience  we  speeke,  that  as  your  Grace,  in 
God's  name,  doth  crave  of  us  obedience,  (which  to  rander  in  all 
things  lawfull  we  are  most  wUling,)  so,  in  the  same  name,  doe  we, 
the  whole  professors  of  Christ's  Evangell,  within  this  your  Grace's 
realme,  crave  of  you  and  your  counsell  sharpe  punishement  for  this 
crime  ;  and  for  performance  therof,  that,  without  delay,  the  princi- 
pal! actors  of  this  most  haynous  crime,  and  the  persuers  of  this 
intended  villainie,  may  be  called  before  the  cheefe  justice  of  this 
realme,  to  suffer  an  assise,  and  to  be  punished  according  to  the 
lawes  of  the  same.  Your  Grace's  answere  most  humblie  we  be- 

164  calderwood's  historie  15G1. 


This  supplication  was  presented  by  diverse  gentlemen.  Court 
flatterers  at  the  first  disclaimed,  and  asked,  "  Who  durst  avow 
this?"  The  Master  of  Lindsay  answered,  "A  thowsand  gentlemen 
within  Edinburgh."  Others  ashamed  to  oppone  in  publick,  sub- 
orned the  queene  to  give  a  gentle  answere,  till  the  conventioun 
was  dissolved.  She  wanted  not  craft  to  cloke  impietie.  Her  uncle 
was  a  stranger,  had  young  companie  about  him ;  "  but,"  said  she, 
"  I  sail  putt  suche  order  to  him,  and  all  others,  that  heerafter  there 
sail  be  no  occasioun  to  compleane."  How  sould  she  punishe  in 
others  that  vice,  which,  in  France,  was  free  of  punishement,  and 
practised  by  the  king  and  cardinalls  ;  as  the  masking  and  dance  of 
Orleance  can  witnesse,  when  virgins  and  men's  wives  were  made 
als  commoun  to  King  Henrie  and  Charles  the  Cardinall  their  court 
and  pages,  as  harlots  in  brothells,  to  their  companiouns  ?  The  trans- 
gressors frequented  nightlie,  masked.  At  lenth,  the  duke's  fi^einds 
assembled  upon  a  night,  in  the  High  Street.  The  Abbot  of  Kil- 
winning, then  joyned  to  the  kirk,  was  the  principal!  man  at  the  be- 
ginning. Manie  of  the  godlie  repaired  to  him.  Andrew  Stewart, 
Lord  Uchiltrie,  being  informed  of  the  whole  proceedings,  said, 
"  Nay,  suche  impietie  sail  not  be  suffered,  so  long  as  God  saU  as- 
sist us.  The  victorie  that  God,  in  his  mercie,  hath  givin  us,  we 
will,  by  his  grace,  mainteane  ;"  and  so  commanded  his  sonne,  the 
Master,  and  his  servants,  to  bring  furth  their  speares  and  long  wea- 
pons. Vowes  were  made  by  Bothwell,  that  the  HammHtons  sould 
be  driven  not  onlie  out  of  the  toun,  but  also  out  of  the  countrie. 
Johne  Lord  Coldinghame  had  mareid  Bothwell's  sister.  This  afS- 
nitie  drew  Lord  Robert  also  to  his  assistance.  The  Master  of  Max- 
well, after  Lord  Hereis,  warned  the  Erie  Bothwell,  that  if  he  stir- 
I'cd  furth  of  his  loodging,  he,  and  suche  as  would  assist  him,  sould 
resist  him  in  the  face.   These  speeches  bridled  his  furie.    D'Albeuf, 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  1(55 

being  in  his  chamber,  in  the  Abbey,  start  to  an  halbert.  Ten  men 
were  skarse  able  to  hold  him.  But  the  danger  was  betweene  the 
Croce  and  the  Tron.  The  Erie  of  Huntlie  and  Lord  James  came 
from  the  queene  to  stay  the  tumult.  Bothwell  and  his  assisters 
were  commanded  to  keepe  theii"  loodgings  under  paine  of  trcasoun. 
But,  in  verie  deed,  either  the  duke  had  verie  false  servants,  or  elles 
Lord  James  his  death  Avas  contrived  not  onlie  at  that  time,  but 
at  other  times.  Upon  a  certane  day,  when  Lord  James  was  upon 
horsebacke,  readie  to  come  to  sermon,  he  was  warned  by  one  of 
the  duke's  servants  to  returne,  and  stay  with  the  queene.  What 
ground  he  had  we  cannot  tell ;  but  soone  after,  the  duke  and  some 
of  the  lords  conveened  at  Glasgow.  Then*  conclusions  were  keeped 

Upon  the  tenth  of  December,  this  act  following  was  made,  of  the 
two  parts  and  thrids  of  the  benefices. 

"  Apud  Edinburgh,  decimo  Decembris,  1561. 
"  The  which  day,  forsameikle  as  the  queene's  Majestic,  by  the 
advice  of  the  Lords  of  her  Secreit  Counsell,  forseing  the  imminent 
troubles  which  apparentlie  Avere  to  rise  among  the  leiges  of  this 
realme,  for  maters  of  religioun ;  to  stay  the  same,  and  to  evite  all 
incommodities  that  might  therupon  ensue,  intercommuned  with  a 
part  of  the  clergie  and  state  ecclesiasticall,  with  whom  then  rea- 
sonning  being  had,  it  was  thought  good  and  expedient  by  her  High- 
nesse,  that  a  General  Assemblie  sould  be  appointed  the  15th  of 
December  instant,  wherto  the  rest  of  the  states  might  have  re- 
paired, and  by  advice  of  the  whole,  a  reasonable  overtm'e  made  for 
staying  of  appearing  trouble,  and  quietting  of  the  whole  realme. 
Which  conventioun  being  by  her  Majestic  appointed,  and  sundrie 
dayes  of  coimsell  keeped,  and  the  said  ecclesiasticall  estate  oft  times 
required  that  the  said  order  might  be  taken,  and  overture  made  for 
staying  of  the  trouble,  and  quietting  of  the  countrie.  Last  of  all,  in 
presence  of  the  queene's  Majestic,  and  Lords  of  Counsell  forsaid, 
and  others  of  the  nobilitic  of  this  realme,  compeared  Johne  Archbi- 
shop of  Sanct  Andrewe-s,  Patrick  I>ishop  of  Murrey,  Hcnric  Bishop 


of  Rosse,  and  Robert  Bishop  of  Dunkelden  ;  and  for  themselves  re- 
spective offered  unto  the  queene's  Majestie,  to  be  content  of  two  parts 
of  the  rents  of  their  benefices,  and  the  fourth  part  to  be  imployed  as 
her  Majestie  thought  expedient.    And,  becaus  the  certantie  therof 
was  not  knowne,  nor  yitt  what  sumnies  of  money  would  susteane  the 
ministrie  and  ministers  of  God's  Word  within  this  realme,  neither 
yitt  how  muche  was  necessarie  to  support  the  queene's  Majestie 
above  her  owne  rents  for  the  commoun  efFaires  of  the  countrie  ; 
therefore,  it  is  decerned,  concluded,  and  determined,  by  the  queene's 
Majestie,  and  Lords  of  her  Counsell  foresaid,  and  others  of  the  no- 
bilitie  present,  that  if  the  fourth  part  of  the  fruicts  of  the  whole 
benefices  within  this  realme  may  not  be  sufficient  to  susteane  the 
ministrie  within  this  whole  realme,  and  support  the  queene's  Ma- 
jestie, to  interteane  and  sett  fordward  the  commoun  efFaires  of  the 
countrie  ;  failing  whereof,  the  thrid  part  of  the  saids  fruicts,   or 
more,  whill  it  sail  be  sufficient  to  the  effect  forsaid,  to  be  taken  up 
yeerelie,  in  time  comming,  till  a  generaU  order  be  taken  therin,  so 
muche  therof  to  be  imployed  to  the  queene's  Majestie  for  the  enter- 
teaning  and  setting  fordward  of  the  commoun  efFaires  of  the  coun- 
trie, and  so  muche  therof  to  the  ministers,  and  sustentatioun  of  the 
ministrie,  as  may  reasonablie  susteane  the  same,  at  the  sight  and 
discretioun  of  the  queene's  Majestie  and  counsell  forsaid  ;  and  the 
excrescence  and  superplus  to  be  assigned  to  the  old  possessors. 
And,  to  the  effect  that  the  rents  and  yeerelie  availe  of  the  whole 
benefices  of  this  realme  may  be  cleerelie  knowne  to  the  queene's 
Majestie  and  counsell  forsaid,  it  is  statute  and  ordeaned,  that  the 
whole  rentaU  of  the  benefices  of  this  realme  be  produced  before  her 
Grace  and  lords  forsaid,  at  the  times  underwrittin,  that  is  to  say, 
of  the  benefices  on  this  side  of  the  Mounth,  the  24th  of  Januarie 
nixt  to  come,  and  beyond  the  Mounth,  the  10th  of  Februarie  nixt 
therafter.    And  ordinar  letters  to  be  directed  to  the  shirefFs  in  that 
part  to  passe,  charge,  and  require,  all  and  sundrie  archbishops,  bi- 
shops, commcndatars,  abbots,  pryours,  on  this  side  of  the  Mounth, 
personallie,  if  they  can  be  apprehended ;  and  failing  therof,  at  the 
said  archbishops',  bishops',  coramendators',  abbots',  pryours'  dwelling- 

1561.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  167 

places,  cathedrall,  kirks,  or  abbeyes,  and  all  archdeacons,  deanes, 
chanters,  subchanters,  provcists,  parsons,  vicars,  and  other  bene- 
ficed men  whatsoever,  their  chamberlans  or  factors,  personallie,  or 
at  their  dwelling-places,  or  at  the  parish  kirk  where  they  .sould 
remaine,  to  exhibite  and  produce  before  the  queen e's  Majestic  and 
lords  forsaid,  the  said  24th  day  of  Januarle  nixt  to  come,  a  just  and 
true  rentall  of  the  availes  and  rents  of  their  benefices,  to  the  effect 
forsaid ;  and  to  charge  the  prelats,  and  other  beneficed  men  on  the 
yond  side  of  the  Mounth,  in  maner  respective  forsaid,  to  exhibite 
and  produce  the  just  and  true  rentalls  of  their  benefices  befoi'C  the 
queene's  Majestic  and  the  lords  forsaid,  the  said  10th  day  of  Feb- 
ruarie,  to  the  effect  forsaid ;  with  certificatioun  to  them  that  faile, 
the  queene's  Grace  and  counsell  will  proceed  lieerin  as  accordeth. 
And  siclyke,  to  charge  the  whole  superintendants,  ministers,  elders, 
and  deacons  of  the  principall  touns  and  shires  of  this  realme,  to  give 
in  before  the  queene's  Grace,  and  Lords  of  Counsell  forsaid,  the 
24th  day  of  Januarie  nixt  to  come,  a  formall  and  sufficient  roll  and 
memoriall,  what  may  be  sufficient  and  reasonable  to  susteane  the 
ministrie,  and  whole  ministers  of  the  realme,  that  her  Majestic,  and 
Lords  of  Counsell  forsaid,  may  take  order  therin  as  accordeth  :  and, 
farther,  that  the  queene's  Majestic,  and  Lords  of  Counsell  forsaid, 
may  rypelie  and  digestlie  weygh  and  consider  what  necessarie  sup- 
port is  required  to  be  takin  yeerelie  of  the  fruicts  of  the  saids  be- 
nefices, beside  her  Grace's  owne  yeerelie  rent,  to  interteane  and 
sett  fordward  the  commoun  effalres  of  this  realm^  against  the  said 
24th  day  of  Januarie  nixt  to  come ;  that  then  it  may  be  proceeded 
in  the  said  mater,  all  partcis  satisfeid,  and  the  whole  countrie  and 
leiges  therof  sett  at  quietnesse." 


William  Matlane  of  Leithington,  younger,  being  sent  soone  after 
the  ari'ivall  of  our  queene  to  Queene  Elizabeth,  returned  before 
December.  The  effect  of  his  negociation  was  to  salute  the  queene 
in  his  mistresse's  name ;  to  make  knowne  her  good-will  toward  her. 

168  calderwood's  historie  1561. 

and  miude  to  interteane  peace  and  unitie.  He  delivered  also  let- 
ters directed  from  our  nobUitie,  wlierin  they  remembred  courteous- 
lie  her  fonner  favour,  requeisted  her  to  provoke  our  queene  to  con- 
stant amitie  by  some  tokins  of  her  good  afFectioun ;  speciallie  by 
declaiing  her  successoiu*  and  heyre-apparent,  in  the  nixt  parlia- 
ment :  for  that  Avould  be  the  most  forcible  meane  to  burie  all  former 
rancour  in  oblivioun,  and  to  exhaust  the  fountaine  of  discorde  in 
times  to  come.  Queene  Elizabeth  answered,  she  expected  another 
ambassadge  ;  that  his  mistresse  according  to  her  promise  made,  to 
ratifie  the  treatie  at  Leith,  als  soone  as  she  returned  home,  and 
might  have  the  advice  of  her  nobles.  She  had  done  so.  The 
other  answered,  that  he  was  sent  soone  after  her  arrivall,  before 
she  had  medled  with  anie  publick  effaires  :  that  she  was  busseid  in 
receaving  courteous  salutatiouns  of  her  nobles,  but  most  of  aU  in 
settling  the  estate  of  religioun  :  that  manie  of  the  nobilitie,  name- 
lie,  suche  as  dwelt  in  the  remote  parts,  were  not  then  come  to 
court,  without  whose  advices  she  could  not  resolve  in  suche  a 
mater.  The  queene  replyed,  "  What  needeth  new  consultatioun 
for  that  to  which  she  had  alreadie  bound  herself  by  scale  and  sub- 
scriptioun?"  The  other  rejoyned,  he  had  no  commissioun  for  that 
bussinesse.  In  end,  the  queene  said,  "  In  regarde  his  mistresse 
hath  not  ratifeid  the  treatie,  according  to  her  promise,  nor  deserved 
anie  benefite  at  her  hands,  but  rather  had  provoked  her  to  anger  by 
usurping  her  armes,  yitt  she  sould  procure  that  nothing  be  done 
in  prejudice  of  her  right,  but  leave  it  fi'ce  to  the  estats  to  decide 
betwixt  her  and  her  competitors.  Successour  she  would  declare 
none.  For  unconstant  people  looke  commouulie  to  the  sunne 
rysing,  or  designed  successours,  and  forsake  the  sunne  setting ; 
and  designed  and  confirmed  successours  cannot  conteane  themselves 
within  bounds,  but  animated  with  their  owne  hopes,  or  stirred 
up  by  malcontents,  affected  present  govei'nement.  I  will  not," 
quoth  she,  "be  so  foolish  as  to  hang  a  wynding-sheet  before  myne 
owne  eyes ;  or  to  make  myself  a  funerall  feast  whill  I  am  alive." 
In  end,  tlie  queene  was  drawin  this  farre,  as  to  consent  that  some 
commissioners  sould  mecte  for  both  sides,  and  reforme  the  treatie 

15()2.  OF  TUE  KIllK  OF  SCOTLAND.  I  GO 

after  this  maner :  That  the  Queenc  of  Scots  absteane  frorae  the 
amies  of  England,  and  the  titles  of  England  and  Ireland,  during 
her  lyfe-time,  and  her  childrein,  if  she  had  anie ;  and  that  neither 
she,  nor  anie  of  her  posteritie,  seeke  to  waiken  or  diminishe  anie 
right  our  queene  had  to  the  crowne  of  England. 


It  being  ordeaned  in  December  last  past,  that  archbishops,  bi- 
shops, abbots,  and  other  beneficed  men,  their  farmers  and  tacks- 
men, produce  the  rentall  of  the  benefices  before  the  queene  and  the 
lords  of  her  counsell,  commissioun  was  given,  becaus  the  queene 
herself  might  not  attend  upon  the  recept  of  the  rentals,  the  24th 
of  Januarie,  to  Mr  James  MakgUl  of  llankeilour  Neather,  Clerk  of 
Register,  Sir  Johne  Bellendine  of  Auchinnoul,  knight,  Justice- 
Clerk,  the  Secretar,  Treasurer,  Advocat,  and  the  Laird  of  Pittarow, 
to  call  before  them,  within  the  burgh  of  Edinburgh,  all  and  sundrie 
prelats  and  beneficed  men,  which  were  charged  now  personnallie, 
being  in  Edinburgh,  or  sail  happin  to  repaire  thither  heerafter,  and 
require  of  them  the  rentals  of  their  benefices.  Item,  To  warne  all 
superintendants,  ministers,  elders,  deacons,  to  give  in  to  them  the 
names  of  the  whole  ministers,  that  her  Highnesse  may  tak  order 
with  the  benefices,  according  to  the  tenor  of  tho  first  oi'dinance 
made  therupon. 


Notwithstanding  of  the  former  ordinance  and  commissioun,  and 
the  waiting  on  of  the  commissioners  since  the  24th  of  Januar,  yitt 
few  pi'oduced  their  rentals.  It  was  ordeaned,  therefore,  by  the 
queene  and  lords  of  secreit  counsell,  the  12th  of  Fcbruarie,  that 
factors  and  chamberlans  be  appointed  to  intromett,  gather,  uplift, 

170  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

and  receave,  to  the  queene's  use,  all  and  sundrie  mailes,  formes, 
tiends,  I'ents,  prevents,  emoluments,  games,  profites,  dueteis,  of 
whatsomever  benefices,  Avlierof  the  rentals  were  not  produced  con- 
forme  to  the  said  ordinance.  And  if  anie  rentals  produced  beare 
not  the  just  availl,  for  their  fraudulent  dealing,  to  intromett  with 
so  uiuche  of  the  profites  and  fruicts  of  the  said  benefice  as  were 
omitted :  and  that  the  producers  of  the  rentals,  and  possessors  of 
the  benefices,  sail  never  have  actioun,  to  clame  frome  the  tenents 
and  occupyers  more  than  was  conteaned  within  the  saids  rentals 
ah'eadie  produced  by  them.  Item,  That  the  Lords  of  Sessioun 
direct  furth  letters  at  the  said  factors'  and  chamberlans'  instances, 
causing  them  to  be  answered  of  the  fruicts  of  the  saids  benefices. 


Upon  the  15th  of  Februarie  it  being  considered,  that  the  fourth 
part  was  not  sufficient  for  the  uses  above  mentioned,  it  was  de- 
clared, that  the  whole  thrid  part  of  all  benefices  of  which  the  ren- 
tals are  produced,  sail  be  takin  up  by  the  person  or  persons  which 
sail  be  nominated  by  her  Majestic ;  that  the  samine  be  employed  to 
the  use  forsaid,  together  with  the  whole  fruicts  of  the  benefices 
wherof  the  rentals  were  not  produced ;  and  that  they  beginne  at 
the  last  crop,  the  yeere  1561,  and  that  the  thrid  be  takin  up  by 
the  persons  which  sail  be  appointed  for  the  uplifting  therof :  that  this 
order  sail  continue  till  farther  order  be  takin  by  the  queene's  Ma- 
jestic, with  advice  of  her  estats.  Moreover,  it  was  ordeaned,  that 
annuells,  niailles,  dueteis,  within  free  burrows,  and  other  touns  per- 
teaning  to  chapelreis,  prebendareis,  or  friereis,  together  with  the 
rents  of  friers'  lands,  where  ever  they  be,  setting  and  disponing 
therupon,  be  intrometted  with  by  suchc  as  her  Grace  sail  appoint, 
and  be  imployed  upon  hospitals,  schoolcs,  and  other  godlie  uses,  as 
sail  seeme  most  expedient  to  her  Highnesse,  with  advice  of  her 
counsell.  The  Proveist  and  BailifFes  of  Aberdeen,  Elgine  in  Mur- 
rey, Innernesse,  Glasgow,  and  other  burrows  where  friereis  were 
not  demolished,  were  ordeaned  to  intertaine  and  uphold  the  saids 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  171 

friers'  places  upon  the  commoun  good  therof,  and  to  use  the  same 
to  the  commoun  weale  and  service  of  the  said  touns,  till  finaU  order 
was  takin  therin,  notwithstanding  anie  other  gift,  title,  or  interesse, 
givin  by  the  queene  before  to  anie  person,  of  the  said  places,  their 
yards,  orchards,  and  other  pertinents.  No  meane  was  found  more 
commodious  for  maintenance  of  the  poore,  of  the  schooles,  and  of 


The  Lords  of  Secreit  Counsell,  who  were  present  at  making  of 
the  forsaid  acts,  were  these  following : — James  Duke  of  Chattele- 
raiUt,  George  Erie  of  Huntlie,  Archibald  Erie  of  Ai'gile,  William 
Erie  Marshall,  Johne  Erie  of  Atholl,  William  Erie  of  Montrose, 
James  Erie  of  Morton,  Alexander  Erie  of  Glencarne,  James  Com- 
mendatar  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  Johne  Lord  Areskine,  the  Treasurer, 
the  Secretare,  the  Clerk-Register,  the  Justice-Clerk,  and  the 
Comptroller.  The  Erie  of  Iluntlie  said  jesting,  after  making  the 
first  act  to  the  beneficed  men  :  "  Good  day,  my  lords  of  the  tAvo 
part !" 


The  ministers  understood  cleerelie  wherat  the  queene  and  her 
flatterers  did  shoot,  and  therefore  spaired  not  to  utter  their  minde 
in  publick.  Mr  Knox  said  openlie,  "  Weill,  if  the  end  of  this  or- 
der, pretended  to  be  takin  for  the  sustentatioun  of  ministers,  be 
happie,  my  judgement  faileth  me.  I  am  assured,  the  Spirit  of  God 
is  not  the  author  of  it.  I  see  two  parts  freelie  givin  to  the  dcvill, 
and  the  thrid  part  must  be  divided  betwixt  God  and  the  devill. 
Weill,"  said  he,  "  ere  it  be  long,  the  devill  sail  have  three  parts  of 
the  thrids :  judge,  then,  what  God's  portioun  sail  be."  These 
speeches  were  unpleasant  in  the  cares  of  manic.  Secretare  Leth- 
ington  was  not  ashamed  to  aflfirme  that  the  ministers  being  sus- 

172  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

leaned,  the  queene  would  not  gett  at  the  yeere'send  so  muche  as 
to  buy  a  pau-e  of  new  shoes. 


The  Erie  of  Argile,  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  Morton,  Lethington,  the 
Justice-Clerk,  and  the  Clerk-Register,  Avere  appointed  to  modifie 
ministers'  stipends.  The  Laird  of  Pittarrow  was  appointed  to  pay 
them.  Who  would  have  thought,  when  Joseph  ruled  Egypt,  his 
brethren  would  have  returned  to  their  famileis  with  emptie  seckes  ? 
Least  ministers  sould  be  wanton,  the  modificators  judged  an  hun- 
dreth  merks  sufficient  to  a  single  man,  being  a  commoun  minister. 
Three  hundreth  merks  was  the  highest  summe  that  was  ordeaned 
for  anie  except  superintendents,  and  some  few  others.  The  poore 
ministers,  exhorters,  and  readers,  compleaned  at  church  assembleis, 
that  neither  were  they  able  to  live  upon  the  stipends  allowed,  nor 
gett  payment  of  that  small  portioun  which  was  allowed.  So  faine 
would  the  comptroller  have  played  a  good  varlett,  and  satisfeid  the 
queene,  or  elles  have  made  up  his  owne  profite.  Hence  ai'ose  a 
commoun  speeche :  "  The  good  Laird  of  PittarroAv  was  an  honest, 
earnest  professour  of  the  true  religioun;  but  the  devill  may  runne 
away  with  the  comptroller,  for  he  and  his  collectors  are  become 
greedie  factors."  When  ministers  compleaned,  some  answered  dis- 
dainfiillie,  "  Manie  lau'ds  have  not  so  muche  to  spend."  It  was  re- 
plyed,  that  the  functioun  of  ministers  craved  bookes,  quietnesse, 
studie,  and  travell,  to  edifie  the  kirk,  when  manie  lairds  Avere  wait- 
ing upon  their  worldlie  bussinesse :  the  stipends  of  ministers,  who 
had  no  trade,  sould  not  be  modifeid  according  to  the  rents  of  other 
commoun  men,  who  might,  and  daylie  did  augment  their  rents  by 
diverse  meancs.  They  gott  no  other  answere,  but  that  the  queene 
could  not  spairc  greater  summes.  Oft  was  it  cried  in  their  cares, 
"  O  happie  servants  of  the  devill,  and  miserable  servants  of  Jesus 
Christ,  if  after  this  life  there  was  not  a  hell  or  a  heaven  !  For  to  the 
servants  of  the  devill,  to  your  dumbc  dogges,  and  horned  bishops, 
to  one  of  these  idle  Ijclleis  ten  thowsand  were  little  eneugh.     But 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OB'  SCOTLAND.  173 

to  the  servants  of  God,  who  painfullie  teach  Christ's  Evangell,  a 
thowsand  pund  is  thought  to  passe  measure."  One  day,  in  reason- 
ning  upon  this  mater,  the  secretar  in  choler  said,  "  The  ministers 
have  this  muche  payed  to  them  by  yeerc,  but  who  among  them  gave 
ever  the  queene  '  Gramercie  ?' "  One  smiled,  and  answered,  "  As- 
surcdhe  I  thinke,  that  suche  as  have  receavcd  anie  thing  gratis  of 
the  queene  are  unthankfull  if  they  acknowledge  it  not.  I  am  as- 
sured ministers  have  receaved  nothing  gratis  :  yea,  it  may  be  called 
in  question,  whether  they  receave  anie  thing  at  all  of  the  queene. 
The  queene  hath  no  better  title  to  that  which  she  usurpeth,  whether 
in  giving  to  others,  or  taking  to  herself,  than  these  that  crucifeid 
Christ  had  to  divide  his  garments ;  yea,  not  so  good :  for  suche 
spoile  ought  to  be  the  rewarde  of  suche  men  ;  yitt  the  souldiours 
were  more  humane,  for  they  parted  not  the  garments  of  our  Mais- 
ter  till  he  was  cnicifeid.  But  the  queene  and  her  flatterers  part 
the  spoile,  whill  poore  Christ  is  preaching  among  us.  Lett  the  Pa- 
pists, who  have  the  two  parts,  and  some  the  thrids  free,  and  others 
who  have  gottin  abbaceis  and  kirk  lands  in  few,  thankc  the  queene, 
and  sing,  '  Placebo  Domine ;'  the  poore  preachers  will  not  yitt  flatter 
for  feeding  of  their  belleis."  These  speeches  bred  no  small  dis- 
pleasure against  the  speaker ;  but  the  flatterers  escaped  not  fi*ee  of 


The  queene  made  Lord  James  Erie  of  Marr.  But  becaus  the 
Lord  Areskine  claimed  right  to  the  erledome,  soone  after  the 
queene  bestowed  upon  Lord  James  the  Erledome  of  INIurrey.  The 
Erie  of  Huntlie,  who  had  injoyed  the  Erledome  of  MuiTcy  ever 
since  the  death  of  James  Stuart,  brother  to  King  James  the  Fyft, 
hunted  for  all  occasions  to  trouble  the  estat  of  the  countrie,  mis- 
construed all  the  actiouns  of  the  new  made  erle,  and  presented  to 
the  queene  a  libell,  wherin  he  charged  him  with  aftectatioun  of 
tyrannic,  but  upon  so  slight  grounds  as  that  the  accusatioun  was 
not  regarded.     The  cxcesse  of  the  briddell  made  at  the  solemniza- 

174  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

tion  of  the  Erie  of  Murrey's  mariage,  upon  the  8th  of  Februarie, 
oflfended  manie  of  the  godlie,  so  much  the  rather  becaus  he  had 
hithertills  behaved  himself  temperatlie.  Then  beganne  the  mask- 
ing, which  continued  sum  yeeres  after.  He  mareid  Agnes  Keith, 
dauohter  to  the  Erie  Marshall. 


The  Erie  of  Bothwell,  by  the  mediatioun  of  James  Baron,  burges 
of  Edinburgh,  obteaned  conference  with  Mr  Knox.  They  conferred 
fii-st  in  James  Baron's  lodging,  and  after  in  Mr  Knox  his  studie. 
The  erle  confessed  the  lewdnesse  of  his  former  life,  and  the  wrongs 
he  had  done  by  the  entysement  of  the  queene  regent.  He  con- 
fessed he  had  misbehaved  himself  to  the  Erie  of  Arran,  and  that  he 
was  willing  to  redeeme  his  favour,  if  it  were  possible  :  "  For,"  said 
he,  "  if  I  might  have  my  Lord  Arran's  favour,  I  would  await  upon 
the  court  with  a  paidge,  and  some  few  servants,  to  spaire  charges ; 
where  as  now,  I  am  constrained  for  my  owne  safetie  to  susteane  a 
number  of  wicked  men,  to  the  utter  consumptioun  of  that  part  of 
my  patrimonie  which  yitt  remaineth."  Mr  Knox,  after  some  pro- 
fessioun  of  Scotish  kindnesse,  becaus  his  grandfather,  goodsir,  and 
father,  had  served  his  predecessors,  and  some  of  them  lost  their 
lives  imder  their  service,  counselled  him  to  beginne  at  God,  whose 
majestic  he  had  offended  ;  Avith  whom,  if  he  were  reconciled,  he 
would  bow  the  hearts  of  men  to  forgett  all  offences.  If  he  con- 
tinued in  godlinesse,  he  promised  he  sould  have  him  at  command. 
The  erle  desired  liim  to  trie  if  the  Erie  of  Arran  would  be  content 
to  accept  him  in  his  favours,  wliich  he  promised  to  doe.  In  the 
time  of  his  travells,  the  Erie  Bothwell  persued  the  Laird  of  Ormis- 
ton,  and  tooke  his  sonne,  Alexander  Cockburne,  careid  him  to 
Borthwicke,  but  sent  him  backe  againe.  Mr  Knox  was  offended ; 
yitt  upon  his  excuse,  and  declaration  of  his  minde,  he  re-entered  in 
new  travells,  and  brought  the  mater  so  to  passe,  that  the  Lau'd  of 
Omtieston,  upon  whose  satisfactioun  stood  the  greatest  stay  of  the 

1562.  OP  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTL^VND.  175 

agreement,  referred  his  satisfactioun  in  all  things  to  the  judgements 
of  the  Erles  of  Arran  and  Murrey,  to  whome  the  said  erle  submit- 
ted himself  in  that  heed,  and  therupon  delivered  his  hand-writt. 

So,  being  convoyed  by  certan  of  his  freinds  to  the  Kirk  of  Feild, 
where  the  Erie  of  Arran  loodged,  and  Mr  Knox  with  him,  to  bcare 
witnesse  to  the  agreement,  as  he  entered  in  at  the  chamber  doore, 
and  woidd  have  givin  these  honours  which  freinds  had  appointed, 
the  Erie  of  Ai'ran  went  to  him,  embraced  him,  and  said,  "  If  the 
heart  be  upright,  few  ceremoneis  may  serve."  Mr  Gawin  Hammil- 
toun.  Abbot  of  Kilwinning,  and  the  Laird  of  Rickerton,  were  the 
cheefe  communers.  Mr  Knox  said,  "  Now,  my  lords,  God  hath 
brought  you  together  by  the  labours  of  simple  men.  I  know  my 
travells  are  alreadie  takin  in  evill  part :  but  seing  I  have  the  testi- 
monie  of  a  good  conscience,  that  what  I  have  done  I  have  done 
for  the  Weill  of  you  both,  and  for  the  hurt  of  none,  I  beare  the  more 
patientlic  the  misreports  and  judgements  of  men.  Now  I  leave  you 
in  peace,  and  desire  you  who  are  freinds  to  be  carefull  that  amitie 
encrease."  The  erles  embraced  other,  went  to  a  window,  and  con- 
ferred together  a  certane  space.  The  nixt  day,  the  Erie  Bothwell 
convoyed  the  Erie  of  Arran  to  the  kirk,  to  heare  the  sermoun, 
whcrat  manie  i^ejoiced.  The  Thursday  nixt  they  dynned  together. 
Therafter,  Bothwell  and  Mr  Gawin  Hammiltoun  road  to  Kinneil  to 
the  dul^e. 

What  communicatioun  was  amongst  them  Avas  not  knowne,  but 
so  farre  as  the  Erie  of  Ai-ran  made  knowne  to  the  queene's  Grace 
and  the  Erie  of  Murrey  ;  for,  upon  the  fom'th  day  after  the  recon- 
cihation,  the  sermon  being  ended,  the  Erie  of  An-an  came  to  Mr 
Knox  his  hous.  Mr  Knox  was  occupeid,  as  commounlie  he  was 
Avont  to  be  after  sermoun,  in  directing  of  letters.  In  the  mcane 
time,  the  Erie  opcncth  the  greefe  of  his  minde  to  Mr  Eichard 
Strang  and  Alexander  Guthrie.  When  Mr  Knox  had  ended,  he 
called  these  three  together,  and  said,  "I  am  treasonablie  be- 
trayed." With  these  words  he  beganne  to  wcepe.  "  My  lord, 
Avho  hath  betrayed  you  T  said  ]\Ir  Knox.  "  One  Judas  or  other," 
said  he :  "  I  know  it  is  but  my  life  that  is  sought ;  but  I  regarde  it 

176  calderwood's  historie  15G2. 

not."  Then  said  Mr  Knox,  "  I  understand  not  suche  darke  maner 
of  speaking."  "  Weill,"  said  he,  "  I  take  you  three  to  witnesse, 
that  I  reveele  this  to  you,  and  I  will  write  to  the  queene.  An 
act  of  treasoun  is  layed  upon  me.  The  Erie  of  Bothwell  hath 
shewed  to  me  that  he  sail  take  the  queene,  and  putt  her  in  my 
hands,  in  the  castell  of  Dumbartane ;  and  that  he  sail  slay  the  Ei'le 
of  Murrey,  Lethington,  and  others  that  now  misguide  her,  and  so 
sail  I  and  he  rule  all.  I  know  this  is  devised  to  bring  me  within 
compasse  of  treasoun,  for  he  will  informe  the  queene  of  it.  But  I 
take  you  to  Avitnesse,  that  here  I  reveele  it  to  you ;  and  I  will  goe 
write  incontinent  to  the  queene's  Majestic,  and  to  my  brother,  the 
Erie  of  Murrey."  "Did  you  consent  to  anie  part?"  said  Mr  Knox. 
He  answered,  "  Nay."  Then  said  he,  "  In  my  judgement  his  words 
cannot  harme  you.  The  performance  of  the  fact  depended  upon 
your  will.  Ye  say  yee  have  disassented ;  so  the  purpose  sail  van- 
ishe  and  dee  of  itself,  unlesse  yee  waken  it.  It  is  not  to  be  sup- 
posed that  he  will  harme  you  in  that  which  himself  devised,  and 
wherto  yee  would  not  consent."  "  O,"  said  he,  "  wounder  not  what 
craft  is  used  against  me.  It  is  treasoun  to  conceale  treasoun." 
"  My  lord,"  said  he,  "  treasoun  must  import  consent  and  determina- 
tioun.  In  my  judgement,  it  sail  be  more  sure  and  honorable  to 
relic  upon  yoiu'  owne  innocencie,  and  abide  the  unjust  accusatioun 
of  another,  if  anie  follow  therupon,  as  I  thinke  there  sail  not,  than 
to  accuse,  speciallie  after  so  late  reconciliatioun."  "  I  know,"  said 
the  erle,  "  he  will  offer  the  combat  to  me.  That  will  not  be  suffered 
in  France  ;  but  I  will  doe  that  which  I  have  said."  So  he  went  to 
his  loodging,  and  tooke  with  him  Mr  Richard  Strang  and  Alexan- 
der Guthrie.  He  Avrote  a  letter,  and  directed  it  with  diligence  to 
the  queene,  tlien  resident  in  Falkland,  and  road  after  to  Kinneill  to 
the  dulic  his  father.  From  thence  he  directed  a  letter  to  the  Erie 
of  Murrey,  writtin  with  his  owne  hand  in  ciphers,  wherin  he  com- 
pleaned  of  the  rigorous  handhng  by  his  father  and  freinds.  He  as- 
sureth  him  that  he  feared  his  life,  in  case  remedie  were  not  pro- 
vided in  time.  But  he  stayed  not  upon  anie  remedie,  but  brake 
the  chamber  doore  where  he  was  enclosed,  and  with  great  paine 


1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  177 

went  to  Stirlinc.  Frome  thence  he  was  convoyed  to  Halyards. 
He  stayed  till  the  Erie  of  Murrey  came  to  him,  and  convoyed 
him  to  Falkland,  to  the  queene,  who  was  then  informed  suffi- 
cientlie ;  and,  upon  suspicioun  conceaved,  caused  apprehend  Mr 
Gawin  Hammiltoun  and  the  Erie  Bothwell,  who  knowing  no- 
thing of  the  former  advertisements,  were  come  to  Falkland,  which 
augmented  the  former  suspicioun.  But  Mr  Knox,  by  his  letters,  pro- 
cured all  things  to  be  used  more  circumspectlic.  He  willed  the 
Erie  of  MmTcy  not  to  give  great  credite  to  the  Erie  of  Arran  his 
Avords  and  inventions,  for  he  perceaved  him  to  be  stricken  with 
phrenesie.  As  he  advertised,  so  it  came  to  passe  ;  for,  witliin  few 
dayes,  he  imagined  he  had  scene  wonderfull  signes  in  the  heavens. 
He  alledged  he  Avas  bewitched.  He  Avould  have  beene  in  the 
queene's  bed,  and  affirmed  that  he  was  her  husband.  He  behaved 
liimself  so  foolishlie,  that  his  phrenesie  could  not  be  hid ;  yitt  Both- 
well  and  the  Abbot  of  Kilwinning  were  keeped  in  the  castell  of 
Sanct  Andrewes.  When  they  were  called  before  the  counsell,  Ar- 
ran constantlie  affirmed  that  Bothwell  proponed  suche  things 
wherof  he  advertised  the  queene's  Grace  ;  but  he  stiffishe  denyed 
that  his  father,  the  abbot,  or  his  freinds,  understood  anie  thing  of 
that  mater,  or  that  they  intended  anie  violence  against  him,  and  al- 
ledged he  was  inchanted  so  to  thinke  and  Avrite.  The  queene, 
highlie  offended  therat,  committed  him  to  prisoun,  Avith  the  other 
two,  in  the  castell  of  Sanct  Andrewes.  They  Avere  after  convoyed 
to  the  castell  of  Edinburgh.  James  Stuart  of  Cardonald,  called 
Captan  James,  appointed  to  be  the  erle's  keeper,  was  evill  bruited 
for  the  evill  interteanement  of  him  in  this  estate.  It  Avas  concluded 
in  counsell,  the  18th  of  Aprile,  that  in  consideratioun  of  the  former 
suspicioun  and  accusatioun,  the  duke  sail  randcr  to  the  queene  the 
castell  of  Dumbartan.  The  custodie  of  it  had  beene  granted  to  him 
by  appointment,  till  the  queene  had  lawfidl  issue  of  her  oavuc  bodie  ; 
but  Avill  prevailed  against  pi'omisc,  so  the  castell  Avas  randered  to 
Captan  Anstruther,  as  having  poAvcr  frome  the  queene. 

Thus  have  I  related  this  part  of  the  historic,  as  Mr  Knox  hath 

xsett  it  doun  in  the  Fourth  Booke  of  his  Historic.    Mr  Buchanan  his 
VOL.  II.  M 

178  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

relatioun  is  somewhat  different.  He  writeth  that  James  Hepburne, 
Erie  Bothwell,  resolved  to  raise  trouble  in  the  countrie,  that  so  he 
might  fish  in  drumlie  waters,  or  to  attempt  some  flagitious  crime 
whereby  he  might  recover  his  estate.  First,  he  preasseth  to  perswade 
the  Erie  of  Murrey  to  seeke  the  overthrow  of  the  Hammiltons.  But, 
finding  him  to  abhorre  liis  counsell,  he  offered  to  the  Hammiltons  to 
assist  to  the  murther  of  the  Erie  of  Murrey :  "  For  then,"  said  he, 
"  the  queeue,  will  she,  nill  she,  must  be  enthralled  as  you  please. 
The  most  convenient  time  for  the  murther,  and  conveying  away 
of  the  queene,  will  be,"  said  he,  "  when  the  Erie  of  Murray  cometh 
furth  with  her  to  the  hunting,  in  the  parke  of  Falkland."  A  time 
was  appointed  for  executioun.  The  Erie  of  Arran,  abhorring  the 
fact,  advertised  the  Erie  of  Mun'cy  by  a  missive.  Answere  was 
returned  by  the  same  messinger ;  but  the  Erie  of  Ai-ran  being  ab- 
sent, the  letters  were  delivered  to  his  father.  His  father,  after  con- 
sultatioun  with  his  freinds,  committeth  him  to  strait  custodie.  The 
erle  escaped  by  night,  came  to  Falkland  on  the  morne,  and  dis- 
covered the  whole  mater  and  maner.  Soone  after,  the  Erie  of  Both- 
well  and  the  Abbot  of  Kilwinning,  who  sould  have  putt  the  device 
in  executioun,  were  apprehended  at  Falkland,  at  the  queene's  com- 
mand, and  a  guarde  sett  to  keepe  them.  Spyes  sent  furth  to  try 
the  feilds,  reported  they  had  scene  horsemen  appeare  in  sundrie 
places.  iVi'ran  was  more  particularHe  inquired  what  sould  have 
beene  the  maner  ?  The  immoderat  love  he  careid  to  the  queene,  and 
sure  freindship  with  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  on  the  one  side,  the  care 
he  had,  out  of  naturall  love,  to  exeme  his  father  out  of  the  number 
of  the  conspii'ators,  distracted  his  minde.  He  gott  no  rest  thfr 
night  following;  and  the  day  after,  was  perceavcd  to  be  distracted 
in  his  witts.  There  proceeded  other  occasiouns  as  preparatives ;  for 
where  as  he  wont  to  be  weill  accompaneid,  his  father  being  some- 
what needie  and  counselled  by  his  freinds,  allowed  him  but  one 
servant  to  waite  upon  him.  Bothwell  was  sent  to  the  castell  of 
Edinburgh,  Arran  to  the  castell  of  Sanct  AndrcAves.  When  his 
Avitts  were  sattled  by  intervalls,  he  sent  letters  to  the  queene,  writ- 
tin  so  judiciouslie  and  accuratlie,  that  he  was  suspected  to  have 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  179 

fained  madnesse,  to  free  liis  father  frome  guiltinesse.  The  rest  he 
accused  so  constantlie,  and  with  suche  vehemencie,  that  when  he 
could  not  prove  before  tlie  counsell,  by  witnesses,  so  secreit  a  plott, 
he  offered  to  fight  the  single  combat  with  Bothwell.  The  duke 
first  wi-ote  to  the  queene,  and  after  went  to  her  to  Sanct  Andrewes, 
Avhither  she  was  then  come,  and  requeisted  that  Bothwell  and  Kil- 
winning might  be  delivered  unto  him  upon  sufficient  pledges,  which 
was  refused.  The  queene  demanded  the  castell  of  Dumbartane, 
which  the  duke  ever  held  since  he  was  governour,  and  it  was  at  her 
command  delivered.  Thus  you  have  the  two  different  reports  of 
om*  writters.  Mr  George  Buchanan  writeth  farther,  that  George 
Erie  of  Huntlie,  conceaving  now  a  greater  hatred  against  the  Erie 
of  Murrey,  becaus  the  duke,  father-in-law  to  his  sonne,  was  brought 
in  danger,  procured  a  tumult  to  be  raised  in  Edinburgh,  wherof  we 
have  made  mcntioun  before ;  hoping  that  the  Erie  of  Murrey  would 
lainne  up  frome  the  Abbey  to  stay  the  tumult,  and  that  there  he 
might  easilie  be  cutt  off  in  the  middest  of  the  throng.  When  this 
device  succeeded  not,  he  appointed  some  of  his  servants  to  ly  in 
waite  for  him  in  the  way  at  night,  when  he  was  to  come  late  frome 
the  queene  to  his  loodging.  The  Erie  of  Murrey  was  advertised. 
Some  of  Huntlie's  servants  were  deprehended  in  the  porche  at  the 
cntrie  of  the  Abbey,  armed.  He  is  called  before  the  queene.  He 
allcdged  that  some  of  his  servants  had  put  on  then'  armour  becaus 
they  were  to  depart  home,  and  had  beene  deteaned  still  upon  some 
new  occasioun.     The  excuse  was  accepted,  but  not  appro\'ed. 


The  queene  rctvn'ncd  to  Edinburgh.  Then  dancing  beganne  to 
grow  bote.  The  queene  danced  excessivelie  till  after  midnight, 
becaus  she  was  advertised  frome  France,  that  persecutioun  was 
renued,  and  her  imcles  were  begunne  to  trouble  the  whole  realme. 
Mr  Knox,  teaching  upon  these  words  of  the  secund  Psalme^  "  And 
now,  understand,  O  yee  kings,"  etc.,  taxed  the  ignorance  and  vanitie 
of  princes,  and  then-  despite  against  all  these  in  whome  appeared 

180  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

hatred  of  vice  and  love  of  vertue.  Mr  Alexander  Cockburne,  his 
owne  scholler,  was  sent  by  the  queene  to  bring  him  doun.  The 
queene  had  a  long  harang  to  him  upon  the  heads  of  his  acciisatiomi : 
That  he  had  spokin  unreverentlie  of  the  queene  ;  and  had  travelled 
to  bring  her  in  contempt  and  hatred  of  the  people.  He  answered, 
"  Madame,  this  is  oft  the  just  recompense  God  giveth  to  the  stub- 
borne,  that  becaus  they  will  not  heare  God  specking  to  the  com- 
fort of  the  penitent,  and  for  amendement  of  the  wicked,  they  are 
oft  compelled  to  heare  the  false  report  of  others,  to  their  greater 
displeasure.  I  doubt  not  but  it  came  to  the  eares  of  Herod,  that 
our  Master,  Christ,  called  him  a  foxe ;  but  they  told  him  not  how 
odious  a  thing  it  was  before  God  to  murther  an  innocent.  Madame, 
if  the  reporters  had  beene  honest  men,  they  would  have  reported 
my  words  with  all  the  circumstances.  But  becaus  they  want  vertue 
worthie  of  credite  in  court,  they  must  have  somewhat  wherewith 
to  pleasure  your  Majestic,  if  it  were  but  with  flatterie  and  lees. 
Madame,  if  your  owne  eares  had  heard ;  if  there  be  in  you  anie 
sparke  of  the  feare  of  God,  of  honestie,  and  wisdome,  yee  could  not 
justlie  have  beene  offended.  After  that  I  had  declared  the  dignitie 
of  kings  and  rulers,  the  honour  wherin  God  hath  placed  them,  the 
obedience  which  is  due  to  them,  being  God's  lieutenants,  I  demand- 
ed this  questioun  :  '  But  what  accompt,  alas !  sail  the  most  part  of 
princes  make  before  the  supreme  Head  and  Judge,  whose  throne 
of  authoritie  so  manifestlie  and  shameleslie  they  abuse,  so  that  vio- 
lence and  oppressioun  doe  occupie  the  throne  of  God  heere  on  this 
earth?  For  whill  murtherers,  blood-thristie  men,  oppressors  and 
malefactors,  darre  be  bold  to  present  themselves  before  kings  and 
princes,  and  the  poore  sancts  of  God  are  banished,  what  sail  we 
say,  but  the  devill  hath  takin  possessioun  of  the  throne  of  God, 
which  ought  to  be  fearcfull  to  all  wicked  doers,  and  a  refuge  to  the 
innocent  oppressed  ?  How  can  it  otherwise  be  ?  for  j)i-inces  will 
not  understand,  they  will  not  be  learned  as  God  commandeth ;  but 
God's  law  they  despise,  his  statuts  and  holie  ordinances  they  -will 
not  understand.  They  are  more  exercised  in  fiddhng  and  flinging, 
than  in  reading  and  hearing  of  God's  most  blessed  Word.     Fid- 


1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  181 

dlers  and  flatterers,  whicli  commounlie  corrupt  youth,  are  more 
pretious  iii  their  eyes  than  men  of  wisdome  and  gravitie,  who  by 
wholesome  admonitioun  can  beate  doun  some  part  of"  tliat  vanitie 
and  pride  wherin  all  are  borne,  but  in  princes  taketh  deepe  roote 
and  strenth,  by  wicked  educatioun.'  Of  dauncing,  Madame,  I  said, 
that  albeit  I  found  no  commendatioun  of  it  in  the  Scripture,  and 
that  in  profane  Avritters  it  is  termed  the  gesture  rather  of  these  that 
are  mad  and  phrenetick  than  of  sober  men,  yitt  doe  I  not  utterlie 
damne  it,  providing,  First,  that  the  cheefe  calling  of  these  that  use 
that  exercise  be  not  neglected  for  pleasure  of  dancing ;  nixt,  that 
they  dance  not  as  the  Philistins  their  fathers  did,  for  the  pleasure 
they  take  in  the  displeasure  of  God's  jjcople.  If  anie  of  these  two 
be  done,  they  sail  receave  the  rewarde  of  dancers,  that  is,  hell,  un- 
lesse  they  repent.  So  sail  their  mirth  be  turned  in  suddane  sor- 
row, for  God  will  not  alwayes  afflict  his  people,  neither  yitt  will 
he  alwayes  winke  at  the  tyrannic  of  tyranns.  If  anie,  Madame, 
AviU  say  that  I  spake  anie  more,  lett  him  presentlie  accuse  me." 
Manie  that  stood  by  bare  witnesse  that  he  recited  the  verie  woi'ds. 
The  queene,  after  she  had  looked  about  to  some  of  the  reporters, 
said  to  him,  "  Yom-  words  are  sliarpe  eneugh,  as  yee  have  spokin 
them ;  but  they  were  told  me  after  another  maner.  I  know  that 
my  uncles  and  you  are  not  of  one  religioun,  and  therefore  I  cannot 
blame  you  to  have  no  good  opinioun  of  them.  But  if  yee  heare 
anie  thing  of  myself  that  mislyketh  you,  come  and  tell  myself  j  and 
I  sail  heare  you."  "  Madame,"  said  he,  "  I  am  assured  your  uncles 
are  enemeis  to  God,  and  his  Sonne,  Christ,  and  that  for  mainten- 
ance of  their  owne  pompe  and  glorie  they  spaire  not  to  spill  the 
blood  of  manie  innocents.  As  to  your  owne  person,  Madame,  I 
sould  be  glade  to  doe  all  that  I  could  to  your  Grace's  contentment. 
I  am  called,  Madame,  to  a  publick  functioun  in  the  Kirk  of  God, 
and  am  appointed  by  God  to  rebooke  the  sinnes  and  vices  of  all 
persons.  I  am  not  appointed  to  come  to  everie  one  in  particular, 
for  the  labour  were  infinite.  If  it  please  your  Grace  to  frequent 
the  sermouns,  then  sould  yee  fuUie  understand  Avhat  I  like  or  mis- 
lyke,  als  wcill  in  your  INIajcstie  as  in  all  others.  Or  if  your  Grace 
will  assigne  to  me  a  certane  day  and  houre,  to  heare  the  forme  and 

182  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

substance  of  doctrine  which  is  preached  in  piiblict,  I  will  most 
gladelie  awaite  upon  your  Grace's  pleasure,  time,  and  place.  But 
to  come  to  waite  upon  your  chamber  doore,  or  elles  where,  and 
then  to  have  no  further  libertie  but  to  whisper  in  your  Grace's 
eare,  or  to  tell  you  what  others  thinke  or  speeke  of  you,  neither 
will  my  conscience,  nor  the  vocatioun  wherunto  God  hath  called 
me  suffer  it.  For  albeit  I  be  heere  now  at  your  Grace's  com- 
mandement,  yitt  can  I  not  tell  what  other  men  will  judge  of  me, 
that  at  this  time  of  day  am  frome  my  booke,  and  waiting  upon 
com't."  "  Yee  will  alwayes,"  said  she,  "  be  at  your  booke  ;"  and  so 
turned  her  backe.  Mr  Knox  departed  with  a  reasonnable  men-ie 
countenance.  Some  Papists  being  offended,  said,  "  He  is  not  af- 
frayed."  He  hearing,  answered,  "  Why  sould  the  pleasant  face  of 
a  gentlewoman  make  me  affrayed  ?  I  have  looked  in  the  faces 
of  manie  angrie  men,  and  yitt  have  not  been  affrayed  out  of 


This  sommer,  posts  went  frequent  bet-\vixt  om*  and  the  English 
queene.  Great  bruite  there  was  of  an  interview  betwixt  the  two 
queens  at  Yorke,  and  some  preparatioun  made  in  both  realmes 
for  that  purpose  ;  but  the  Queene  of  England  and  her  counsell  be- 
hoved to  attend  upon  the  south  parts,  by  reasoun  of  some  appear- 
ance of  warres  betwixt  England  and  France.  Duke  D'Awmall 
caused  open  the  English  ambassador's  letters,  who  was  then  lying 
at  court ;  and  by  his  procurement,  an  English  ship,  wherin  another 
ambassader  faired,  was  spoiled.  There  being  appearance  of  warres 
betwixt  England  and  France,  the  queene  came  frome  Sanct  An- 
drewes  to  Edinburgh,  at  what  time  the  Erie  of  was  com- 
mitted to  waird  in  the  castell  of  Edinburgh. 


The  Eric  of  Murrey,  in  the  mcanc  time,  made  a  privie  road  to 
Hawick,  upon  the  fiiirc  day,  and  apprehended  fiftic  theeves,  of 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  183 

which  number  seventeene  were  drowned.  Others  were  executed 
in  Jedburgh.  The  cheefe  were  brought  to  Edinburgh,  and  suffered 
upon  the  BorroAV  Mure.  The  queene  was  nothing  content  with 
his  prosperous  interprises,  but  she  could  not  be  weill  served  without 
him  at  that  time. 


This  sommcr  there  came  an  ambassader  frome  the  King  of 
Sweden,  to  propone  manage  to  our  queene.  He  was  lionuurabHe 
entcrteaned,  but  the  propositioun  pleased  her  not.  Had  she  not 
beene  great  Queene  of  France  ? — Fy  on  Sweden !  what  is  it  ?  And 
yitt  she  refused  not  one  farre  inferiour. 



The  Erie  of  Lennox  and  his  ladie  were  committed  to  the  Towre 
of  London,  for  trafficking  with  Papists.  The  young  Laird  of  Barr, 
a  traveller  in  their  bussinesse,  was  apprehended  with  some  letters, 
wherupon  arose  their  trouble. 


The  Generall  Assemblie  was  holdin  at  Edinburgh,  in  Mr  Hen- 
rie  Lane's  hous,  the  penult  day  of  June,  where  were  present  Mr 
Johne  Spotswod,  Superintendent  of  Lothiane,  Mr  Jolme  Wyne- 
rame.  Superintendent  of  Fife,  Mr  Johne  Willocke,  Superintend- 
ent of  Glasgow,  Johne  Areskine  of  Dun,  Superintendent  of  An- 
gus, Mr  Johne  Kerswell,  Superintendent  of  Argile,  together  with 
other  ministers,  elders,  and  barons,  commissioners  of  touns  or 

In  the  first  sessioun  for  the  triell  of  ministers,  ciders,  and  super- 
intendents, it  was  ordeaned  that  ministers  sould  be  first  tryed  in 
their  life,  couversatioun,  and  doctrine,  and,  therefore,  after  the  try^ 

184  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

ell  of  the  superintendents,  the  elders  of  everie  ku-k  to  be  charged,  In 
God's  name,  to  declare  their  conscience,  what  they  knew  tuiching 
their  ministers'  doctrine,  life,  maners,  diligence  in  executioim  of 
their  office.  If  anie  be  accused  or  convicted  of  anie  notable  crime, 
he  must  be  subject  to  the  censure  of  the  Kirk,  and  suffer  punish- 
ment and  admonitioun,  as  the  Assemblie  saU  think  good.  Secund- 
lie,  After  the  ministers,  the  elders  of  everie  kirk  must  be  tryed,  if 
anie  man  have  ought  to  lay  to  the  charge  of  anie  of  them.  Thrid- 
lie.  The  accused,  whether  he  be  minister  or  elder,  is  to  be  removed 
out  of  the  Assembhe  tiU  his  cans  be  tried.  If  he  be  convicted,  he 
saU  have  no  vote  tiU  the  Assemblie  receave  satisfactioun. 

After  triell  takin  of  the  whole  number,  then  must  everie  super- 
intendent, with  the  ministers  and  elders  within  his  diocie,  expone 
to  the  Assemblie  the  estat  of  the  kirks  in  their  bounds,  the  offences 
and  crimes  they  know,  to  the  end  some  remedie  may  be  de- 
vised, at  least  supplication  made  to  the  superiour  powers  for  re- 
dresse  of  the  same.  And  for  avoiding  confiisioun,  lotts  are  to  be 
cast,  what  diocie  sould  first  be  heard,  what  nixt,  and  so  furth  of  the 
rest.  It  was  ordeaned,  that  if  ministers  be  disobedient  to  superin- 
tendents, in  anie  thing  belonging  to  edificatioun,  that  they  must  be 
subject  to  correctioun. 

It  was  ordeaned,  that  a  charge  sould  passe  frome  everie  superin- 
tendent to  all  ministers  within  their  bounds,  to  warn  their  kii-ks  of 
the  order  takin,  to  witt,  that  the  superintendents,  ministers,  elders, 
and  deacons,  doe  wiUinglie  subject  themselves  to  discipline ;  and  if 
anie  man  have  anie  thmg  to  lay  justlie  to  their  charge,  that  they 
doe  the  same  in  the  nixt  Assemblie,  which  is  to  be  holdin  in  De- 
cember ;  and  that  no  minister  leave  his  flocke  for  comming  to  the 
said  Assemblie,  except  he  have  complaints  to  make,  or  elles  be 
compleaned  upon,  or,  at  least,  be  warned  thereto  by  the  superin- 

In  the  secund  sessioun,  holdin  the  last  of  June,  it  was  answered 
by  the  Assemblie  to  Mr  Alexander  Gordoun,  tuiching  the  super- 
intcndentship  of  Galloway,  First,  That  they  understood  not  how 
he  hath  anie  nominatioun  or  prcsentatioun,  cither  by  the  Lords 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  185 

of  Secrelt  Counsell  or  province  of  Galloway.  Secuudarilie,  Albeit 
he  had  presentatioun  of  the  Lords,  yitt  he  had  not  observed  the 
order  keeped  in  the  electioun  of  superintendents,  and,  therefore, 
cannot  acknowledge  him  for  anie  superintendent  lawfullie  called, 
for  the  present.  Yitt  they  offered  their  furtherance,  if  the  kirks  of 
Galloway  sould  sute,  and  the  lords  present.  It  was  ordeaned, 
that  letters  be  sent  to  the  kirks  of  Galloway,  to  learne  whether 
they  craved  anie  superintendent  or  not,  and  whom  they  sought. 
He  was  required,  before  he  went  frome  the  Assemblie,  to  subscribe 
the  Booke  of  Discipline. 

It  was  acted,  that  ministers  soidd  be  subject  to  superintendents, 
as  is  prescribed  in  the  Booke  of  Discipline,  and  forme  of  admis- 
sioun  of  superintendents.  Secundarilie,  That  so  manie  ministers 
as  have  beene  accepted  of  their  kirks,  after  triell  offered,  and  li- 
bertie  granted  to  them  to  receave  or  refuse,  sail  remaine  as  laAvfull 
ministers,  unlesse  after  that  time  they  have  beene  found  criminall 
in  life  or  doctrine  ;  and  that  suche  as  sei've  in  the  kirks  without 
publick  and  free  admissioun,  it  sail  be  free  for  the  kirks  to  reteane 
or  refuse  them,  as  they  be  able  to  rander  a  reason  wherfore  they 
refuse.  Thridlie,  That  all  those  who  have  not  beene  alreadie  exa- 
mined, sail  be  examined  in  the  presence  of  the  superintendent,  and 
of  the  best  reformed  kirk  within  his  bounds,  ncerest  the  place 
where  the  minister  is  to  be  established ;  providing  alwise,  that  the 
judgement  of  the  best  learned  who  are  present  be  sought  at  the 
examinatioun  or  admissioun,  and  that  he  who  is  so  admitted  sail 
not  be  removed,  according  to  the  order  of  the  Booke  of  Discipline. 
Fourthlie,  That  superintendents  take  compt  in  time  of  their  visita- 
tioun,  what  bookes  cverie  minister  hath,  and  hoAv  he  profiteth  frome 
time  to  time. 

In  the  thrid  sessioun,  holdin  the  first  day  of  Julie,  concerning 
the  disobedience  and  negligence  of  elders  in  assisting  ministers  to 
correct  offenses,  and  sometimes  of  the  whole  people  in  refusing  to 
be  subject  to  discipline,  it  was  concluded,  that  the  minister  sail 
diligentlie  require  his  ciders,  and  cverie  one  of  them,  to  assist  him 
in  all  their  lawfull  meetings  ;  wherin,  if  tliey  be  found  negligent, 

186  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

then  sail  he  proceed  to  admonitiouns,  according  to  Christ's  rule  ; 
Avhich  if  they,  or  anie  of  them,  obey  not,  then  sail  the  minister, 
Avith  so  manie  of  the  kirk  as  wiU  subscrive  with  him,  notifie  the 
same  to  the  superintendent.  And  if  he  by  his  admonitiouns  can 
profite  nothing,  that  then,  by  his  advice,  the  disobedients  be  ex- 
communicated;  and  that  magistrats  subject  to  Christ's  rule  be  not 
exeemed  frome  the  same  punishment.  Secundarilie,  Tuiching  per- 
sons to  be  nominated  to  kirks,  that  none  be  admitted  without  the 
nominatioun  of  the  people,  and  due  examinatioun  and  admissioun 
of  the  superintendent  ;  and  who  have  beene  otherwise  intrused 
since  the  fiftie-eight  yeere,  to  make  supplicatioun  for  their  provi- 
sioun,  according  to  the  forsaid  act. 

In  the  fom-th  sessioun,  holdin  the  secund  day  of  Julie,  Mr  Johne 
Scharp  was  asked,  Whether  he  woidd  serve  in  the  Ku'k  of  God, 
where  the  Assemblie  would  place  him  ?  He  answered,  He  was  con- 
tent to  imploy  his  gifts  to  the  comfort  of  the  Kirk ;  but  seing  the 
charge  of  the  ministrie  required  the  preaching  of  the  Word,  and 
ministratioun  of  the  Sacraments,  till  he  atteaned  to  farther  know- 
ledge he  could  not  accept  the  same.  The  Assemblie  finding  him 
able  to  preache,  and  minister  the  sacraments,  as  he  had  done  be- 
fore, charged  him  to  re-enter  to  the  ministrie. 

In  this  sessioun  it  was  ordeaned,  that  Mr  Craig  sould  be  joyned 
with  Mr  Knox  in  the  ministrie  of  Edinburgh ;  that  Mr  James 
Greg  sould  assist  the  superintendent  of  Glasgow  till  Michaelmasse, 
and  thereafter  teache  in  the  parishes  belonging  to  the  Lord  Are- 
skine,  till  the  nixt  Assemblie  ;  that  Mr  George  Hay,  the  superin- 
tendent of  Glasgow,  Mr  Robert  Hammilton,  minister  of  Mauch- 
line  and  Uchiltrie,  preache  in  the  unplanted  kirks  of  Carrick  moneth- 
lie  by  course,  till  the  nixt  Assemblie  ;  that  Mr  James  Pont  mini- 
ster the  AVord  and  Sacraments  till  the  nixt  Assemblie ;  that  Mr 
Robert  Pont  doe  the  like  in  Dumblane,  till  the  nixt  Assembhe. 
The  harvest  was  great,  and  the  labourers  few,  therefore  were  they 
driven  to  devise  this  kind  of  supplee  and  helpe. 

In  the  sixt  sessioun  it  is  ordeaned,  that  Mr  Johne  Scharpe  serve 
in  the  ministrie,  where  the  Superintendent  of  Lothiane  sould  ap- 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAjSTD.  187 

point ;  aud  if  he  refused,  that  the  censures  of  the  Kirk  be  executed 
against  him. 

Mr  Patrik  Cockbiu'ne,  Mr  Thomas  Hepburne,  Mr  David  Lind- 
say, or  elles  Mr  Johne  Gaig,  were  appointed  to  preache  in  the  im- 
planted kirks  of  the  Merce,  their  moneth  by  course. 

Johne  Dowglas  of  Pumferston,  compleaning  in  name  of  the  kirk 
of  Cakler,  that  they  arc  defrauded  diverse  times  of  the  preacliing  of 
the  Word,  since  their  minister  was  elected  Superintendent  of  Lo- 
thiane,  desu-ed  the  said  superintendent  to  be  restored  to  them 
againe,  or  some  qualified  minister  to  be  provided  to  them.  It  was 
answered,  the  profite  of  manic  kirks  is  to  be  preferred  to  the  profite 
of  one  particular  ;  and  that  the  kirk  of  Calder  soidd  either  be  oc- 
cupied by  himself,  or  by  some  other  qualified  person  in  his  absence, 
which  could  not  be  otherwise  helped  in  this  raritie  of  the  ministrie, 
and  that  they  sould  have  compleaned,  when  the  publick  edict  was 
sett  furth  twentie  dayes  before  his  admissioun. 

The  Assemblie  being  informed,  that  Mr  David  Spence  gave  in- 
stitution, by  vertue  of  the  Pop's  Bulls,  to  Mr  Robert  Auchim- 
mowtie,  of  the  prebendrie  of  Rufiill,  the  25th  of  June  last  bypast, 
ordeaned,  that  the  Superintendents  of  Fife  and  Lothiane  tak  order 
with  the  forsaid  persons  respective,  and  informe  the  Justice-Clerk, 
if  they  find  the  mater  cleerelie  tryed,  that  he  may  call  them  to  par- 
ticular dyets  for  breaking  the  queen's  acts  ;  and  that  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Lothian  infomie  the  duke  therof. 

The  tenor  of  the  supplication  which  was  to  be  presented  to  the 
queen's  Majestic  and  her  counsell  was  read  in  open  audience  of  the 
Assemblie,  and  approved,  as  followeth  : — 

"  To  the  Queen's  Majestic,  and  her  most  Honorable  Counsell, 
the  Superintendents  and  Ministers  of  the  Evangell  of  Jesus 
Christ  within  this  rcalme,  together  with  the  Commissioners 
of  the  whole  Kirks,  desire  grace  and  mercie  from  God,  the 
Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  with  the  spiiit  of  upright 
"  Having  in  mindc  that  fearefiiU  sentence  pronounced  by  the 

188  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

Eternall  God  against  the  watcliemen  that  see  the  sword  of  God's 
punishment  approache,  and  doe  not  in  plaine  words  forewarne  the 
people,  yea,  the  princes  and  riders,  that  they  may  repent,  we  can- 
not but  signifie  unto  your  Highnesse  and  counsell,  that  the  estate 
of  this  realme  is  suche  for  the  present,  that  unlesse  redi-esse  and  re- 
medie  be  shorthe  provided,  that  God's  hand  can  not  long  spaire  in 
his  anger  to  strike  the  head  and  the  taile ;  the  inobedient  prince 
and  smfull  people.  For  as  God  is  unchangable  and  true,  so  must 
he  punishe,  in  these  our  dayes,  the  greevous  sinnes  which  before, 
we  read,  he  hath  punished  in  all  ages,  after  he  hath  long  called  for 
repentance,  and  none  is  showin.  And  that  your  Grace  and  coun- 
sell may  understand  what  be  the  things  we  desu-e  to  be  reformed, 
we  will  beginne  at  that  which  we  assuredhe  know  to  be  the  foun- 
taine  and  spring  of  all  other  evills  that  now  abound  in  this  realme  ; 
to  witt,  that  idol  and  bastard  service  of  God,  the  masse.  The 
fountaine  Ave  call  it  of  all  irapietie,  not  onUe  becaus  manie  tak  bold- 
nesse  to  sinne  by  reason  of  that  opinioun  which  they  have  con- 
ceaved  of  that  idol,  to  witt,  that  by  the  vertue  of  it  they  gett  re- 
missioun  of  their  sinnes,  but  also,  becaus  that  under  this  colour  of 
masse,  are  whoores,  adulterers,  drunkards,  blasphemers  of  God, 
contemners  of  his  holie  sacraments,  and  suche  others  manifest  male- 
factors mainteaned  and  defended.  For  lett  anie  masse-sayer,  or 
earnest  mainteaner  therof,  be  deprehended  in  anie  of  the  foresaid 
crimes,  no  executioun  can  be  had  :  for  all  is  done  in  hatred  of  his 
religioun.  And  so  are  the  wicked  permitted  to  live  wickedlie, 
cloked  and  defended  by  that  odious  idol.  But  suppose  that  the 
masse  Avere  occasioun  of  no  suche  evills,  yitt,  in  itself  it  is  so  odious 
in  God's  presence  that  we  cannot  cease  with  all  instance  to  desire 
the  removing  of  the  same,  as  weill  frome  yourself,  as  from  all  others 
within  this  realme ;  taking  heaven  and  earth,  yea,  and  our  owne 
consciences  to  record,  that  the  obstinat  maintenance  of  that  idol 
sail  be  in  the  end  to  you  destructioun  of  soule  and  bodie.  If  your 
Majestic  demand,  why  now  we  are  more  earnest  than  we  have 
bcenc  hoerctoforc,  we  auswere,  (our  former  silence  no  wise  excused,) 
becaus  we  tind  us  Irustrated  of  our  hope  and  cxpectatioun,  which 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  189 

was,  that  in  processe  of  time,  your  Grace's  heart  sovild  have  Leene 
mollifeid  so  farre,  as  that  yee  souhl  have  heard  the  publick  doctrine 
taught  within  this  reahne ;  by  the  which  our  further  hope  and  ex- 
pectation was,  that  God's  hoHe  Spirit  soukl  liave  moved  your  heart, 
that  you  would  have  suffered  your  religioun  (which  before  God 
is  nothing  but  abomination  and  vanitie)  to  have  been  tried  by  the 
true  tuichestone,  the  Avrittin  Word  of  God ;  and  that  your  Grace 
finding  it  to  have  no  ground  nor  foundatioun  in  the  same,  sould 
give  that  glorie  unto  God,  that  yee  wovdd  have  preferred  his  truthe 
unto  your  owne  pre-conceaved  vaine  opinion,  of  what  antiquitie 
that  ever  it  hath  beene  ;  wherof  we,  in  a  })art  now  disappointed, 
can  no  longer  keepe  silence,  unlesse  we  mak  ourselves  criminall  be- 
fore God  of  your  blood,  perishing  in  your  owne  iniquitie ;  for  we 
plainlie  admonishe  you  of  the  dangers  to  come. 

"  The  secund  that  we  require  is  punishment  of  horrible  vices, 
suche  as  are  adulterie,  fc  rnicatioun,  open  whordome,  blasphemie, 
contempt  of  God,  of  his  Word  and  sacraments,  which,  in  this 
realme,  for  laike  of  punishment,  doe  even  now  so  abound,  that  sinne 
is  reputed  to  be  no  sinne.  And,  therefore,  as  that  we  see  the  signes 
of  God's  wrath  now  manifestlie  appearing,  so  doe  we  forewarne, 
that  he  will  strike  ere  it  be  long,  if  his  law,  without  punishment,  be 
permitted  thus  manifestlie  to  be  contemned.  If  anie  object  that 
punishment  can  not  be  commanded  to  be  executed  Avithout  a  par- 
liament, we  answere,  that  the  Eternall  God,  in  his  parhament,  hath 
pronounced  death  to  be  the  punishment  of  adidtcrie  and  of  blas- 
phemie ;  whose  acts,  if  yee  putt  not  in  execution,  (seing  that  kings 
are  but  his  lieutenants,  having  no  power  to  give  life  where  he  com- 
mandeth  death,)  as  that  he  will  repute  you  and  all  others  that  fos- 
ter vice  patrons  of  impietie,  so  will  he  not  faile  to  punishe  you  for 
neglecting  of  his  judgements. 

"  Our  thrid  requeist  concerneth  the  poore,  who  be  of  three  sorts : 

the  poore  labourers  of  the  ground  ;  the  poore  desolate  beggers,  or- 

)hans,  wedowes,  and  strangers ;  and  the  poore  ministers  of  Christ 

Tesus  his  holie  Evangell,  which  arc  all  so  cruellie  intreatcd  by  this 

IDO  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

last  pretended  order  takin  for  sustentatioun  of  ministers,  that  their 
latter  miserie  farre  surmounteth  the  former.  For  now,  the  poore 
labourers  of  the  ground  are  so  oppressed  by  the  crueltie  of  these 
that  pay  their  thrid,  that  they,  for  the  most  part,  advance  upon  the 
poore  whatsoever  they  pay  to  the  queene,  or  to  anie  other.  As 
for  the  verie  indigent  and  poore,  to  whonie  God  commandeth  a 
sustentatioun  to  be  provided  of  the  tithes,  they  are  so  despised, 
that  it  is  a  wounder  that  the  sunne  giveth  heate  and  light  to  the 
earth,  where  God's  name  is  so  frequentlie  called  upon,  and  no  mer- 
cie  (according  to  his  commandments)  shewen  to  his  creatures. 
And  as  for  the  ministers,  their  livings  are  so  appointed,  that  the 
most  part  sail  live  a  beggar's  life.  And  all  cometh  of  that  impietie, 
that  the  idle  belleis  of  Christ's  enemeis  must  be  fed  in  their  former 
delicaceis.  We  darre  not  conceale  from  your  Grace  and  honours 
our  conscience,  which  is  this,  that  neither  by  the  law  of  God,  neither 
by  anie  just  law  of  men,  is  anie  thing  due  unto  them  who  doe  now 
exact  of  the  poore  and  riche  the  two  parts  of  their  benefices,  as  they 
call  them.  And,  therefore,  we  most  humblie  require  that  some 
order  be  takin  with  them,  not  that  they  be  sett  up  again  to  impire 
above  the  people  of  God ;  for  we  feare  that  suche  usurpatioun  to 
their  former  estate  be  neither  in  the  end  pleasing  to  themselves, 
nor  profitable  to  them  that  Avould  place  them  in  that  tyrannic.  If 
anie  thinke  that  a  competent  living  is  to  be  assigned  unto  them,  we 
repugne  not,  provided  that  the  labourers  of  the  ground  be  not  op- 
pressed, the  poore  be  not  utterlie  neglected,  and  the  ministers  of 
the  Word  so  sharplie  intreated  as  they  are  now  ;  and,  finallie,  that 
these  idle  belleis  who  by  law  can  crave  nothing,  sail  confesse  that 
they  receave  their  sustentatioun,  not  of  debt  but  of  benevolence. 
Our  humble  requeast  is,  therefore,  that  some  suddane  order  may  be 
takin,  that  the  poore  labourers  may  find  releefe,  and  that  in  e verie 
parochin  some  portioun  of  the  tithes  may  be  assigned  to  the  sus- 
tentation  of  the  poore  within  the  same ;  and  likewise,  that  some 
publick  releefe  may  be  provided  for  the  poore  within  the  burghes ; 
that  collectors  may  be  appointed  to  gather,  and  right  sharpe  compt 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  191 

may  be  takin,  als  weill  of  their  recepts  as  of  their  deliverance.  The 
farther  consideration  to  be  had  to  our  ministers,  we  in  some  part 
remitt  to  your  wisdoms,  and  to  their  particular  complaints. 

"  Our  fourth  petition  is  for  the  manses,  yards,  and  gleebes  justlic 
apperteaning  to  ministers,  without  which  it  is  impossible  to  them 
quietlie  to  serve  their  charges :  and,  therefore,  we  desire  that  order 
be  takin  therinto,  without  delay. 

"  Our  fyft  concerneth  the  inobedience  of  certan  wicked  persons, 
who  not  onlie  trouble,  and  have  troubled,  ministers  within  their 
functiouns,  but  also  disobey  the  superintendents  in  their  visitatioun, 
Avherof  we  humblie  crave  remedie ;  which  we  doe,  not  so  muche  for 
anie  feare  that  we  or  our  ministers  have  of  Papists,  but  for  the  love 
we  beare  to  the  commoun  tranquillitie.  For  this  we  cannot  hide 
from  your  Majestic  and  counsell,  that  if  the  Papists  tliinke  to 
triumphe  where  they  may,  and  doe  what  they  list,  where  there  is 
not  a  partie  able  to  resist  them,  that  some  will  thinke  that  the 
godlie  must  beginne  where  they  left,  who  heertofore  have  borne  all 
things  patientlle,  in  hope  that  law  sould  have  bridled  the  wicked ; 
wherof  if  they  be  frustrated,  (albeit  that  nothing  is  more  odious  to 
them  than  tumults  and  domesticall  discords,)  yitt  will  men  attempt 
the  uttermost,  before  that  in  their  owne  eyes  they  behold  the  hous 
of  God  demolished,  which,  with  danger  and  travcll,  God  within  this 
realme  hath  erected  by  them. 

"  Last,  we  desire  that  suche  as  receave  remissioun  of  their  thrids 
be  compelled  to  susteane  the  ministrie  within  their  bounds,  or  elles 
we  forwarne  your  Grace  and  counsell,  that  we  fcare  that  the  people 
sail  reteane  the  whole  in  their  hands,  untill  suche  time  as  their  mi- 
nisters sail  be  sufficientlie  provided.  We  farther  desire  the  kirks 
to  be  repaired,  according  to  an  act  sett  flu'th  by  the  Lords  of  Se- 
creit  Counsell,  before  your  Majestie's  arrivall  in  this  countrie ;  that 
judges  be  appointed  to  hcare  the  causes  of  divorcement,  for  the 
Kirk  can  no  longer  susteane  that  burthein,  cspeciallic  becaus  there  ie 
no  punishment  for  the  offenders ;  that  sayers  and  hearers  of  masse, 
profaners  of  the  sacraments,  suche  as  have  entered  into  benefices 
by  the  Pope's  Bulls,  and  suche  other  transgressers  of  the  law  made 

192  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

at  your  Grace's  arrivall  within  this  realme,  may  be  severallie  pun- 
ished ;  for  elles  men  will  tliinke  that  there  is  no  truthe  in  making 
of  suche  laws.  Farther,  we  most  humblie  desire  of  your  Grace  and 
honorable  counsell  a  reasonable  answere  to  everie  one  of  the  heads 
before  writtin,  that  the  same  being  knowne,  we  may  somewhat  sa- 
tisfie  suche  as  be  greevovislie  offended  at  manifest  iniquitie  now 
raainteaned,  at  oppressioun,  under  colour  of  law,  done  against  the 
poore,  and  at  the  rebellioun  and  disobedience  of  manie  wicked  per- 
sons against  God's  Word  and  holie  oi'dinance.  God,  the  Father  of 
our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  so  rule  your  hearts,  and  direct  your  Grace 
and  counsell's  judgement,  by  the  dytement  and  illumination  of  his 
Holie  Spirit,  that  yee  may  answere  so,  that  your  conscience  may 
be  absolved  in  the  presence  of  that  righteous  Judge,  the  Lord 
Jesus.  And  then,  we  doubt  not  but  yourselves  sail  find  felicitie  ; 
and  this  poore  realme,  that  long  hath  beene  oppressed  by  wicked 
men,  sail  injoy  tranquillitie  and  rest,  with  the  true  knowledge  of 

This  letter  is  extant  in  the  Fourth  Booke  of  Mr  Knox  his  His- 
torie. In  the  Register  of  the  Acts  of  the  Assemblie,  we  find  com- 
plaints made  by  ministers,  exhorters,  and  readers,  of  the  smalnesse 
of  their  stipend,  or  of  not-payment  of  the  same,  becaus  the  thrids 
were  givin  away  by  the  queene ;  and  agreement  to  mak  supplica- 
tioun  for  manses  and  gleebes  to  ministers,  reparatioun  of  kirks, 
maintenance  of  schooles  out  of  the  two  parts  of  benefices ;  and  in 
burrowes,  by  annuel  rents,  and  other  suche  things  as  served  before 
to  idolatrie  :  for  removing  of  idolatrie ;  for  punishing  all  vices  com- 
manded by  the  law  of  God  to  be  punished,  not  punishable  by  the 
lawes  of  the  realme ;  to  witt,  blasphemie  of  God's  name,  contempt 
of  the  Word  and  Sacraments,  profanatioun  of  the  same  by  suche  as 
were  not  lawfullie  called  to  the  ministratioun  of  the  same  ;  peijurie, 
taking  the  name  of  God  commounlie  in  vaine,  breache  of  the  Sab- 
bpth  by  keeping  commoun  mei'cats,  adulterie,  fornicatioun,  filthie 
speeches.  Item,  To  requeist  the  Justice-Clerk  to  tak  order  with 
Mr  William  Scot  of  Balwerie,  for  disobedience  to  the  Superintend- 
ent of  Fife ;  and  Mr  James  Mackvcrit  in  Boote,  for  disobedience 

15G2.  OF  THE  KIKK  OP  SCOTLAND.  193 

to  the  Superintendent  of  Argile.  Tuiching  the  actioun  of  divorce- 
ments, it  was  thought  good,  that  supplication  sould  be  made  to  the 
Secreit  Counsell,  that  either  they  Avould  transferre  the  judgement 
of  divorcement  to  the  Kirk  and  their  sessiouns,  or  elles  estabHshe 
men  of  good  lives,  knowledge,  and  judgement,  to  order  the  same, 
providing  the  saids  lords  provide  how  the  guiltie  persons  divorced 
sail  be  punished. 


The  supplicatioun  above  Avrittin  being  read  in  publick  assemblie, 
was  approved  of  all.  Some  wished  more  sharpnesse,  becaus  the 
time  so  craved.  But  the  courteours,  speciallie  Lethington,  could 
not  abide  suche  hard  speeking.  "  Who  ever  saw  it  writtin,"  said 
he,  "  to  a  prince,  that  '  God  would  strike  the  head  and  the  taile  ? 
— that  '  if  the  Papists  did  what  they  list,  men  would  beginne  where 
they  left  ?'  But  that  the  queene  would  raise  up  Papists  and  Pa- 
pistrie  againe,  and  to  putt  that  in  the  heads  of  the  people,  was  no 
lesse  crime  than  treasoun ;  yea,  oathes  were  givin,  that  she  never 
meant  suche  a  tiling."  It  Avas  answered,  that  the  prophet  Isay  useth 
suche  maner  of  speeking ;  a  man  acquainted  with  the  court,  and 
said  to  be  of  the  king's  stocke.  Howsoever  it  was,  he  spake  to  the 
court,  to  judges,  ladeis,  princes,  and  preests.  If  these  words  offend 
you,  '  men  must  beginne  where  they  have  left,  in  cace  Papists  doe 
as  they  doe,'  avc  would  desire  you  to  tcache  us,  not  so  muche  how 
we  sail  spccke,  as  what  we  sail  doe,  when  our  ministers  are  beaten, 
our  superintendents  disobeyed,  and  a  plaine  rebellion  decreed 
against  all  good  order.  "  Compleane,"  said  Lethington.  "  AVliom 
to  ?"  said  the  other.  "  To  the  queen's  Majestic,"  said  Lethington. 
"  HoAV  long  ?"  said  the  whole  number.  "  Till  yce  get  rcmedie," 
said  the  Justice-Clerk  :  "  give  me  their  names,  and  I  sail  give  you 
letters."  "  If  the  sheep,"  said  one,  "  sail  compleane  to  the  wolfe, 
that  the  wolve's  whelpeshave  devoured  her  lambes,  the  compleaner 
sail  stand  under  danger,  but  the  offender  sail  have  libcrtic  to  hunt 
after  his  prey."  "  Suche  comparisons,"  said  Lethington,  "  arc  un- 
VOL.  II.  N 

194  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

savourie ;  for  I  am  assured  the  queene  vnW.  never  erect  nor  main- 
teane  Poperie."  "  Lett  your  assurance,"  said  the  other,  "  serve 
youi'self ;  it  cannot  serve  us,  for  her  proceedings  argue  the  con- 
trarie."  It  Avas  conchided  that  the  supphcatioun  sould  be  pre- 
sented as  it  was  conceaved,  unlesse  the  secretare  would  frame  an- 
other agreeable  to  the  purpose.  He  promised  to  keepe  the  sub- 
stance, but  said,  he  would  use  other  termes.  The  first  conceaver 
said,  he  served  the  Assemblie,  and  was  contented  his  dytement 
sould  be  changed  as  best  pleased  them,  providing  he  were  not  com- 
pelled to  subscrive  to  the  flatterie  of  suche  as  regarded  moe  the 
persons  of  men  and  weomen  than  the  simple  truthe.  The  suppli- 
cation was  givin  to  Lethington  to  be  reformed.  He  so  framed  it, 
that  when  it  was  delivered  to  the  queene  by  the  Superintendents  of 
Lothiane  and  Fife,  and  slie  had  read  somewhat  of  it,  she  said, 
"  Hcere  are  manie  faire  words :  I  cannot  tell  what  the  hearts 
meane."  So  faired  it  with  his  oratorie,  that  they  were  termed  by 
the  nixt  name  to  flatterers  and  dissemblers ;  but  for  that  seasoun, 
the  Assemblie  receave  no  other  answere. 


Soone  after  the  Assemblie,  Johne  Gordoun  of  Finlatoure,  sonne 
to  the  Erie  of  Huntlie,  sett  upon  the  Lord  Ogilvie  betwixt  nyne 
and  ten  at  night,  in  the  streets  of  Edinburgh,  and  hurt  him,  becaus 
old  Finlatour  had  resigned  to  Ogilvie,  as  appeared,  the  right  of  cer- 
tan  lands  which  he  was  persuing  by  the  law,  and  like  to  evict. 
Johne  Gordoun  was  takin,  and  putt  in  the  tolbuith ;  but  within 
few  dayes  brake  his  warde,  not  without  the  instigation  of  his  fa- 
ther, as  was  alledged,  for  he  was  making  preparatioun  for  the 
queen's  comming  to  the  north.  The  queene  went  from  StirHne  in 
the  moneth  of  August  toward  the  north.  No  good  was  meant  to 
the  Erie  of  Murrey,  nor  to  suche  as  depended  upon  him  at  that  time. 
The  Hammiltons,  the  Gordons,  the  Hepburns,  thristed  for  his  over- 
throw. The  Gwises  plotted  his  destructioun,  becaus  they  could  not 
cfFcctuat  restauratioun  of  Poperie,  so  long  as  he  lived.    They  wrote 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  195 

to  the  queene,  to  feed  Huntlie  with  hopes  of  a  matche  with  his  sonne 
Johne,  that  so  he  might  be  wonne  to  be  an  instrument  to  execute 
lier  intentions  ;  and  sent  her,  beside,  the  names  of  suche  as  they 
would  have  cutt  off.  The  Pope  egged  her  fordward.  She  sought 
money  frome  the  Pope,  as  it  Avere,  to  wage  warre  against  those 
that  had  made  defectioun  from  the  Koman  kirk,  but,  indeid,  to  sus- 
teane  her  pompe  and  prodigalitie.  The  Pope  his  grant  Avas  obscure  ; 
but  the  cardinal!  ansAvered  plainlie,  she  sould  laike  no  money  to 
suche  warres,  as  soone  as  those  Avhose  names  she  had  receaved  in 
roAA'  were  killed.  The  queene  shcAved  these  letters  to  the  Erie  of 
Murrey,  and  others  destinated  for  the  slaughter,  either  becaus  she 
suspected  the  plott  to  have  beene  bcAvrayed,  or  to  give  a  shcAv  of 
a  sincere  minde.  She  fained  a  longing  desu'e  to  visite  the  north. 
She  came  to  Aberdeen  about  the  middest  of  August.  She  hated 
the  Erie  of  jNIurrey  for  his  innocencie  and  uprightnesse  of  life  ;  the 
Erie  of  Huntlie,  for  his  perfidie  to  her  father  and  mother,  and  feared 
his  great  power  in  the  north.  But  her  uncles,  above  all  things, 
sought  the  murther  of  the  Erie  of  Murrey.  The  Ladie  Huntlie, 
in  her  husband's  name,  renued  the  promises  made  for  restauratioun 
of  the  Roman  religioun.  The  queene  accepted  Aveill  her  commis- 
sioun ;  but,  said  she,  it  cannot  stand  with  her  dignitie  to  be  recon- 
ciled with  her  sonne  Johne,  except  he  re-enter  in  Avaird  in  Stirlinc. 
She  thought,  if  the  Erie  of  Murrey  were  cutt  off,  and  Johne  Gordoun 
of  Finlatour  were  keeped  in  wairde,  she  needed  not  to  be  con- 
strained to  the  mariage,  wherof  she  had  onlie  made  some  shcAv,  for  an- 
other end.  Huntlie  Avas  willing  to  satisfie  the  queene,  but  loath  to 
deliver  his  sonne,  as  it  Avere,  a  pledge  to  the  Erie  of  Marr,  uncle  to 
the  Erie  of  Mvurey,  speciallie  being  yitt  uncertane  how  the  queene 
Avould  take  with  the  slaughter  of  the  Erie  of  Mm'rey.  His  sonne 
refused  to  enter.  He  gathered  together  a  thoAvsand  men,  and  drcAV 
them  neare  to  Aberdeene.  The  Lord  Gordoun  came  frome  the 
Erie  of  Huntlie  to  the  duke,  to  I'cquire  him  to  putt  to  his  hand 
in  the  south,  as  he  sould  doe  in  the  north,  and  so  Knox  his 
crying  and  preaching  sould  not  stay  them.  The  Bishop  of  Sanct 
Andrewes  and  the  Abbot  of  Cosraguell  held  secreit  conventions  in 

196  calderwood's  iiistorie  1502. 

Pasle}'.  Tlie  Bishop  said  at  open  table,  "  The  qucene  is  gone  to  the 
north,  belike,  to  seeke  disobedience  :  she  may,  perhaps,  find  the 
thing  she  seeketh."  Wliill  the  queenc  and  the  Erie  of  Huntlie 
were  crafting  Avith  other,  tlie  Erie  of  MuiTcy  caused  keepe  watche 
about  his  chamber  in  the  night.  Tlie  queene  is  invited  by  Johne 
Leslie,  a  follower  of  the  Gordons,  to  come  to  his  hous,  distant 
twelve  myle  from  Aberdeene.  But  he,  not  being  ignorant  of  tlieir 
secreit  purpose  against  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  besought  them  not  to 
bring  suche  a  blott  upon  his  hous,  as  to  make  him  to  be  suspected 
guiltie  of  betraying  the  queen's  brother,  no  evill  man,  nor  enemie 
to  him.  The  purpose  was  delayed  till  they  come  to  Strahogie. 
Whill  the  queen  is  passing  fordward,  Huntlie  interceedeth  for  his 
Sonne  ;  the  queen  alledged  her  authoritie  was  impaired,  unlesse 
he  re-entered  in  some  waird,  and  remained  certan  dayes,  for  her 
credite.  Huntlie  refused  obstinatelie,  either  becaus  he  would  lay 
the  blame  of  the  fact  upon  his  soune,  if  the  queene  did  not  approve 
the  murther ;  or,  becaus,  howbeit  she  soiJd  approve  it,  if  his  soune 
were  absent  and  in  warde,  he  might  be  keeped  as  a  pledge,  and  the 
other  purpose  would  tak  no  effect.  The  queene  was  so  offended 
with  his  obstinacie,  that  when  she  was  come  within  sight  of  Stra- 
bogie,  she  turned  another  way  ;  went  tlu-ough  Strachyla  to  Enner- 
nessc.  The  queene  purposed  to  have  loodged  in  the  castell.  Hunt- 
lie  Avas  captan  of  the  castell,  and  shii*eff  in  these  parts.  The 
keeper  of  the  castell,  Alexander  Gordoun,  was  charged  by  an  he- 
rald to  raunder  it ;  but  it  was  not  randered  till  the  nixt  day.  The 
captan,  Alexander,  for  his  refusall,  was  hanged  upon  the  toun  bridge. 
The  Lord  Gordoun  and  his  brother  Johne  Avere,  in  the  meane  time, 
lying  in  the  toun,  with  a  great  number  of  their  freinds  ;  but  manie 
deserted  them,  namelie  the  Clanchattans,  and  came  to  the  queene, 
Avhen  they  understood  what  their  purpose  Avas.  The  barons  of  the 
countrie  about  resorted  to  her.  Huntlie  beganne  to  assemble  his 
folkes.  The  Avholc  malice  Avas  bent  against  the  Erie  of  Murrey, 
Secretar  Lethington,  and  the  Laird  of  PitarroAA',  yitt  the  queene 
beganne  to  be  affrayed,  and  caused  wame  Stirlinshirc,  Fife,  Angus, 
Mcrnes,  Strathernc,  to  come  to  Aberdeene  the  fyft  of  October,  there 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  197 

to  remaine  the  space  of  twentie  dayes.  In  her  returning  from  En- 
nernesse,  she  craved  the  castells  of  Finlatour  and  Auchindoun  to 
be  delivered,  which  both  were  denyed.  Iluntlie  is  again  charged, 
under  the  paine  of  treasoun,  to  deliver  the  saids  houses.  Whill 
Huntlie  sent  his  servant,  Mr  Thomas  Keir,  to  present  the  keys,  in 
signe  of  some  obedience,  the  queene  had  sent  Captan  James  Stew- 
art his  Sonne,  with  six  score  souldlours,  to  ly  about  the  place  of 
Finlatoure.  AVhill  they  Avere  loodging  in  Cullen,  not  farre  frouie 
Finlatoure,  Johne  Gordoun  came  with  a  companie  of  horsemen, 
tooke  the  captan,  and  slue  some  of  the  souldiours.  The  queene 
Avas  so  incensed  at  this  fact,  connnitted,  as  she  alledgcd,  under  trust, 
that  all  hope  of  reconciliation  Avas  past.  Huutlie  Avas  charged  to 
present  himself,  and  his  sonne  Johne,  before  her  and  her  counsel!, 
within  six  dayes,  under  pame  of  rebellioun.  The  charge  Avas  dis- 
obeyed, and  he  denounced  rebell.  He  Avas  sought  in  the  place  of 
Strabogie,  but  escaped.  Huntlie  assembled  his  forces,  marched  to- 
ward Aberdeene,  of  purpose  to  tak  the  queene  ;  hoping  to  appease 
her  after  Avith  flatterie,  officious  service,  and  the  mariage  of  his 
sonne,  and  fuUie  resolved  to  cutt  off  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  the  cheefc 
lett  of  all  his  interprises,  by  oncmeanc  or  other.  George  Gordoun, 
Erie  of  Sutherland,  reveelcd  to  Huntlie  all  the  queen's  purposes  ; 
the  fittest  opportuniteis  for  executioun  of  his  bussinesse.  Letters 
directed  frome  the  Erie  of  Sutherland  and  Johne  Leslie  Avere  in- 
tercepted, and  their  Avhole  pui-pose  bewrayed.  Leslie  acknoAvledged 
his  fault,  and  Avas  pardonned.  Huntlie  Avas  come  to  the  Loche  of 
Skyne,  Avith  seven  or  eight  himdreth  men,  the  22d  of  October. 
When  he  understood  Avhat  had  happened,  he  purposed  to  flee  to 
the  mouutaines  ;  but  being  certifeid,  that  the  most  part  of  those 
that  Avere  about  the  queene  Avere  his  freinds,  resolveth  to  trie  the 
event.  The  Forbcsses,  Hayes,  Lesleis,  Avent  out  of  the  toun  be- 
fore ten  hourcs,  putt  themselves  in  array,  but  approached  not  to 
the  enemie,  till  the  Erie  of  Murrey  and  his  companie  Averc  come  to 
the  feilds,  about  tAvo,  afternoone,  hoAvbcit  they  bragged  they  would 
fight  Avithout  hclpc,  and  desired  him  onlic  to  behold.  Huntlie  re- 
solved, the  night  before,  to  retire,  but  could  not  bo  Avakcncd  that 

198  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

morning  before  ten  houres.  When  he  arose,  his  speeche  failed 
him,  neither  could  he  doe  anie  thing  right,  by  reason  of  his  cor- 
pulencie.  Some  of  his  freinds  left  him.  There  remained  onlie 
three  hundi-eth  men.  He  said  to  them,  "  This  great  companie 
which  approacheth  will  doe  us  no  harme :  I  onKe  feare  the  other 
small  companie  which  standeth  upon  the  hill-side.  But  we  are  a 
sufficient  number,  if  God  be  Avith  us."  Then  upon  his  knees  he 
uttered  these  words,  "  O  Lord,  I  have  been  a  blood-thristie  man, 
and  by  my  moyen  muche  innocent  blood  hath  beene  spilt :  if  thou 
will  give  me  victorie  this  day,  I  sail  serve  thee  all  the  dayes  of  my 
life."  He  confessed  he  was  guiltie  of  the  shedding  of  much  inno- 
cent blood,  and  yitt  begged  power  and  strenth  to  shed  more ; 
thinking,  belike,  he  would  satisfie  God  for  all  together ! 

Some  were  sent  to  keepe  the  passages  of  the  water,  least  Huntlie 
sould  escape.  The  Lesleis,  Hayes,  Forbesses,  perceaving  the  Erie 
of  Murrey,  James  Dowglas,  Erie  of  Morton,  and  Patrik  Lindsay, 
Master  of  Lindsay,  to  have  lighted,  and  to  be  on  foote,  sett  ford- 
ward  against  the  Erie  of  Huntlie  and  his  companie,  who  stood  at 
Corrichie  Burne  ;  some  call  it  Farabanke.  They  fastened  heather 
kowes  to  their  Steele  bonnets,  to  be  a  signe  that  they  were  freinds. 
Before  they  came  within  the  shott  of  an  arrow,  they  cast  frome 
them  their  speares  and  long  weapons,  and  fled  directlie  in  the  face 
of  the  Erie  of  Murrey  and  his  companie.  The  Laird  of  Pitarrow, 
the  Master  of  Lindsay,  the  Tutor  of  Pitcur,  said,  "  No  doubt,  there 
is  treasoun  :  lett  us  cast  doun^  om'  speares  to  the  foremost,  and 
lett  them  not  come  in  among  us."  So  they  did,  for  they  were 
marching  on  foote,  in  order.  The  Erie  of  Hvmtlie,  seing  the  great 
companie  flee,  said,  "  Our  freinds  are  honest  men  ;  lett  us  encounter 
the  rest."  Secretar  Lethington  willed  everie  man  to  caU  upon  God, 
to  remember  his  duetie,  and  not  to  feare  the  multitude.  In  end  he 
concluded  thus  :  "  O  Lord,  thou  that  ruleth  the  heaven  and  the 
earth,  looke  upon  thy  servants  whose  blood  this  day  is  sought,  and 
to  man's  judgement  is  sold  and  betrayed.  Our  refuge  is  now  unto 
thee,  and  our  hope  is  in  thee.     Judge  thou,  O  Lord,  this  day  be- 

'  Level. 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  199 

twixt  US  and  the  Eric  of  Huutlic.     If  ever  we  have  sought  un- 
justlle  his  or  their  destructiouu  and  blood,  lett  us  fall  on  the  edge 
of  the  sword.     If  we  be  innocent,  mainteane  and  preserve  us,  for 
thy  great  merceis  sake."     Soone  after  the  specking  of  these,  or  tlie 
like  words,  the  former  ranks  joyncd,  for  Iluntlie's  companie  came 
with  speed.     They  Avere  driven  backc  by  the  Master  of  Lindsay, 
and  the  companeis  of  Fife  and  Angus.     Some  of  the  great  corn- 
panic  returned,  but  gave  no  strokes  till  Huntlie's  companie  was 
driven  backe ;  then  they  strike,  and  committ  almost  all  the  slaugh- 
ter that  was  committed  that  day,  to  cleere  themselves  of  suspicioun. 
There  were  killed  upon  Iluntlie's  side  an  hundrcth  and  twcntic  ; 
not  one  upon  the  other  side.     Huntlie,  and  his  two  sonnes,  Adam 
and  Johne,  were  takin.     The  father  being  old,  and  of  short  breath, 
becaus  he  was  grosse  and  corpulent,  expired  in  the  hands  of  his 
takers.      There  Avas  no   Avound,   nor  appearance  of  anie   deadlie 
stroke.     Becaus  it  Avas  late,  he  Avas  cast  thwart  a  paire  of  creeles, 
and  so  Avas  careid  to  Aberdeene,  and  Avas  layed  in  the  tolbuith. 
His  ladie  blamed  her  cheefe  Avitche,  Jonet,  becaus  she  had  af- 
finned,  he  sould  be  that  night  in  the  tolbuith,  Avithout  anie  luut  in 
his  bodie.     She  defended  herself  stoutlie,  and  affirmed  she  gave  a 
true  response,   howbeit  she  uttered  not  all  the   truthe ;   for  she 
kncAv  that  he  sould   be  there  dead.      The  Erie  of  Murrey  sent 
word  to  the  queene,  and  besought  her  humblie  to  conveene  Avith 
them,  to  give  thanks  to   God  for  so   notable  deliverance.     She 
gloAvmed  at  the  messinger,  and  Avould  skarse  speeke  a  good  Avord, 
or  looke  Avith  a  cheerefuU  countenance  to  anie  she  kncAV  favoured 
the  Erie  of  Murrey,  Avhose  prosperitie  was  as  A'^enome  to  her  ve- 
nomed  heart.     Albeit  she  caused  execut  Johne  Gordoun,  and  sin- 
drie  others,  yitt  Avas  the  destructioun  of  others  sought.     A  Avise 
and  religious  ladie,  the  Ladie  Forbesse,  beholding,  the  day  after 
the  discomfiture,  the  corps  of  the  erle  lying  upon  the  cold  stones, 
having  upon  him  onlie  a  doublet  of  cannvcsse,  a  paire  of  Scotish  gray 
hose,  and  covered  Avith  arras  Avorke,  said,  "  What  stabilitie  sail  avc 
judge  to  be  in  this  Avorld  I     There  lyeth  he  that  yesterday  in  the 
morning  Avas  holdin  the  Avisest,  richest,  and  man  of  greatest  poAver 

200  calderwood's  historie  1562. 

in  Scotland !"    And,  indeld,  in  men's  judgements,  there  was  not 
suche  a  subject  these  three  hundreth  yeeres  within  tliis  reahne. 


Johne  Gordoun  confessed  before  his  death  manie  things  devised 
by  liis  father,  his  brother,  and  himself.  Letters  were  found  in  the 
erle's  pocket,  which  discovered  the  traffiquing  of  the  Erie  of  Suther- 
land and  others :  Mr  Thomas  Keir,  cheefe  counseller  to  the  um- 
quhile  erle,  reveeled  what  he  knew.  So  the  conspiracie  was  plain- 
lie  discovered,  to  witt,  that  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  and  some  others, 
sould  have  beene  slaine  in  Strabogie,  and  the  queene  takin.  The 
queene  retm'ned  soone  after,  leaving  the  treasurer,  Mr  James  Mak- 
gill,  Mr  Johne  Spence  of  Condie,  and  the  Laird  of  Pitarrow,  in 
Aberdeene,  to  compone  for  the  escheats  of  these  who  were  in  the 
feilds  with  the  Erie  of  Huntlie.  The  Erie  of  Huntlie's  bodie  was 
brought  about  in  a  boat,  and  layed  in  the  Abbey  of  Halyrudhous 
without  buriall,  till  the  day  of  his  forfaltoure. 


The  queene  commanded  the  duke  straitlie  to  apprehend  his 
sonne-in-law,  George  Lord  Gordoun,  if  he  repaired  within  his 
bounds.  He  apprehended  him.  But  before  he  delivered  him,  the 
Erie  of  Murrey  interceeded  for  his  life,  which  was  hardlie  granted. 
He  was  committed  to  waird  in  the  castell  of  Edinburgh,  the  28th 
of  November,  where  he  remamed  till  the  8tli  of  Februar.  At  that 
time  he  was  putt  to  an  assise,  and  convicted  of  treasoun,  but  was 
committed  again  to  the  castell  of  Edinburgh,  and  therafter  trans- 
ported to  Dumbar  castell,  where  he  was  deteaned  prisoner  till  the 
moneth  of  August. 


WhUl  the  queene  was  in  the  north,  the  Erie  Botliwell  brake 

1562.  OF  TUE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  ^  201 

waird,  the  28th  of  August.  Some  said  he  brake  the  stancheUs  of 
the  -wintlow ;  others  whispered  that  he  gott  easier  passage  by  the 
gates.  Howsoever  it  was,  the  queene  was  little  offended,  and  he 
remained  in  Lothiane  as  one  not  muche  affrayed. 


Whill  the  queene  was  in  the  north,  INIr  Knox  preached  in  Kyle 
and  Galloway.  He  forewarned  some  of  the  nobilitie  and  barons  of 
apparent  dangers,  and  exhorted  them  so  to  order  their  effaires,  as 
that  they  might  be  able  to  serve  the  authoritie,  and  represse  the 
enemeis  of  the  truthe.  A  number  of  barons  and  gentlemen  of 
Kyle,  Carick,  and  Cunninghame,  conveened  at  Air,  and  after  ex- 
hortatioun  made,  and  conference  had,  the  band  following  was  sub- 
scrived  : — 


"  Vie,  whose  names  are  under- writtin,  doe  promise,  in  the  pre- 
sence of  God,  and  of  his  Sonne,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  that  we 
and  everie  one  of  us  sail  and  will  mainteane  the  preaching  of  his 
holie  Evangc'll,  now  of  his  mercie  offered  unto  this  realme ;  and 
also  will  mainteane  the  ministers  of  the  same,  against  all  persons, 
power,  and  authoritie,  that  wiU  oppone  the  self  to  the  doctrine 
proponned,  and  by  us  receaved.  And,  further,  with  the  same  so- 
lemnitie  we  promise,  that  everie  one  of  us  sail  assist  others,  yea, 
and  the  whole  bodie  of  the  professors  within  this  realme,  in  all  law- 
full  and  just  actions  against  all  persons.  So  that  whosoever  sail 
molest,  hurt,  or  trouble  anie  of  our  bodie,  sail  be  reputed  enemie  to 
the  whole,  except  that  the  offender  will  be  content  to  submitt  him- 
self to  the  judgement  of  the  Kirk,  now  established  among  us.  And 
this  we  desire  to  be  accepted,  and  favoured  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  and 
recounted  Avorthic  of  creditc  and  honcstie  in  the  j)resence  of  the 
godhe.     At  the  bui-gh  of  Air,  the  fcrd'  day  of  September,  the  yeere 

'  Fourth. 

202  calderwood's  uistorie  1562. 

of  God   1562.     Subscrived  with  all  their  hands. that  were  there 
present,  as  foUoweth :" 

The  Erie  of  Glencarne,  Lord  Boyd,  Lord  Uchiltrie,  Failftirde, 
Mathew  Campbell  of  Lowdun,  knight,  Alane  Lord  Cathcart,  Cap- 
rinton,  elder  and  younger,  Cuninghamheid,  Rowallan,  Waterston, 
Cragie,  Lesnores,  Achinharvie,  Middetoun  ;  JNIr  Michael  Wallace, 
Proveist  of  Air,  with  fortie  men  of  the  honestest  of  the  toun,  the 
Master  of  Boyd,  Gathgirth,  Barr,  Carnell,  Dreghorue,  Cested, 
Skeldmn,  Wolstoun,  Karsland,  ForgishaU,  Polquharne,  Stair, 
Barskimming,  Kinzeancleuch,  with  a  hundreth  moe  gentlemen; 
Johne  Dumbar  of  Blantyre,  Carleton  and  his  brother,  Halrig,  Kers, 
Kirkmichaell,  Daliarbich,  Corstlayes,  Hopscleugh,  Carbistoun,  Kel- 
wod,  Taringanoch,  &c. 


Mr  Knox  Avent  from  the  Avest  to  Nithisdaill  and  GaUoway.  Af- 
ter conference  with  the  Master  of  Maxwell,  a  man  of  deepe  judge- 
ment and  great  experience,  upon  the  ajjparent  dangers,  he  wrote  to 
the  Erie  Bothwell  at  his  desire,  to  behave  himself  as  a  peaceable 
subject  in  the  places  committed  to  his  charge,  for  so,  his  breaking 
of  warde  would  be  the  more  easilie  pardouned.  Mr  Knox  wrote 
to  the  duke,  and  exhorted  him  not  to  hearken  to  the  pernicious 
counsells  of  his  bastard  brother,  the  bishop,  or  of  the  Erie  of  Hunt- 
lie  ;  assuring  him,  if  he  did,  he  and  his  hous  would  come  to  suddan 
mine.  By  suche  meanes,  the  south  parts  were  keejied  in  reasonable 
good  order,  howbeit  the  bastard  bishop,  and  the  Abbot  of  Cosra- 
guell,  did  Avhat  in  them  lay  to  raise  trouble.  They  spread  fearefidl 
bruites  :  sometime  that  the  queen  was  takin ;  sometime  that  she  had 
randered  herself  to  the  Erie  of  Iluntlic ;  sometime  that  the  Erie 
of  Murrey  and  all  his  companie  were  slaine.  They  stirred  up  the 
Crawfuixls  against  the  Rcids,  for  payment  of  the  bishop's  Pasche 
fynes,  to  make  a  stirre  in  Kyle.  But  indifferent  men  favouring 
peace,  reconciled  them. 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  203 


The  Abbot  of  Cosraguell  craved  disputatioun  with  Mr  Knox, 
which  was  granted,  and  holdin  at  Mynnibole'  three  dayes.  The 
abbot  undertooke  to  prove  that  Melchisedeck  offered  bread  and 
wine.  Pie  could  produce  no  prooffc,  as  in  the  disputatioun  yitt 
extant  may  appeare.  He  presented  himself  to  the  pulpit ;  but  the 
voice  of  Mr  George  Hay  so  affrayed  huu,  that  after  once  he  wea- 
ried of  that  exercise. 


Lethington  was  directed  Mdth  ample  commissioun  both  to  the 
Queen  of  England  and  to  the  Gwisians.  The  mariage  of  the 
queene  was  in  all  men's  mouths.  Some  would  have  Spaine,  some 
the  emperour's  brother,  some  Robert  Lord  Dudley.  Some  unhap- 
pilie  gessed  at  the  Lord  Darnlie.  It  was  said  that  Lethington 
spake  with  Ladic  Margaret  Dowglas,  and  that  Robert  Melvill  re- 
ceaved  a  horse  from  the  Erie  of  Lennox,  or  his  ladie,  to  the  secre- 
tar's  use.  Howsoever  it  was,  Mr  Foullar,  servant  to  the  said  erle, 
came  Avith  letters  to  the  queene,  and  obteaned  licence  to  the  erle 
to  come  to  Scotland,  to  doe  his  lawfull  bussinesse.  That  day  the 
licence  was  granted,  the  secretar  said,  "  This  day  have  I  takin  upon 
me  the  deadlie  feid  of  all  the  Hammiltons  in  Scotland,  and  have 
wrought  them  no  lesse  displeasure  than  if  I  had  cutted  their 


The  Erie  Bothwell  was  charged,  the  26th  of  November,  by  an 
herald,  to  re-enter  in  waird.      He  disobeyed,  and  was  therefore 

'  The  ancient  name  of  Maybole.  The  town  is  still  so  called  by  the  old  inhabitants 
of  the  district. 

204  calderwood's  iiistorie  1562. 

denounced  rebell.  Wliill  he  was  upon  the  seas^  fairing  toward 
France,  the  ship  was  drivin  by  stovme  of  weather  into  England. 
He  was  deteaned,  and  offered  to  our  queen,  to  be  randered.  But 
she  answered,  he  was  no  rebell,  and  requested  that  he  might  have 
libertie  to  passe  whither  he  pleased.  Lethington  procured  this 
favour  ;  for  he  travelled  to  have  freinds  in  everie  factioun  of  the 
court,  and,  therefore,  obteaned  to  him  licence  to  passe  to  France. 


The  preachers  declamed  against  avarice,  oppressioun  of  the  poore, 
excesse  in  ryotous  cheere,  immoderate  dancing,  whoordome  ensning 
therupon,  and  all  other  vices.  The  courteours  stormed,  and  said, 
preaching  was  turned  in  railing.  Mr  Knox  answered  one  day  as 
foUoweth  : — "  It  cometh  to  om'  eares  that  we  are  called  railers ; 
wlierat,  albeit  we  wonder,  yitt  are  we  not  ashamed,  seing  the  most 
Avorthie  servants  of  God  before  us,  travelling  in  the  same  vocatioim, 
have  beene  so  stained.  But  to  you  do  I  say,  that  the  same  God 
who,  from  the  beginning,  hath  punished  the  contempt  of  his  A^^ord, 
and  hath  powred  out  his  vengeance  upon  suche  proud  mockers,  sail 
not  spaire  you ;  yea,  he  sail  not  spaire  you  before  the  eyes  of  the  same 
wicked  generatioun,  for  pleasure  wherof,  yee  despise  all  wholsome  ad- 
monitioun.  Have  yee  not  scene  one  greater  than  anie  of  you,  sitting 
presentlie  where  yee  sitt,  pyke  his  nailes,  and  pull  doun  his  bonnet 
over  his  eyes,  when  idolatrie,  witchcraft,  mm'ther,  oppressioun,  and 
suche  vices  were  rebooked  ?  (He  meant  the  Erie  of  Huntlie.)  Was 
not  this  his  commoun  speeche  :  '  When  these  knaves  have  railed 
their  fill,  then  they  will  hold  their  peace.'  Have  yee  not  heard  it 
affirmed  in  his  face,  that  God  sould  revenge  that  his  blasphemie, 
even  in  the  eyes  of  suche  as  were  witnesses  to  his  iniquitie  ?  Then 
was  the  Erie  of  Huntlie  accused  by  you,  and  compleaned  upon,  as 
a  mainteaner  of  idolatrie,  and  a  hinderance  of  all  good  order. 
Him  hath  God  punished,  even  according  to  the  threatnings  which 
his  and  your  earcs  liave  heard,  and  by  your  hands  hath  God  exe- 
cuted his  judgement.     But  what  amendement  can  be  espied  in  you  ? 

1562.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  205 

Idolaters  arc  in  rest,  vertue  and  vertuous  men  arc  contemned,  vi- 
tious  men  bold,  and  without  feare  of  punishment.  And  yitt,  ^\\\o 
guide  the  queen  and  court  but  Protestants  ?  O,  liorrible  slander 
to  God,  and  his  holic  Evangell !  Better  it  were  unto  you  plainlie 
to  renounce  Christ  Jesus,  than  thus  to  expone  his  blessed  Evangell 
to  moclme.  If  God  punishe  not  you,  that  the  same  age  sail  behold 
and  see  your  punishment,  the  spirit  of  righteous  judgement  guideth 
not  me."  The  courteours  Avere  greatlie  offended.  Their  favourers 
said,  their  brethrein  in  the  coiu't  were  unreverentlie  handled. 
*'  They  did  what  they  might :  suche  specking  would  cause  them 
doc  lesse  :  what  was  this,  but  to  inflamrae  the  hearts  of  the  people 
against  them  ?" 


The  Generall  Assemblie  convecned  the  25th  of  December,  1562, 
in  Edinburgh,  in  the  old  counsel  hous. 


In  the  triell  of  superintendents,  the  Superintendent  of  Fife  was 
delated,  that  he  was  somwhat  slacke  in  his  visitations,  stayed  not 
at  kirks  for  ordering  neccssarie  effaires,  muche  givin  to  Avorldlie  ef- 
faires,  slacke  in  preaching,  rash  in  excommunicating,  sharper  in 
making  acts  for  payment  of  small  tithes  than  became  him.  It  was 
layed  to  the  Superintendent  of  Angus  his  charge,  first.  That  there 
were  manic  Popish  preests  unqualifeid,  and  of  vitious  life,  admitted 
to  be  readers  of  kirks  within  his  diocie.  Secund,  That  young  men 
were  admitted  rashlie  to  be  ministers  and  exhorters,  without  that 
triell  and  exarainatioun  which  is  required  in  the  Booke  of  Dis- 
cipline. Tlu-id,  That  gentlemen  of  vitious  life  were  chosin  to  be 
ciders  in  diverse  kirks.  Fourth,  That  sindrie  ministers,  under  his 
jurisdictioun,  make  no  residence  at  their  kirks  ;  visitc  not  the  sick  ; 
come  too  late  upon  the  Lord's  day,  the  people  wearied  waiting 
on  them,  and  depart  incontinent  after  sermon.     Fyft,  That  the 

206  oalderwood's  historie  1562. 

youth  are  not  instructed.  Sixt,  That  ministers  resort  not  to  the 
exercise  of  propheceing,  according  to  the  order  sett  doun  in  the 
Booke  of  Disciphne. 


In  the  thrid  sessioun  it  was  ordeaned,  according  to  the  fourth 
head  of  the  Booke  of  Discipline,  that  all  persons  serving  in  the  mi- 
nistrie,  who  had  not  entered  into  their  charges,  according  to  the 
order  appointed  in  the  said  Booke,  be  inhibited ;  that  is  to  say,  if 
they  have  beene  slanderous  before  in  doctrine,  and  have  not  satis- 
feid  the  kirk ;  if  they  have  not  been  presented  by  the  people,  or  a 
part  thereof,  to  the  superintendent,  and  he,  after  examinatioun  and 
triell,  hath  not  appointed  unto  them  their  charges :  and  that  this 
act  have  strenth,  als  weill  against  those  who  are  called  Bishops  as 
others ;  and  ordeaneth  the  same  to  be  promulgat  by  the  superin- 
tendents, in  their  dioceis,  and  where  there  are  no  superintendents, 
by  commissioners  sent  from  the  Assemblie  ;  the  copie  thereof  to  be 
affixed  upon  the  principall  kirk  doores.  And  if  anie  persoun,  after 
inhibitioun  made,  contemptuouslie  continue  in  his  ministrie,  the  As- 
sembhe  ordeaned  to  proceed  against  him  by  censures  to  excommu- 
nication, unlesse  by  his  letters  to  the  commissioners  or  nixt  super- 
intendent, he  give  signification  of  his  obedience,  and  promise  to  ac- 
cept the  same  charge,  according  as  they  sail  command  him.  And 
in  that  case,  the  Assemblie  decerneth,  that  with  libertie  and  free- 
dome  of  conscience,  and  without  danger  of  the  former  paine,  he 
may  continue  in  his  ministrie  to  the  nixt  Assemblie,  at  which  time 
it  is  ordeaned,  that  they  present  themselves  before  the  Assemblie ; 
and  that  this  act  comprehend  all  exhorters  and  readers. 


Becaus  it  was  compleaned,  that  the  north  countrie,  for  the  most 
part,  was  destitute  of  ministers,  and  that  the  order  of  electioun  and 
admissioun  of  the  Superintendent  of  Aberdeene  was  not  putt  in 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  207 

execution,  the  Assemblie  appointed  Mr  George  Hay,  Mr  Johne 
Row,  and  Adam  Heriot,  to  be  proponed  in  leetes  to  the  said  kirk, 
and  edicts  to  passe  furth  "svith  all  cxpeditioun ;  and  committed  the 
charge  of  inauguration  of  the  person  elected  to  the  Superintend- 
ents of  Fife  and  Angus,  and  suche  learned  men  as  they  sail  choose. 
The  kirk  of  Old  Aberdecne  was  appointed  to  be  the  place  of  ad- 
missioun.  In  cace  either  Mr  Johne  Row  or  Adam  Heriot  sail  be 
elected,  the  Assemblie  nominated  Mr  James  Wilkie,  Patrik  Cor- 
ston,  and  Robert  Hammilton,  to  be  propouned  in  leets  to  the  kirks 
destituted  of  their  ministrie. 


For  planting  of  kirks  in  the  shirefdoms  of  Dumfreis,  Galloway, 
and  Nithisdaill,  and  the  rest  of  the  west  dails,  the  Assemblie  no- 
minated in  leets  for  the  superintendentsliip,  Mr  Alexander  Gor- 
doun,  intituled  Bishop  of  Galloway,  and  Mr  Robert  Pont,  minister 
of  Dunkelden ;  ordeaned  edicts  to  be  sett  furth  for  the  admissioun, 
upon  the  last  Lord's  day  of  Aprile,  and  appointed  the  Superintend- 
ent of  Glasgow,  Mr  Knox,  minister  of  Edinburgh,  Mr  Robert  Plam- 
milton,  minister  of  Uchiltrie  and  Mauchline,  and  other  learned 
men,  to  be  present  at  the  inauguration  of  the  person  elected ;  the 
place  of  admissioun  to  be  the  parish  kirk  of  Dumfi*eis.  In  the 
mean  time,  the  Assemblie  giveth  commissioun  to  Mr  Alexander  to 
ad  mitt  ministers,  exhorters,  and  readers,  and  to  doe  suche  other 
things  as  were  before  accustomed  in  planting  kirks.  Pleere  we  may 
see,  that  the  bishops  converted  from  Popric  were  not  suffered  to 
exerce  jurisdictioun  ecclesiastical!,  by  virtue  of  their  episcopal!  office. 


In  the  fourth  sessioun,  commissioun  Avas  givin  to  Mr  Knox  to 
go  to  Jedburgh,  and  to  tak  triell,  upon  the  3d  of  Januar  nixt  to 
come,  of  the  slaunder  raised  against  Paid  Mcthven,  late  minister  of 
the  said  burgh ;  and  after  triell  to  report  to  the  sessioun,  or  con- 

208  calderwood's  histokie  1562. 

sistorie  of  the  kirk  of  Edinburgh,  to  whom,  with  the  Superintend- 
ent of  Lothiane,  the  xVssemblie  giveth  power  to  decerne  and  pro- 
nounce sentence. 


This  Assemblie  giveth  power  to  everie  superintendent  within 
their  owne  bounds,  in  their  synodall  assembleis,  with  consent  of  the 
most  part  of  the  elders  and  ministers,  to  translate  ministers  frome 
one  kirk  to  another,  as  they  sail  consider  the  necessitie.  Ministers 
were  commanded  to  obey  the  superintendent,  tuiching  their  trans- 
lating. It  was  ordeaned,  that  superintendents  indict  their  syno- 
dall conventions  twise  in  the  yeere,  to  be  holdin  at  suche  dayes,  in 
Aprile  and  October,  as  the  superintendent  sail  think  good ;  and 
that  they  give  sufficient  advertisement  to  the  particular  kirks,  that 
the  minister,  with  an  elder  or  deacoun,  may  repaire  to  the  place 
appointed  by  the  superintendents,  at  the  dayes  appointed,  to  con- 
sult upon  the  commoun  affaires  of  their  dioceis. 


In  the  fyft  sessioun,  commissioun  was  givin  to  the  Superintend- 
ents of  Angus,  Lothiane,  Glasgow,  Fife,  and  David  Foresse,  to 
traveU  with  the  Lords  of  the  Secreit  Counsell,  to  know  what  causes 
sail  come  to  the  judgement  of  the  kirk,  and  what  order  sail  be  takin 
therin,  for  executioun.  Item,  To  travell  for  discharging  of  mercats 
holdin  upon  the  Lord's  day.  Item,  Commissioun  givin  to  make 
supplication,  both  by  word  and  writt,  to  the  queen's  Majestic,  for 
support  of  the  poore. 


Notwithstanding  of  the  nominatioun  of  superintendents  for  Aber- 
deene,  Bamf,  Jedburgh,  and  Dumfrcis,  tlie  Assemblie  remitted  far- 
ther advisement  and  nominatioun  of  the  persons  to  the  Lords  of 

1562.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  209 

the  Secrcit  Counsell,  providing  the  dayes  appointed  for  admissioun 
be  not  altered. 


It  was  ordeaned,  that  an  imiforme  order  soukl  be  keepcd  in  mi- 
nistratioiin  of  the  sacraments,  solemnizatioun  of  manages,  and  bu- 
riall  of  the  dead,  according  to  the  Booke  of  Geneva.  Item,  That 
the  communioun  be  ministred  foure  times  in  the  yeere,  within  the 
burro wes,  and  twise  in  the  yeere  in  countric  parishes.  The  super- 
intendents were  appointed  to  confer  with  the  Lords  of  the  Secreit 
Counsell,  tuiching'the  charges  to  be  bestowed  upon  the  elements 
at  the  Lord's  Supper.  Item,  That  no  minister,  or  others  bearing 
office  within  the  Kirk,  tak  in  hand  to  cognosce,  and  decide  in  ac- 
tions of  divorcement,  except  superintendents,  and  these  to  whom 
they  sail  give  speciall  commissioun,  for  speciall  persons. 


In  this  Assemblie  complaints  were  made,  that  ministers  wanted 
stipends,  or  had  verie  small.  The  Comptroller,  Justice-Clerk,  and 
Clerk-Register  promised,  where  the  thrids  were  remitted  to  the 
possessors,  and  the  queen's  Majestic,  to  cans  charge  the  principall 
intrometters,  and  possessors  of  the  tithes,  to  pay  the  ministers'  sti- 
pends. It  was  complcancd,  that  manses  were  deteaned  by  parsons 
or  vicars,  or  sett  in  few  to  gentlemen.  The  Clerk  of  Register  and 
Justice-Clerk  desired  the  superintendents  to  informe  the  clerk  of 
the  rentals  where  these  manses  lay,  that  they  might  be  assigned 
to  the  queen's  thrid  part,  and  that  so  the  ministers  might  come  to 
the  possessioun  of  them.  It  was  compleaned,  that  idolatrie  was 
erected  in  sindrie  places.  Some  thought  good,  a  supplicatioun 
sould  be  presented  to  the  queene ;  others  demanded,  what  answerc 
was  returned  to  the  last :  the  presenter,  the  Superintendent  of  Lo- 
thiane,  said,  "  None."  The  queen's  supposts,  as  some  of  them  were 
ever  there,  excused  the  mater  by  the  troubles  of  the  north ;  but 
VOL.  II.  O 

210  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

putt  them  in  hope,  that  betwixt  the  nixt  parliament,  suche  order 
sould  be  takin  as  sould  content  honest  men.  Her  and  their  prac- 
tise was  to  drive  time. 


The  triell  of  Paul  Methven  was  verie  difficill.  His  servant  wo- 
man left  his  hous  betwixt  termes,  had  borne  a  childe,  and  alledged 
that  she  was  suppressed  by  night.  He  would  have  pm-ged  himself 
in  pubhck ;  but  it  was  refiised,  becaus  his  accusers  offered  to  prove 
by  witnesses.  Some  of  the  witnesses  affirmed,  that  they  did  see, 
others,  that  they  heard  them  in  the  act.  The  sight  of  the  place 
augmented  the  suspicioun.  The  most  vehement  presumptioun 
arose  of  this,  that,  in  absence  of  his  wife,  who  was  gone  to  Dun- 
die,  he  lay  nighthe  in  the  hous,  without  anie  companie  but  a  childe 
of  seven  or  eight  yeeres.  The  gentlewoman's  brother  came  to  the 
toun,  ignorant  of  their  proceedings.  He  was  produced  by  the  ac- 
cusers, as  one  who  was  privie  to  the  fact ;  for  he  convoyed  the  wo- 
man away,  he  caused  the  chUde  to  be  baptized,  as  if  it  had  beene 
his  owne  ;  he  caried  frequent  messages,  money,  and  clothes,  from 
him  to  her.  When  Paul  perceaved  this  man  produced  as  witnesse, 
he  withdrew  himself  and  left  the  toun.  And,  indeid,  the  man  made 
the  mater  cleere.  The  commissioners  returned  to  Edinburgh,  and 
informed  the  sessioun.  He  is  summoned  publicklie,  to  heare  the 
sentence  pronounced ;  but  he,  not  compeering,  in  the  end,  for  his 
contumacie  and  crime,  was  excommunicated,  and  deprived  of  all 
functioun  within  the  Kirk  of  Scotland,  and  so  left  the  realme. 
How  manic  of  the  Popish  rable  have  beene,  and  yitt  remaine 
knowne  whoormongcrs,  adulterers,  violaters  of  virgins,  yea,  and 
committers  of  suche  abominatioun  as  we  vnW  not  name,  and  yitt 
are  called  and  acknowledged  bishops,  archbishops,  cardinals,  and 
pops ! 

1563.  OF  THE  KlllK  OF  SCOTLAND.  21  1 


Danvill,  sonne  to  Annas  Montmorancie,  Constable  of  France, 
could  hardlie  be  drawin  home  from  our  queene,  when  his  father 
sent  for  him.  At  lenth,  being  constrained  to  returne  home,  left 
behind  him  a  broker  betwixt  him  and  the  queene,  Monsieur  Chat- 
telat,  nephew  to  the  famous  knight,  Pierr  Tertal,  by  his  daughter. 
But  he  labom-ed  to  conquishe  her  affection  to  himself.  He  passed 
all  others  in  crcdite.  At  a  purpose  dance,  whereat  men  and  weo- 
men  talke  secreitlie,  the  queene  choosed  Chattelat.  All  this  win- 
ter, skairse  could  anie  of  the  nobilitie  have  accesse  to  her  aire  or 
late,  becaus  she  was  in  the  cabinet  with  Chattelat.  She  would  ly 
upon  his  shoulder,  and  sometime  privilie  Steele  a  kisse  off  his  necke. 
Upon  a  night,  he  convoyed  himself  pi-ivilie  under  her  bed ;  but  be- 
ing espied,  was  commanded  to  goe  furth.  The  bruite  rysing,  the 
queene  requested  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  as  he  loved  her,  to  slay 
Chattelat,  and  never  lett  him  speeke  a  word.  At  the  first  he  pro- 
mised ;  but,  after  remembring  what  a  crime  it  was  to  putt  to  death, 
without  order  of  justice,  fell  upon  his  knees  before  the  queene,  and 
said,  "  Madame,  I  beseech  your  Grace,  cans  me  not  take  the  blood 
of  this  man  upon  me.  Your  Grace  hath  interteaned  him  so  fami- 
liarlie  before,  that  yee  have  offended  all  the  nobilitie.  If  he  be 
slaine  secreitlie  at  yom*  commandement,  what  will  the  world  judge 
of  it  ?  I  sail  present  him  to  justice,  and  lett  him  suffer  by  law,  ac- 
cording to  his  deserts."  "  O,"  said  the  queene,  "  yee  will  never 
lett  him  speeke."  "  I  sail  doe,"  said  he,  "  Madame,  what  lyeth  in 
me  to  save  your  honour."  Poore  Chattelat  was  convoyed  to  Sanct 
Andrewes,  putt  to  an  assise,  and  beheaded,  the  22d  of  Febniar, 
1563.  He  craved  licence  to  write  to  France  the  cans  of  his  death, 
which,  said  he,  was  "  Poure  estre  trouve  en  lieu  trop  suspect ;"  that  is, 
for  being  found  in  a  place  too  muche  suspect.  At  the  place  of 
executioun  he  granted,  that  for  his  declynning  fromc  the  truthc, 
and  following  vanitie  and  impietie,  he  was  now  justlie  punished. 

212  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

He  made  a  gotllie  confessioun.     In  end,  he  concluded  with  these 
words,  "  O,  cruell  dame  !" 


The  Papists  erected  the  idol  of  the  masse  at  Easter  in  diverse 
places.  The  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  the  Pryom'  of  Quhitterne, 
and  some  others  of  that  factiomi,  would  avow  it.  Some  preests  in 
the  west  countrie  were  apprehended.  Intimatioun  was  made  to 
the  Abbot  of  Cosragaell,  the  Parson  of  Donquhare,  and  otliers, 
that  the  punishment  which  God  appointed  for  idolaters  sail  be  exe- 
cuted without  stay  upon  complaint  to  the  queene  or  counsell, 
wheresoever  they  sail  be  apprehended.  The  queene  fretted  at 
suche  fi'eedome  of  speeche. 


Where  force  failed,  the  queene  used  craft.  She  sent  for  IMr 
Knox,  to  come  to  her  to  Locldevin.  She  travelled  with  him  two 
houres  before  supper,  to  be  an  instrument  to  perswade  the  people, 
speciallie  the  gentlemen  of  the  west,  not  to  putt  hands  in  anie  man 
for  the  exercise  of  their  religioun.  He  willed  her  Grace  to  punishe 
malefactors  according  to  the  lawes,  and  promised  quietnesse  upon 
the  part  of  the  professours.  "  But  if  your  Majestic  Avould  delude 
the  lawes,  I  feare,"  said  he,  "  the  Papists  sail  understand,  that 
without  due  punishment  they  will  not  be  suffered  so  manifestlie  to 
offend  God's  Majestic."  "  Will  yee,"  said  she,  "  avow,  that  they 
sail  take  my  swoi'd  in  their  hands  ?"  "  The  sAvord  of  justice,"  said 
he,  "  Madame,  is  God's,  and  is  givin  to  princes  and  rulers  for  one 
end  ;  which,  if  they  transgresse,  spairing  the  wicked,  and  oppi'css- 
ing  the  innocent,  those  who,  in  the  feare  of  God,  execute  judge- 
ment, where  God  hath  connnanded,  offend  not  God,  although  kings 
doe  it  not ;  nor  yitt  sinne  they,  Avho  bridle  kings  frome  slaying  in- 
nocent men  in  their  rage,  Samwell  feared  not  to  slay  Agag,  the 
fatt  and  delicate  king  of  Amaleck,  whome  King  Saul  had  saved. 

1563.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTL^VND.  213 

Elias  spaired  not  Jesabel's  false  prophets,  nor  Baal's  preests,  albeit 
King'Achab  was  present.  Phinehas  Avas  no  niagistrat ;  yitt  feared 
he  not  to  strike  Zimri  and  Cosbie,  in  the  verie  act  of  their  filthie 
fornicatioun.  So,  INIadani,  your  Grace  may  see,  that  others  than 
cheefe  magistrats  may  lawfullie  punishe,  and  have  punished,  the 
vices  and  crimes  which  God  hath  commanded  to  be  punished ;  for 
power  by  Act  of  Parliament  is  givin  to  all  judges,  Avithin  their 
bounds  to  searche  masse-mungers,  and  hearers  of  masse,  and  to 
punishe  them  according  to  the  lawes.  Therefore,  it  is  expedient 
that  your  Majestic  consider,  Avhat  is  the  thing  your  Grace's  subjects 
looke  to  receave  of  your  Majestic,  and  what  yee  ought  to  doe  to 
them,  by  mutuall  contract.  They  are  bound  to  obey  you,  but  in 
God  :  yee  are  bound  to  keepe  the  laws  unto  them.  Yce  crave  of 
them  service ;  they  crave  of  you  protectioun,  and  defence  against 
evill  doers.  Now,  Madame,  if  yee  sail  denie  your  duetie  to  them, 
whieh  speciallie  craveth  that  yee  punishe  malefactors,  thinke  yee  to 
receave  full  obedience  of  them  ?  I  feare,  Madame,  yee  sail  not." 
Hecrewith  she,  being  somwhat  offended,  went  to  her  supper.  He 
infonned  the  Erie  of  Murrey  of  the  Avhole  conference,  and  so  de- 
parted, of  purpose  to  have  returned  to  Edinburgh,  without  anie 
farther  communicatioun  Avith  the  queene.  But  before  the  sunne 
rysing,  upon  the  morne,  Avas  he  commanded  by  two  directed  to 
him,  not  to  depart  whill  he  spake  with  the  queen's  Majestic. 

Mr  Knox  mett  the  queene  at  the  Hauking-hUl,  by  Avest  Kinros, 
the  day  foUoAving.  She  dissembled  her  anger,  and  told  him  hoAv 
that  the  Lord  Ruthven  had  offered  her  a  ring  :  "  But,"  said  she, 
"  I  cannot  love  him,  for  I  knoAV  he  usetli  enchantment ;  and  yitt, 
he  is  one  of  my  privie  counsell."  "  Whome  doth  your  Grace 
blame  ?"  said  he.  "  Lethington,"  said  she.  "  That  man  is  absent," 
said  he,  "  for  the  present,  Madame,  and,  therefore,  I  Avill  speeke 
nothing  in  that  behalfe."  Then  she  fell  to  speeke  of  the  admis- 
sioun  of  the  Superintendent  of  Dumfreis.  "I  heare,"  said  she, 
"  the  Bishop  of  Athens  Avould  be  superintendent."  "  He  is  one," 
said  the  other,  "  Madame,  Avho  is  putt  in  clcctioun."  "  If  yee 
kncAv  him,"  said  she,  " als  Aveill  as  I  doe,  yee  Avould  ncAcr  promove 

214  calderwood's  nisTOiiiE  15G3. 

him  to  anie  office  in  your  Kirk."  "  What  he  hath  beene,  Madame," 
said  he,  "  I  neither  know,  nor  doe  inquu-e  ;  for  what  could  we  doe 
in  time  of  darknesse  but  grop,  and  goe  wrong  ?  If  he  be  not  now 
one  fearing  God,  he  deceaveth  manie  moe  than  me.  And  yitt,  I 
am  assured,  Madame,  that  God  will  not  suffer  his  Kii-k  to  be  so 
farre  deceaved,  as  that  an  unworthie  man  sail  be  elected,  where 
there  is  fi-ee  electioun,  and  the  Spirit  of  God  earnesthe  incalled 
upon."  "  Weill,"  said  she,  "  doe  as  yee  will  Tthat  man  is  a  dan- 
gerous man."  She  was  not  deceaved ;  for  he  had  corrupted  the 
most  part  of  the  gentlemen,  not  onlie  to  nominate  him,  but  also  to 
choose  him.  Mr  Knox,  therefore,  being  commissioner,  delayed  the 
electioun,  and  left  Mr  Kobert  Pont,  with  the  Master  of  Maxwell, 
for  better  triell  of  his  doctrine  and  conversatioun.  The  bishop  was 
verie  familiar  at  that  time  with  Mr  Knox,  and  eate  often  at  his 
table,  but  was  frustrated  of  his  purpose  at  this  time. 

]Mr  Knox  being  wiUing  to  tak  his  leave  of  the  queene,  she  said, 
"  I  have  one  of  the  greatest  maters  that  have  tuiched  me  since  I 
came  in  the  realme  to  open  up  unto  you,  and  must  have  your 
helpe."  She  confessed,  her  sister,  the  Ladie  Argile,  was  not  so 
circumspect  in  everie  thing  as  she  wished ;  "  yitt,"  said  she,  "  her 
husband  faileth  in  manie  things."  "  I  brought  them  to  concord," 
said  he,  "  that  her  freinds  were  fullie  content ;  and  she  promised 
before  them,  she  sould  never  compleane  to  anie  creature,  till  I  sould 
first  be  made  acquaint  with  the  querell,  either  out  of  her  owne 
mouth,  or  by  an  assm'ed  messinger."  "  Weill,"  said  she,  "  it  is 
Avorse  than  yee  beleeve.  Doe  this  muche  for  my  sake,  as  once 
againe  to  reconcile  them,  and  if  she  behave  not  herself  as  becometh, 
she  shall  find  no  favour  of  me  :  but  in  no  case  lett  my  lord  know 
that  I  employed  you.  As  for  our  conference  yesternight,  I  sail 
doe  as  yee  have  required.  I  sail  cans  summoun  all  offenders,  and 
yee  sail  know  that  I  sail  minister  justice."  "I  am  assured,  then," 
said  he,  "  that  yee  sail  please  God,  and  injoy  rest  and  tranquillitie 
within  your  realme,  which  is  of  greater  use  to  your  Majestic  than 
all  the  Pop's  poAver  can  be."  l?ut  she  meant  no  suche  mater.  Tluis 
they  parted.     Mv  Knox,  according  to  his  purpose,  in  his  journey 

1563.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  215 

to  Dumfreis,  he  directed  a  letter  from  Glasgow  to  the  Erie  of  Ar- 
gile,  whei'in  he  exhorted  him  to  beare  with  the  imperfections  of  his 
wife,  seing  he  was  not  able  to  convince  her  of  anie  crime  since  the 
last  reconciliatioun,  and  not  to  denie  her  due  benevolence.  This 
letter  was  not  weill  accepted. 


Upon  the  10th  of  May,  the  Cardinal!  of  Lorane  exhibite  to  the 
Councell  of  Trent  letters  directed  from  our  queene.  She  submitted 
herself  to  the  councell,  and  promised  to  bring  both  England  and 
Scotland  under  subjectioun  to  the  ApostoHck  See,  how  soone  she 
sould  be  promoved  to  the  crowne  of  England.  The  Cardinall  of 
Lorane  excused  her  not  sending  of  prelats  or  oratours  to  the  coun- 
cell, becaus  all  were  hereticks  in  her  coimtrie  ;  yitt  he  promised,  in 
her  name,  that  she  sould  never  declyne  from  the  Roman  religioun. 
The  synod  gave  thanks  ;  but  some  jested  at  that  officiousnesse,  as 
proceeding  rather  from  a  privat  person  nor  from  a  prince,  becaus 
there  was  not  so  muche  as  one  of  her  Catholick  subjects  sent. 
Others  deemed  the  letters  to  have  beene  begged,  becaus  none  were 


Summons  were  du'ccted  furth  against  masse-mimgers.  They 
were  summoned  in  the  straitest  forme  to  compeere  the  19th  of 
May.  Of  Pop's  knights  compecred  the  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes, 
the  Parson  of  Sanquhare,  William  Hammilton  of  Camskeith,  Johne 
Gordoun  of  Barskioch,  and  diverse  others.  The  professors  craved 
justice.  Young  Lethington  was  absent.  The  queene  asked  old 
Lethington's  advice.  He  said  she  must  see  her  laAves  keepcd,  or 
elles  she  would  gett  no  obedience.  The  bishop  and  his  band  made 
it  nyce  to  enter  before  the  Erie  of  Argile,  who  was  sitting  in  judge- 
ment ;  but  at  lenth  it  behoved  him  to  enter  within  the  bar.  A 
merrie  man,  Robert  Norwell,  in  stead  of  the  bishop's  crosse,  caried 


before  him  a  Steele  hammer,  wherat  the  bishop  and  his  band  were 
not  a  little  offended.  The  bishop  and  his  fellowes,  after  muche 
dealing  and  dry  ving  of  time,  came  in  the  queen's  will.  Some  were 
committed  to  warde  in  one  place,  some  in  another.  The  Ladie 
Areskine  gott  the  bishop  for  her  part.  All  this  was  done,  that  the 
queene  might  not  be  urged  with  anie  other  thing  concerning  maters 
of  religioun  at  the  parliament,  which  was  to  beginne  the  day  fol- 
lowing. Noblemen  were  forewarned ;  but  becaus  manie  of  them 
had  their  owne  particulars  to  be  treated  upon  in  the  parliament,  the 
commoun  caus  was  the  lesse  resrarded. 


The  Erie  of  Huntlie's  corps  was  brought  to  the  tolbuith,  his 
amies  rent,  he,  the  Erie  of  Sutherland,  and  elleven  barons  and 
lau'ds  of  the  surname  of  Gordoun,  were  forfaulted.  The  queene 
road  in  pompe  to  the  tolbuith,  the  Parhament  hous,  three  sindrie 
dayes.  The  first  day  she  made  a  painted  oratioun.  Then  might 
have  beene  heard  among  her  flatterers,  "  Vox  Dianoe!  the  voice 
of  a  goddesse ! — God  save  that  sweete  face ;  was  there  ever  one 
that  spake  so  eloquentlie  ?" 


The  preachers  spake  fi-eelie  against  the  targetting  of  weomen's 
taUes,*  and  the  rest  of  their  vanitie.  Ai'ticles  were  presented  for 
reformatioun  of  suche  vanitie,  and  other  enormiteis.  But  the  Erie 
of  Murrey  had  the  confirmatioun  of  his  erledome  to  passe,  others 
their  owne  ratifications  hkewise  for  themselves,  their  fi-einds,  or 
dependers.  "  If  the  queene,"  said  they,  "  be  urged  with  suche 
things,  she  will  hold  no  parliament ;  and  then,  what  sail  become  of 
those  who  medled  with  the  slaughter  of  the  Erie  of  Huntlie  ?  Lett 
that  parliament  passe  over,  and  when  the  queene  sail  aske  anie 
thing  of  the  nobilitie,  as  she  must  doe  before  her  mai'iage,  then  sail 
*   Ornamenting  the  skirts  of  dresses  with  tassels 

15G3.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTL.VND.  217 

rcHgiouii  be  the  first  thing  that  sail  be  established."  It  was  an- 
swei'cd,  that  poets  and  painters  erred  not  altogether  that  fained 
and  painted  Occasioun  with  a  bald  hind  head.  If  it  be  neglected 
when  it  is  offered,  it  is  hard  to  be  recovered.  It  fell  furth  so  hote 
betwixt  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  some  other  courteours,  and  Mr  Knox, 
that  they  spake  not  familiarlic  together  for  a  yeere  and  an  halfe 
after.  Mr  Knox,  by  letter  to  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  discharged  him- 
self of  all  care  of  his  affaires.  He  called  to  his  remembrance,  in 
what  estate  he  Avas  when  they  conferred  first  together  at  Londoun ; 
how  God  had  promoted  him  above  man's  judgement.  In  end,  he 
concludeth  thus  :  "  But  seing  I  perceave  myself  frustrated  of  my 
expectatloun,  which  was,  that  yee  soidd  ever  have  preferred  God 
to  your  owne  affectioun,  and  the  advancement  of  his  truthe  to  your 
singular  commoditie,  I  committ  you  to  your  owne  witt,  and  to  the 
conducting  of  those  who  better  can  please  you.  I  praise  my  God 
I  leave  you  this  day  victor  of  your  enemeis,  promoted  to  great 
honour,  and  in  credit  and  authoritie  with  your  soverane.  If  so  you 
continue  long,  none  sail  be  more  glad  than  I  sail  be.  But  if  after 
this  yee  sail  decay,  as  I  feare  yee  sail,  then  call  to  minde  by  what 
meanes  God  exalted  you  ;  which  was  neither  by  bearing  with  im- 
pietie,  nor  by  mainteaning  pestilent  Papists."  Some,  invying  the 
great  familiaritie  that  was  betwixt  them,  were  glade,  and  ceassed 
not  to  cast  oyle  in  the  flamme,  which  burned,  till  God  by  the  water 
of  afflictloun  beganne  to  slocken  it. 

Least  they  sould  seeme  altogether  to  have  forsakin  God,  (as  in 
verie  deed,  God  and  his  Word  was  farre  off  frome  the  hearts  of  the 
most  part  of  the  courteours,  some  few  excepted,)  they  beganne  to 
treate  of  the  punishment  of  adulterie  and  witchecraft,  of  restitu- 
tioun  of  gleebs  and  manses  to  ministers,  of  reparatioun  of  kirks. 
An  Act  of  Oblivioun  was  made  of  things  past  since  the  sixt  day  of 
Marche,  1558,  to  the  first  of  September  exclusive,  15G3,  and  it  was 
ordeaned,  that  the  memorie  of  all  actions,  civill  or  criminall,  which 
resulted  upon  divlsioun  for  religioun  during  that  time,  sail  expire, 
be  bureid  and  extinct  for  ever.  But  the  acts  against  adulterie  and 
witchecraft,  for  manses  and  gleebs,  were  so  modifeid,  that  no  acts, 

218  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

and  suche  acts,  were  both  alike ;  to  witt,  That  committers  of  adul- 
terie  sail  be  punished  to  the  death,  after  due  premonitioun  made 
to  absteane  from  the  said  crime ;  and  that  others  acts  and  lawes 
made  therupon  before  be  putt  in  execution.  That  no  person  use 
anie  maner  of  witchecraft,  sorcerie,  or  necromancie,  or  avoAv  the 
art  and  knowledge  therof ;  nor  seeke  anie  helpe,  response,  or  con- 
sultatioun  of  the  said  abusers,  under  the  paine  of  death  to  the  user 
and  consulter,  and  to  be  putt  in  executioun  by  the  justice,  shirefFs, 
Stewarts,  bailifFes,  lords  of  regaliteis  and  royalteis,  their  deputs,  and 
other  judges  ordinar  competent.  That  no  parson,  vicar,  nor  other 
ecclesiastical  person,  sett  in  few  or  long  tacks  their  manses  or 
gleebes,  without  speciall  licence  and  consent  of  the  queen's  Grace. 
That  the  ministers  serving  the  cure  saU  have  the  principall  manse 
of  the  parson  or  vicar,  or  so  muche  therof  as  may  be  sufficient ;  or, 
that  a  reasonable  and  sufficient  hous  be  builded  beside  the  kirk,  by 
the  parson  or  vicar,  or  others  possessing  the  said  manses  in  few  or 
long  tacks. 


Mr  Knox,  in  his  sermoun  before  the  most  part  of  the  nobilitle, 
(for  the  parliament  was  not  yitt  dissolved,)  discoursed  upon  the 
merceis  of  God,  the  deliverance  frome  tyrannic  both  of  bodie  and 
soule,  which  this  realme  had  felt,  and  of  the  ingratitude  of  the  mul- 
titude. "  Now,  my  lords,"  said  he,  "  I  praise  God  that,  in  your 
owne  presence,  I  may  powre  out  the  sorrowes  of  my  heart.  Yee 
yourselves  may  be  witnesses  if  I  lee.  Frome  the  beginning  of  God's 
mightie  working  within  this  realme,  I  have  beene  with  you  in  your 
most  desperate  tentations.  If  that  I  (not  I,  but  God's  Spirit  in 
me)  willed  you  not,  ever  in  your  greatest  extremitie,  to  depend 
upon  God,  and  promised,  in  his  name,  victorie  and  preservatioun 
frome  your  enemeis,  so  that  yee  would  onlie  depend  upon  his  pro- 
tectioun,  and  preferre  his  glorie  to  your  owne  lives  and  worldlie 
commoditie,  aske  your  owne  consciences.  I  was  with  you  at  Sanct 
Johnstoun  ;  Cowper  Moore  and  the  Craigs  of  Edinburgh  are  yitt 

1563.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  219 

recent  in  my  minde ;  yea,  that  darke  and  dolourous  night,  whcriu 
all  yee,  my  lords,  with  shame  and  feare  left  this  toun,  is  yitt  in  my 
minde,  and  God  forbid  that  ever  I  forgett  it !  What  was  my  ex- 
hortation to  you,  wliat  hath  fallin  in  vaine  of  all  that  God  promised 
to  you  by  my  mouth,  yee  yourselves  can  testifie.  There  is  not  one 
of  you  against  whom  death  and  destructioun  was  threatned,  per- 
ished in  the  danger,  but  manie  of  youi'  enemeis  hath  God  plagued 
before  your  eyes.  Sail  this  be  the  thankfulnesse  yee  sail  rander  to 
our  God,  to  betray  his  caus,  when  yee  have  power  in  your  owne 
hands  to  establishe  it  as  yee  please  ?  The  queenc,  say  yee,  will  not 
agree  with  us.  Aske  of  her  that  which  we  may  justlie  by  God's 
Word,  and  if  she  will  not  agree  Avith  you  in  God,  yee  are  not 
bound  to  agree  with  her  in  the  devill.  Lett  her  plainlie  under- 
stand so  farre  of  your  mindes,  and  steale  not  frome  your  former 
stoutnesse  in  God,  and  yee  sail  prosper  in  your  enterprises.  I  see 
nothing  but  suche  a  recooling  from  Christ,  as  that  the  man  who 
first  and  most  speedilie  fleeth  from  Christ's  ensigne  holdeth  him- 
self happie.  Yea,  I  heare  some  say,^  that  we  have  not  our  reli- 
gioun  established  by  law  or  act  of  parliament.  Albeit  the  mali- 
cious words  of  suche  can  neither  hurt  the  truthe  of  God,  nor  us 
who  depend  therupon,  yitt  the  speeker,  for  treason  committed 
agauist  God  and  this  poore  commoun  wealth,  deserveth  the  gal- 
lows. Our  religioun  being  commanded,  and  so  established  by  God, 
is  accepted  within  this  realme.  If  the  king  then  living,  and  the  queene 
noAV  raigning,  were  lawful  soverans,  that  parliament  cannot  be  de- 
nied to  be  a  laAvfidl  parliament,  Avhereby  our  religioun  Avas  ap- 
proved. NoAV,  my  lords,  to  putt  an  end  to  all,  I  heare  of  the 
queen's  mariage.  Dukes,  brethrein  to  emperours  and  kings,  strive 
all  for  the  best  game.  But  this,  my  lords,  Avill  I  say,  (note  tlie  day, 
and  beare  witnesse  heerafter,)  Avhensoevcr  the  nobilitie  of  Scotland 
consenteth,  that  anie  infidel  (all  Papists  are  infidels)  sail  be  head 
to  our  soverane,  yee  doe  so  farre  as  in  you  lyeth  to  banishe  Christ 
from  this  realme.     Yee  bring  God's  vengeance  upon  tJic  countric, 

'  "  The  Dean  of  Restalrig." — Note  in  the  MS. 

220  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

a  plague  upon  yourselves,  and  perhaps  sail  bring  small  comfort  to 
your  soverane." 


Papists  and  Protestants  were  offended ;  yea,  his  most  familiar 
freinds  disdained  him  for  his  speeches.  Placeboes  and  flatterers 
went  to  court,  and  told  that  Mr  Knox  had  spokin  against  the  queen's 
mariage.  The  Proveist  of  Glencludden  charged  him  to  present 
himself  before  the  queene  after  noone.  Uchiltrie  and  others  ac- 
companeid  him  to  the  Abbey  after  dinner.  None  went  in  with  him 
to  the  queen's  cabinet  but  Johne  Areskine  of  Dun,  Superintendent 
of  Angus.  The  queene  beganne  to  cry  out  in  fmne,  that  never 
prince  was  so  used  as  she  was.  "  I  have  borne,"  said  she,  "  with  all 
your  rigorous  speeches,  uttered  both  against  myself  and  my  uncles ; 
I  have  sought  your  favour  by  all  possible  meanes ;  I  offered  unto 
you  presence  and  audience,  whensoever  it  pleased  you,  and  yitt  I 
cannot  be  quite  of  you.  I  vow  to  God  I  sail  once  be  avenged." 
Her  chamber  boy,  Marvock,  could  skarse  gett  naipkins  to  hold  her 
eyes  drie,  for  teares.  The  yo wiling,  beside  womanlie  weeping,  stayed 
her  speech.  Mr  Knox  having  patientlie  susteaned  her  first  fume, 
at  opportunitie  answered,  "  True  it  is,  Madame,  your  Grace  and  I 
have  beene  at  diverse  controverseis,  yitt  I  never  perceaved  your 
Grace  to  be  offended  at  me.  When  it  sail  please  God  to  deliver  your 
Grace  frome  that  boundage  of  darknesse  and  errour  wherin  yee 
have  beene  nourished,  for  laike  of  right  instructioun,  your  Majestic 
will  find  the  libcrtie  of  my  tongue  to  be  nothing  offensive.  Out  of 
the  preaching  place,  Madame,  I  thinke,  you  have  not  occasioun  to 
be  offended  at  me ;  and  there.  Madam,  I  am  not  master  of  my  self, 
but  must  obey  Him  who  commandeth  me  to  speekc  plainlie,  and  to 
flatter  no  flesh  upon  earth."  "  What  have  yee  to  doe,"  said  she, 
"  with  my  mariage?"  "Please  your  Majestic,"  said  he,  "patientlie 
to  heare  me.  I  grant,  your  Grace  offered  to  me  more  than  ever  I 
desired  or  required.     But  my  answcre  was  then,  as  it  is  now,  that 

1563-  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  221 

God  hath  not  sent  me  to  await  upon  the  courts  of  princes,  or  upon 
the  chambers  of  ladeis,  but  to  preache  faith  and  repentance  to  suche 
as  please  to  heare.  In  preaching  of  repentance,  Madame,  it  is  ne- 
cessar  that  the  sinnes  of  men  be  noted,  that  they  may  know  wherin 
they  offend.  The  most  part  of  your  nobilitle  are  so  addicted  to 
your  affectiouns,  that  neither  God's  Word,  nor  the  commoun  wealth, 
are  duelie  regarded,  therefore  it  becometh  me  to  informe  them  of 
their  duetie."  "  But  what  have  you  to  doe  with  my  mariage  ?'' 
quoth  she;  "  or  what  are  yee  Avithin  this  conunoun  wealth  ?"  "  I  am 
a  subject,  borne  within  the  same,"  said  he,  "  Madame  :  although  I 
be  neither  erle,  lord,  nor  baron  in  it,  yitt  God  hath  made  me,  how 
abject  so  ever  I  seemc  in  yom'  eyes,  a  profitable  member  Avithin  the 
same.  Yea,  Madame,  it  apperteaneth  to  me  no  lesse  to  forewarnc 
of  suche  things  as  may  harme  it,  if  I  foresee  them,  than  to  anie  of 
the  nobilitie,  for  my  office  and  calling  so  craveth.  Therefore,  Ma- 
dame, to  yourself  I  say,  as  I  said  in  publick,  '  Whensoever  the  no- 
bilitie of  this  realme  sail  consent  that  yee  be  subject  to  an  unfaith- 
full  husband,  they  doe  so  fan-e  as  in  them  lyeth  banishe  the  truthe, 
betray  the  freedom  of  this  realme,  and  perhaps,  in  the  end,  sail 
bring  small  comfort  to  yourself.' "  At  these  words,  yowUing  Avas 
heard,  and  teares  might  have  been  scene  in  greater  abundance  than 
the  mater  required.  Johne  Areskine  of  Dun,  a  man  of  meeke  and 
mylde  spirit,  to  mitigat  her  anger,  praised  her  bcautie  and  excel- 
lent parts,  and  said,  that  all  the  princes  in  Europ  Avould  be  glade  to 
seeke  her  favours.  But  suche  maner  of  sj)eeking  was  nothing  but 
to  cast  oyle  in  the  flamming  fire.  Mr  Knox  stood  still  without  anie 
alteratioun  of  countenance  a  long  seasoun.  At  lenth  he  said,  "  Ma- 
dame, in  God's  presence  I  speeke,  I  never  delyted  in  the  weeping 
of  anie  of  God's  creatures ;  yea,  I  can  skarsc  weill  abide  the  teares 
of  my  owne  boyes,  when  my  owne  hand  correctcth  them,  muchc 
lesse  can  I  rejoice  in  your  Majestie's  weeping.  But  seing  I  have 
offered  to  you  no  just  occasioun  to  be  offended,  but  have  spoken 
the  truthe  as  my  vocatioun  craveth,  I  must  bearc,  howbcit  unwill- 
inglie,  with  your  Majestie's  teares,  rather  than  hurt  my  conscience, 

222  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

or  betray  the  commouu  Avealth  by  silence."  The  queene  was  then 
more  offended,  and  commanded  hhn  to  passe  out  of  the  cabinet,  and 
to  abide  her  farther  pleasure  in  the  chamber.  The  Laird  of  Dun 
stayed ;  Johne  Lord  Coldingham  went  in.  They  remained  with 
her  neere  the  space  of  an  houre.  Mr  Knox  stood  in  the  chamber, 
as  a  stranger  whom  men  had  never  scene,  for  all  were  affrayed ;  yitt 
the  Lord  of  Uchiltrie  bare  him  companie.  He  beganne  to  seeke 
some  puqiose  with  the  ladeis  sitting  there  in  their  gorgeous  appar- 
rell.  "  O,  faire  ladeis,"  said  he,  "  how  pleasant  were  this  life  of 
yours,  if  it  sould  endm'e,  and  in  the  end  ye  might  passe  to  heaven 
with  all  this  gay  geere.  But,  fy  upon  that  knave  Death,  which  will 
come  whether  we  will  or  not !  And  Avlien  he  hath  layed  on  the  ar- 
reist,  the  foule  wormes  will  be  bussie  Avith  this  flesh,  be  it  never  so 
faire  or  tender :  but  the  sillie  sovde,  I  feare,  sail  be  so  feeble,  that  it 
can  neither  carie  with  it  gold,  targetting,  nor  precious  stones."  So 
passed  he  the  time,  till  the  Laird  of  Dun  willed  him  to  depart  to 
his  hous  till  new  advertisement.  The  queene  would  have  had  the 
Lords  of  the  Articles  to  be  judge,  whether  suche  speeches  deserved 
not  punishment.  But  she  was  counselled  to  desist,  and  so  that 
storme  ceassed. 


The  Gwises,  great  enemeis  to  Queene  EHzabeth,  offered  our 
queene  in  mariage  to  the  King  of  Navarre,  and  to  procure  the 
Pop's  sentence  of  depositioun  of  Queene  Elizabeth,  and  divorcement 
from  his  owne  hereticall  wife.  But  the  Cardinal!  of  Loran  was 
dealing  for  a  matche  betwixt  her  and  Charles,  Archduke,  sonne  to 
the  Emperour  Ferdinand.  The  bloodie  tyranne,  the  Duke  of  Guise 
himself,  was  takin  away  in  Februare  before.  Queen  Elizabeth 
commended  unto  her  Robert  Dudley,  whom  she  created  Master  of 
the  Horse,  and  Baron  of  Denbigh. 

1563.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  223 

lethington's  practises. 

Soone  after  the  parliament,  Secretar  Lethington  returned  out  of 
England.  He  shewed  himself  a  little  offended  that  anie  sould  have 
affirmed  there  was  anie  motioun  of  the  queen's  matche  with  the 
King  of  Spaine  :  "  For,"  said  he,  "  it  never  entered  in  heart."  His 
intentioun  was  to  discredit  Mr  Knox,  who  had  affirmed  that  such 
a  mariage  was  both  propouned,  and,  upon  the  queen's  part,  by  the 
cardinall  accepted.  ^Vliill  he  was  absent,  the  nobilitie  blamed  him 
for  serving  the  queen's  affections  too  farre  against  the  commoun 
wealth.  Therefore  he  strenthened  himself  with  freindship ;  for  he 
travelled  in  England  for  the  Erie  Bothwel's  libertie,  and  procured 
the  Erie  of  Lennox  his  pasport  to  come  home.  He  sett  fordward 
the  Erie  of  AthoU  at  court  at  home,  so  the  Erie  of  Miu-rey  his  cre- 
dite  beganne  to  be  obscured.  Yitt  Lethington  caried  a  faire  coun- 
tenance to  him.  Soone  after  his  returne,  the  queene  sett  at  libertie 
the  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  and  the  rest  of  his  band,  who  were 
before  committed  to  prison  for  violating  the  lawes. 

the  sixt  generall  assemblie. 

The  Generall  Assemblie  was  holdin  at  Sanct  Johnstoun,  the  25tli 
day  of  June. 

triell  OF  superintendents  and  commissioners. 

In  the  triell  of  superintendents,  Mr  Alexander  Gordoun,  called 
commounlie  Bishop  of  Galloway,  to  whom  commissioun  had  beenc 
givin  before  to  plant  kirks  with  ministers,  cxhorters,  or  readers, 
and  other  office-bearers,  likewise  for  a  reformed  kirk  Avithin  the 
bounds  of  GalloAvay,  was  compleaned  upon  by  the  Laird  of  Gar- 
leis,  younger,  that  he  had  not  ministred  justice  to  an  honest 
woman  complcaning  upon  her  husband  for  non-adherence. 

224  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

commissioners  of  provinces  appointed. 

Coramissioun  was  given  to  Mr  Joline  Hepburne,  Minister  of 
Brechin,  to  plant  ministers,  exhorters,  readers,  elders,  deacons,  and 
other  members  requisite  and  needfiill  for  a  reformed  kirk,  in  Mur- 
rey, Bamf,  and  the  countreis  adjacent ;  and  to  place  schoolemasters, 
to  abolishe  idolatrie  in  these  parts.  The  like  commissioun  Avas 
givin  to  Mr  Robert  Pont  to  plant  kirks  in  the  shirefdome  of  Inner- 
nesse,  and  the  countreis  adjacent ;  and  to  Mr  Donald  Monro,  to 
doe  the  like  within  the  bounds  of  Rosse,  and  to  assist  the  Bishop 
of  Cathnesse  in  preaching  of  the  Gospell,  and  planting  of  kirks. 
Commissions  were  givin  to  the  Bishops  of  Galloway,  Orkney,  and 
Cathnesse,  for  the  space  of  a  yeere,  to  plant  kirks,  etc.,  within  their 
oA\Tie  bounds.  All  these  commissions  were  to  endm'e  onlie  for  a 
yeere.  The  Generall  Assembleis  aimed  at  the  planting  of  moe 
superintendents,  and  even  in  this  same  Assemblie,  they  aimed  at  a 
superintendentship  in  Tiviotdaill,  Xithisdaill,  Annandaill,  and  Sel- 
kirk. Yitt  could  they  never  atteane  to  moe  than  five.  Therefore 
they  gave  commissiouns  to  ministers  to  plant  kirks,  preache,  visite 
kirks,  schooles,  and  colledges  ;  to  suspend,  deprive,  transplant 
ministers  ;  to  confer  vacant  benefices ;  to  procure  the  eradicatioun 
of  all  monuments  of  idolatrie  in  the  provinces,  or  bounds  assigned 
to  them.  These  were  called  the  commissioners  for  planting  kirks, 
commissionei's  of  countreis  or  provinces,  commissioners  for  visita- 
tion. Their  power  was  equall  to  the  power  of  superintendents, 
and  had  the  lUce  assistance  of  reformed  kirks,  of  learned  men  nixt 
adjacent,  of  meetings  of  ministers  for  the  exercise  of  prophecie,  of 
synods,  of  other  associats  whom  the  Generall  Assemblie  now  and 
then  appointed  to  joyne  with  them.  This  was  the  difference  : 
commissioners  injoyed  their  office  onlie  for  a  yeere  commonlie. 
When  the  commission  expired,  the  Assemblie  either  renued  it,  or 
placed  another :  so  that  I  may  justlie  call  the  commissioners  of 
provinces,  temporarie  superintendents ;  and  were  in  verie  deed  but 
servants  to  the  General  Assemblie,  having  a  delegate  power  from 

15G3.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  225 

them,  accessorie  to  the  particular  charge  which  they  had  over  their 
owne  particular  flockes. 


These  acts  following  were  made  in  this  Assemblie  : — 

1.  That  no  contract  of  manage  alledged  to  be  made  secreitlie, 
carnall  copulatioim  following,  sail  have  faith  in  judgement  in  time 
comming,  till  the  contracters  suffer  as  breakers  of  good  order,  and 
offensive  to  the  Kirk  by  their  slaunder ;  and,  therafter,  that  faith 
sail  not  be  givin  to  that  promise,  till  famous  and  unsuspect  wit- 
nesses affirme  the  same,  or  elles  both  the  parteis  confesse.  And 
incace  probatioun  or  confessioun  follow  not,  that  the  said  of- 
fenders be  punished  as  fornicators. 

2.  That  if  anie  person  findeth  himself  wronged  by  anie  sentence 
givin  by  the  ministers,  elders,  and  deacons  of  their  kirk,  it  sail  be 
free  to  the  partie  so  wronged  to  appeale  to  the  superintendent  of 
the  diocie,  and  the  synodall  conventioun,  within  ten  dayes  after ; 
and  the  said  superintendent  sail  take  cognitioun  Avhether  it  was 
Weill  appealed  or  not,  and  give  sentence  therupon.  If  the  partie 
yitt  alledge  himself  wronged  by  the  superintendent,  and  his  syno- 
dall conventioun,  it  sail  be  free  to  him  to  appeale,  within  ten  dayes 
as  before,  to  the  Generall  Assemblie  immediatlie  following;  and 
that  the  said  Assemblie  tak  cognitioun  of  the  said  appellatioun, 
whether  the  partie  appealed  weill  or  not ;  and  therafter  pronounce 
sentence,  from  Avhich  it  sail  not  be  free  to  the  pax'tie  to  appeale. 
If  the  appellant  justifie  not  his  appellatioun  before  the  superintend- 
ent, and  his  conventioun  foresaid,  he  sail  inflict  a  paine  upon  him, 
as  he  sail  thinke  good,  beside  the  expenses  of  the  partie :  which 
penaltie  sail  be  delivered  to  the  deacons  of  the  kirk  where  the  first 
sentence  was  givin,  to  be  distributed  to  the  poore.  In  like  maner, 
the  Generall  Assemblie  finding  it  evill  appealed,  from  the  superin- 
tendent and  synodall  conventioun,  sail  impose  a  penaltie  arbitrarie 
upon  the  appellant,  to  be  distributed,  as  said  is,  together  with  the 
expenses  to  the  partie. 

VOL.  IT.  p 

226  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

3.  That  the  instruction  of  the  youth  be  connnitted  to  none  within 
the  reahiie,  neither  in  nor  out  of  universiteis,  but  to  suche  as  pro- 
fesse  the  true  religioun  now  publicklie  taught ;  and  if  there  be  anie 
other  noAv  presentUe  occupying  these  places,  that  they  be  removed. 

4.  Tliat  no  workc  sail  be  sett  furth  in  print,  or  published  in 
writt,  tuiching  religioun,  before  it  be  presented  to  the  superintend- 
ent of  the  diocie,  advised  and  approved  by  him,  and  by  suche  as 
he  sail  call  of  the  most  learned  within  his  bounds.  And  if  they,  or 
anie  of  them,  doubt  of  anie  point,  so  that  they  cannot  be  resolved 
cleerelie,  they  sail  produce  the  said  worke  to  the  General  Assem- 
blie,  where  order  sail  be  takin  for  resolutioim  of  the  said  doubt. — 
The  like  power  was  givin  in  Assembleis  following  to  others  than 

5.  That  everie  superintendent  warne  shires,  touns,  parish  kirks 
within  the  bounds  of  their  jurisdictioun,  to  send  their  commis- 
sioners to  the  Generall  Assemblie  in  times  coming,  and  mak  inti- 
matioun  to  them  of  the  time  and  place ;  and  that  the  superintend- 
ents themselves  repaire  to  the  Assemblie,  the  first  day,  under  the 
paine  of  a  certan  penaltie,  to  be  distributed  to  the  poore. 

6.  That  everie  superintendent  consider  within  his  bounds  the 
kirks  needing  reparatioun,  or  re-edifeing  ;  and  therafter,  that  the 
letters  givin  to  him  gratis,  made  conforme  to  the  Act  of  Parliament, 
be  delivered  to  the  collectors  of  the  thrids  within  his  bounds,  to  be 
executed  by  an  officer  of  amies,  at  suche  kirks  as  sail  be  needfull, 
and  the  superintendent  sail  thinke  good :  and  therafter,  that  the 
said  collectors  deliver  the  letters  duelie  executed  to  the  superin- 
tendents, that  where  it  sail  happin  there  be  disobedience  they  may 
crave  remeid  from  the  Lords  of  Secreit  Counsell. 


Articles  and  petitions.  It  is  ordeaned,  that  supplicatioun  be 
made  to  the  superiour  powers,  for  constituting  judges  in  everie 
province,  to  heare  the  complaints  of  parteis,  alledging  adulterie  to 
be   committed   by   the  husband  or   the   wife  ;    and  that  the   said 

1563.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND,  227 

judges  may  take  cognitioun  in  the  mater,  and  punishe,  according  to 
the  Act  of  Parliament.  Item,  That  when  anie  benefice  sail  vaike, 
qualifeid  persons  may  be  presented  to  the  superintendent  of  the 
province  where  the  benefice  lyeth,  that  places  destitute  of  the  mi- 
nistrie  may  be  provided.  Item,  That  where  two  or  three  kirks  are 
distant  two  or  three  myles,  they  may  be  united,  and  the  inhabit- 
ants commanded  to  resort  to  one  of  them  ;  becaus  the  smalnesse  of 
manie  parishes  requu-eth  not,  and  the  raritie  of  ministers  sufFereth 
not,  everie  kirk  to  have  a  severall  minister.  Item,  For  remitting 
the  thrids,  or  a  part  therof,  to  suche  bishops  as  are  appointed  by 
the  Assemblie  commissioners,  to  plant  kirks  within  their  owne 
bounds.  The  comptroller  was  requested  to  assume,  and  assigne  to 
himself  so  muche  of  the  thrids  of  the  benefices  remitted  by  the 
queene  to  the  professors,  colleges  and  kirks  of  universiteis  being 
excepted,  as  may  sufficientlie  susteane  the  ministrie ;  and  to  cans 
his  collector  to  intromett  therewith,  and  distribute  the  same  among 
the  ministers,  as  weiU  for  times  bypast  as  to  come  ;  which  he  pro- 
mised to  doe.  The  Comptroller,  Justice-Clerk,  and  Clerk-Register 
being  present,  promised  to  give  letters  gratis  to  ministers  reqiur- 
ing  the  same  ;  and  to  cause  them  be  executed  upon  the  comptrol- 
ler's expenses,  to  charge  all  possessors  of  manses  to  restore  the 
same  to  ministers,  or  to  build  a  sufficient  hous  to  them  before  a 
sett  day,  as  the  partie  sail  desire,  under  the  paine  of  horning. 


The  Superintendent  of  Lothiane,  the  ministers,  elders,  and  dea- 
cons of  the  kirk  of  Edinburgh,  conjunctimet  divisim,  Mr  James  Mak- 
gill.  Clerk  of  Register,  Sir  Johne  Spence  of  Condie,  the  queen's 
Advocat,  Messrs  Thomas  Makalzeaue,  David  Borthwicke,  Clement 
Littill,  Richard  Strang,  or  anie  two  of  them,  were  appointed  to 
tak  cognitioun  of  Mr  Magnus  Halcro  and  Margaret  Sinclar's  ap- 
pellation frome  the  Bishop  of  Orkneye's  sentence,  in  a  cans  of  di- 
vorce. Commission  was  givin  to  Mr  Gudman,  minister  at  Sanct 
Andrewes,  William  Christesone,  minister  at  Dundic,  Mr  AA^illlam 

228  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

Coke,  Mr  William  Scot,  INIr  Joline  Dowglas,  Rector  of  the  Uni- 
versitie  of  Sanct  Andrewcs,  to  tak  cognitioun  of  the  complaint 
givin  in  by  the  Superintendent  of  Fife,  against  Mr  George  Leslie, 
minister  of  Stramiglo,  to  decerne,  and  to  notifie  their  decreit  to  the 
Superintendent  of  Angus :  where  we  may  see,  that  ministers  were 
appointed  by  the  Assemblie  judges  betwixt  superintendents  and 
ministers ;  and  that  not  onHe  the  Generall  Assemblie,  but  also  others 
Avhom  it  pleased  them  to  appoint,  had  power  to  judge  of  bishops 
and  superintendents.  The  Superintendent  of  Fife  had  compleaned, 
that  Mr  George  had  not  executed  his  summons  against  some  per- 
sons in  Auchtermowtie,  where  he  was  also  minister ;  and  that  he 
had  not  ministred  the  sacraments  since  December  last  bypast. 


In  the  thrid  sessioun  of  this  Assemblie,  after  discussing  of  the 
articles  for  which  processe  was  led,  and  sentence  givin  by  umquhile 
James  Bishop  of  Rosse,  appointed  commissioner  by  James  Arch- 
bishop of  Sanct  Andre wes,  at  Halyrudhous,  the  26tli  of  August, 
1534,  against  James  Hammilton  of  Kincavell,  ShirefFofLinlithquho; 
the  Assemblie  pronounced  the  saids  articles  to  be  good  and  sound, 
no  wise  hereticall,  and  the  sentence  pronounced  by  the  said  Bishop 
of  Rosse  against  the  said  James,  in  poena  contumacice,  to  be  casse* 
and  null,  with  all  that  followed  therupon,  and  he  to  be  restored  in 
integrum  to  his  lionour,  fame,  and  dignltie.  The  articles  for  which 
he  was  condemned  were  these  : — That  Mr  Patrik  Hammiltoun  died 
a  good  Christian,  and  he  was  content  to  dee  the  same  death  :  That 
there  is  no  purgatorie  :  That  we  ought  not  to  pray  for  the  dead : 
That  man  hath  not  free  will,  as  the  Papists  meane  :  That  he  said 
the  Lord's  Prayer  in  the  vulgar  tongue  :  That  he  had  bookes  con- 
demned, and  suspected  of  heresic  :  That  he  contemned,  and  caused 
others  contemnc,  the  preaching  of  preaching  friers — and  so  furth. 
James  Gib  of  CaiTuder,  one  of  those  who  were  summouned  for 

'   Rendered  void. 

15G3.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  229 

their  interesse,  to  heare  the  saids  articles  approved,  compeered  after 
noone,  and  protested,  that  Avhatsoever  was  done  in  this  AsserabUe 
in  favours  of  James  Hamuiiltoun  of  Kincavell,  soukl  not  be  pre- 
judicial! to  him  and  his  rights  whatsoever. 


The  queene,  in  her  progresse  through  the  west  countrie,  had  her 
masse  in  touns  and  gentlemen's  houses ;  herupon  Mr  Knox  be- 
ganne  that  forme  of  prayer,  which  he  ordinarilic  used  after  thanks- 
giving at  table : — "  Deliver  us,  O  Loi'd,  frome  the  boundage  of 
idolatrie ;  preserve  and  keepe  us  from  the  tyrannic  of  strangers ; 
continue  quietnesse  and  concord  among  us,  if  it  be  thy  good  plea- 
sure, for  a  season."  Some  of  his  familiars  asked  him,  why  he  prayed 
for  quietnesse  onhe  for  a  seasoun  ?  He  answered,  he  durst  not 
pray  but  in  faith ;  he  was  assured  by  God's  Word,  that  constant 
quietnesse  could  not  continue  in  that  realme,  where  idolatrie,  after 
it  was  suppressed,  was  suffered  to  be  erected  again.  The  queene 
went  to  Ai'gile  from  the  west  countrie  to  the  hunting,  and  after 
returned  to  Stu'line. 


The  Erie  of  Murrey,  Robert  Lord  Halyrudhous,  and  Johne  Lord 
Coldingham,  went  to  the  north,  to  hold  Justice-Courts.  Some 
theeves  and  mm'therers  suffered,  and  two  witches  were  burnt.  Johne 
Lord  Coldinghame  ended  his  life  at  Innernesse.  For  the  queene's 
pleasure,  he  was  an  enemie  to  vertue,  and  a  patron  to  impietie,  to 
the  uttermost  of  his  power.  His  venome  so  raged,  that  at  a  cer- 
tane  time  he  burst  furth  in  these  words,  "  Or  I  see  the  queen's 
Majestic  so  troubled  with  the  railing  of  these  knaves,  I  sail  leave 
the  best  of  them  sticked  in  the  pulpit !"  But  at  his  death  he  asked 
God  mercic,  for  that  he  had  mainteaned  her  impietie,  and  flattered 
her  in  wickcduesse  against  God  and  his  servants.  He  charged 
those  that  were  beside  him  to  wjirne  the  quccno,  nnlcssc  she  left 

230  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

her  idolatrie,  God  would  not  faile  to  plague  her.  But  she  regarded 
his  words  as  wind ;  yea,  affirmed  that  they  were  invented  by  the 
Laird  of  Pittarrow  and  Mr  Johne  Wood,  whom  she  hated,  becaus 
they  flattered  her  not  in  her  dancing  and  other  things.  Yitt,  she 
said,  God  tooke  away  from  her  the  person  in  whom  she  had  great- 
est pleasure. 



Whill  the  queene  lay  at  Stirline,  her  Frenche  mcinzie,  whom  she 
liad  left  in  the  palace  of  Halyrudhous,  had  their  masse  more  pub- 
lick  than  at  anie  time  before.  When  the  kirk  of  Edinburgh  had 
the  ministratioun  of  the  Lord's  Table,  the  Papists  resorted  in  great 
number  to  their  abominatioun.  Some  zealous  men  were  appointed 
to  wait  upon  the  palace,  and  marke  suche  as  resorted  to  the  masse. 
When  they  perceaved  a  great  number  to  goe  into  the  chappell,  some 
of  them  rushed  in  also.  The  preest  and  the  Frenche  dames  being- 
affray  ed,  raised  the  shout.  Madame  Raillie,  mistresse  of  the  queene's 
maides, — if  that  court  could  beare  anie  maides, — sent  post  to  the 
comptroller,  the  Laird  of  Pittarrow,  who  was  then  in  the  Great 
Kirk  of  Edinburgh  at  sermoun,  and  called  for  his  assistance,  to 
save  her  life,  and  the  queene's  palace.  lie,  with  greater  haste  than 
need  required,  went  doun,  and  tooke  with  him  the  proveist  and 
bailiffs,  and  a  great  number  of  others.  Wlien  they  came  they 
found  all  quiet,  except  that  a  peaceable  man  was  talking  with  them, 
and  forbidding  them  to  transgresse  the  lawes.  True  it  is,  th  at  Pa- 
trik  Cranstoun,  a  zealous  professor,  went  in  to  the  chappell,  and 
finding  the  altar  covered,  and  the  preest  readie  to  goe  to  his  abo- 
minatioun, said,  "  The  queene's  Majestic  is  not  heere  :  how  darre 
thou  then  be  so  malapert  as  openlie  to  transgresse  the  law  ?"  The 
queene  was  informed.  Patrik  Cranstoun  and  Andrew  Armestrang 
were  summouned  to  find  sovertic  to  underly  the  laAV  for  foresought 
fellonie,  hamesucken,  violent  invasioun  of  the  queene's  palace,  and 
spoliation  of  the  same.     It  was  concluded  by  the  l)rethrcin  that 

1563.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  231 

were  in  the  toiin,  that  Mr  Kuox,  to  whom  charge  was  givin,  to 
give  advertisements  whensoever  danger  sould  appeare,  sould  write 
to  the  professors  in  aU  quarters,  to  informe  them  in  what  case 
maters  stood,  and  to  crave  their  assistance ;  which  he  did  as  fol- 
loweth  : — 


"  Wheresoecer  two  or  three  are  gathered  together  in  nig  name, 
there  am  I  in  the  midclest  of  them. 

"  It  is  not  unknowne  to  you,  deere  brethrein,  what  comfort  and 
tranquillitie  God  gave  unto  us  in  times  most  dangerous,  by  our 
Christian  assembleis,  and  godlie  conferences,  als  oft  as  anie  danger 
appeared  to  anie  member  of  the  members  of  our  owne  bodie  ;  and 
that  how,  since  we  have  neglected,  or  at  the  least  not  frequented 
our  conventions  and  assembleis,  the  adversareis  of  Christ  Jesus 
his  holie  Evangell  have  enterprised  and  boldened  themselves  pub- 
licklie,  and  secreitlie,  to  doe  manie  things  odious  in  God's  presence, 
and  most  hurtfull  to  the  true  religioun  now  of  God's  great  favour 
granted  unto  us.  The  holie  sacraments  are  abused  by  profane 
Papists ;  masses  have  beene,  and  yitt  are,  openlie  said  and  main- 
teaned ;  the  blood  of  some  of  our  deerest  ministers  hath  beene  shed, 
without  feare  of  punishement  or  correctioun  craved  by  us ;  and 
now,  last,  are  two  of  our  brethrein,  Patrik  Cranstoun  and  Andrew 
Armestrang,  summouned  to  underly  the  law,  in  the  tolbuith  of 
Edinbm'gh,  the  24th  of  this  instant,  for  forethought  fellonie,  pre- 
tended murther,  and  for  invading  the  queene's  Majestie's  palace 
of  Malyrudhous  with  unlawfull  convocatioun,  etc. 

"  This  terrible  summons  is  directed  against  our  brethrein,  becaus 
they,  with  two  or  thi-ee  moe,  past  to  the  Abbey  upon  Smiday  the 
1 5th  of  August,  to  behold  and  note  what  persons  repaired  to  the 
masse;  and  that,  becaus  the  Sunday  before, the  queene's  Grace  being- 
absent,   there    resorted    \o  thni    idol   a  ruscall    uiultitudc,  having 

262  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

openlie  the  least  devillish  ceremonie,  (yea,  even  the  conjuring  of 
their  accursed  Avater,)  that  ever  they  had  in  time  of  greatest  blind- 
nesse.  Becaus,  I  say,  our  brethrein  past,  and  that  in  most  quiett 
maner,  to  note  suche  abusers,  thir  fearefull  summons  are  directed 
against  them,  to  make  no  doubt  a  preparatioun  upon  a  few,  that  a 
doore  may  be  open  to  execute  crueltie  upon  a  greater  multitude. 
And  if  so  it  come  to  passe,  God,  no  doubt,  hath  recompensed  our 
former  negligence  and  ingratitude  towards  him,  and  his  benefites 
receaved,  in  our  owne  bosomes.  God  gave  us  a  most  notable  vic- 
torie  of  his  and  our  enemeis.  He  brake  their  strenth,  confounded 
their  counsells ;  he  left  us  at  freedome,  and  purged  this  realme  (for 
the  most  part)  of  open  idolatrie,  to  the  end  that  we,  ever  mindefull 
of  so  wondrous  a  deliverance,  sould  have  keeped  this  realme  cleane 
fronie  suche  filthinesse  and  damnable  idolatrie.  But  we,  alas  !  pre- 
ferring the  pleasure  of  fleshe  and  blood  to  the  pleasure  and  com- 
mandement  of  God,  have  suffered  that  idol,  the  masse,  publickHe  to 
be  erected  againe ;  and  therefore  justlie  suffereth  he  us  now  to  fall 
in  that  danger,  that  to  looke  to  an  idolater  going  to  his  idolatrie 
sail  be  reputed  a  crime  little  inferiour  to  treasoun.  God  grant 
that  we  fall  not  farther :  And  now  I,  whom  God  of  his  mercie 
made  one  among  manie  to  travell  in  setting  fordward  his  true 
religioun  within  this  realme,  seing  the  same  in  danger  of  mine, 
cannot  but  of  conscience  crave  of  you,  ray  brethrein  of  all  estats, 
(that  have  professed  the  truthe,)  your  presence,  comfort,  and  as- 
sistance, at  the  said  day,  in  the  toun  of  Edinburgh,  as  ye  tender 
the  advancement  of  God's  glorie,  the  safetie  of  your  brethrein, 
and  your  owne  assurance,  together  with  the  pi'eservation  of  the 
Kirk  in  her  apjiearing  dangers.  It  may  be,  perchance,  that  per- 
swasiouns  be  made  in  the  contrare ;  and  that  yee  may  be  in- 
formed, that  either  your  assemblie  is  not  necessar,  or  elles  that  it 
would  offend  the  upper  powers.  But  my  good  hope  is,  that  nei- 
ther flatteric  nor  fcarc  sail  make  you  so  farre  to  declyne  against 
C^hrist  Jesus,  as  that  against  your  publick  promise  and  solemn 
band  yee  will  leave  your  bretlu'cn  in  so  just  a  cans.  And  albeit 
there  Avcre  no  great  danger,  yitt  cannot  your  assemblie  be  unpro- 

15G3.  OF  THE  KIHK  OF  SCOTLAND.  233 

fitablc ;  for  inanie  things  reqmre  consultatioun,  which  cannot  be 
had  unlesse  the  wisest  and  godliest  conveene.  And  this,  doubt- 
ing nothing  of  the  assistance  of  our  God,  if  that  Ave  uniformehe 
seeke  his  glorie,  I  ceassc  farther  to  trouble  you,  committing  you 
heartilie  to  the  protectioun  of  the  Eternall.  From  Edinburgh,  the 
8th  day  of  October,  1563. 

"  JoiiNE  Knox." 


When  this  letter  was  read  in  the  toun  of  Air,  Robert  Cunning- 
lianie,  minister  of  Failefurde,  then  reputed  a  professour  of  the  Gos- 
pell,  being  present,  gott  the  letter,  by  what  meanes  we  know  not, 
and  sent  it  to  Mr  Henrie  Sinclar,  then  President  of  the  Sessioun  of 
the  CoUedge  of  Justice,  stiled  Bishop  of  Rosse,  a  perfyte  hypo- 
crite, and  conjured  enemie  to  Christ.  He  was  cutt  of  the  stone  in 
Parise,  and  ended  his  life  the  secund  day  of  Januar  following. 
He  was  a  speciall  enemie  to  Mr  Knox,  becaus  he  still  affirmed, 
that  a  bishop  receaving  profite,  and  not  feeding  the  flocke  by  his 
owne  labours,  is  a  theefe  and  a  murtherer.  He  posted  the  letter 
to  the  queene,  then  resident  at  Stirline,  together  with  his  advice. 
The  cabinet  counseU  concluded  that  it  imported  treasoun.  The 
queene  thought  once  to  be  revenged  upon  her  great  enemie.  It 
was  concluded,  the  nobilitie  sould  be  writtin  for,  to  countenance 
the  condemnatioun  with  their  authoritie.  The  day  was  appointed 
about  the  middest  of  December,  and  was  kecped  by  manic.  The 
Master  of  Maxwell,  after  Lord  Hereis,  discharged  Master  Knox  of 
further  familiaritie,  unlesse  he  satisfeid  the  queene's  Majestie  at 
her  owne  sight.  "  I  know  no  offence  done,"  said  the  other.  "  No 
offence  !"  said  he :  ''  have  yee  not  desired  by  your  letters,  the 
l^rethrein  from  all  parts  to  come  to  Patrik  Cranston  and  Andrew 
Armestrang's  day  ?"  "  I  grant,"  said  the  other,  "  but  acknowlege 
no  offence."  "  No  offence,"  said  he,  "  to  convocat  the  (iuccne's 
lieges?"  "Not  for  so  just  a  caus,"  said  the  other.  "Greater 
maters  were  reputed  no  offence  within  these  two  yeercs."     "  The 

234  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

case,"  said  he,  "  is  altered,  for  then  our  soveraue  was  absent." 
"  God's  Word,"  said  the  other,  "  not  her  presence  nor  absence, 
ruleth  my  conscience.  What  Avas  lawfidl  to  me  the  last  yeere  is 
yitt  lawfull."  "  Weill,"  said  the  Master,  "  I  have  givin  you  my 
counsell ;  doe  as  yee  like  ;  but  I  thinke  yee  sail  repent,  if  yee  bow 
not  to  the  queene."  "  I  understand  not,  Master,"  said  he,  "  what 
yee  meane.  I  never  made  myself  adverse  partie  to  the  queene 
but  in  religioun,  wherin,  I  thinke,  yee  will  not  will  me  to  bow." 
"  Weill,"  said  he,  "  yee  are  wise  eneugh  ;  but  yee  will  not  find  that 
men  will  beare  with  you  in  time  to  come  as  they  have  done  in 
times  bypast."  "  So  long  as  I  depend  upon  God's  providence, 
and  prefere  his  glorie  unto  my  life  and  worldlie  profite,  I  little  re- 
garde  how  men  behave  themselves  toward  me,"  said  the  other ; 
"  neither  know  I  wherin  anie  man  hath  borne  with  me  in  times  by- 
past,  unlesse  it  be,  that  out  of  my  mouth  they  have  heard  the 
Word,  which  if  in  time  comming  they  refuse,  I  will  lament,  but 
the  iucommoditie  will  be  their  owne."  They  sindered,  and  were 
not  so  familiar  after. 


Mr  Johne  Spence  of  Condie,  Advocat,  came  as  it  Avere  in  secreit 
to  Mr  Knox,  to  inquire  how  maters  went.  After  he  had  heard  his 
declaratioun,  and  considered  the  letter,  he  said,  "  I  thanke  God, 
I  came  to  you  with  a  fearefull  and  sorrowfull  heart,  fearing  yee 
had  committed  some  offence  punishable  by  the  lawes,  which  would 
have  brought  no  small  greefe  to  the  hearts  of  all  those  Avho  have 
receaved  the  Word  of  Life  out  of  your  mouth.  But  I  depart 
greatlie  rejoicing,  als  weill  becaus  I  perceave  yee  have  comfort  in 
the  middest  of  yoiu*  troubles,  as  that  I  clecrelic  understand  yee  have 
not  committed  suche  a  crime  as  is  bruited,  yee  will  be  accused  ; 
but  God  will  assist  you." 

1563,  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  235 



The  Erie  of  Murrey  and  the  Secretar  sent  for  Mr  Knox  to  the 
Clerk-Register's  hous.  They  beganne  to  lament  that  he  had  so 
highlie  offended  the  queene,  which  they  feared  sould  end  in  great 
inconvenience  to  him,  if  he  did  not  wiselie  prevent  it.  They  told 
him  what  paine  and  travell  they  had  takin  to  mitigate  her  anger, 
but  could  find  nothing  but  extremitic,  unlesse  he  would  confesse 
his  offence,  and  putt  himself  in  her  Grace's  will.  "  I  praise  my 
God  through  Christ,"  said  he,  "  I  have  learned  not  to  crie,  '  Con- 
juratioun  and  treason  !'  at  everie  thing  that  the  godlesse  multitude 
doth  condemne,  nor  to  feare  the  things  that  they  feare.  I  have 
the  tcstimonie  of  a  good  conscience,  that  I  have  givin  no  occasioun 
to  the  queene's  Majestic  to  be  offended  at  me,  for  I  have  done  no- 
thing but  my  duetie.  So,  whatsoever  sail  ensue,  my  good  hope  is, 
that  God  will  give  me  patience  to  beare  it."  "  But  how  can  you 
defend  yourself?"  said  Lethington  :  "  Have  yee  not  convocated 
the  queen's  lieges  ?"  "  If  I  have  not  a  just  defence,"  said  he,  "  lett 
me  smart  for  it."  "  Lett  us  heare,"  said  they,  "  your  defences,  for 
we  Avoidd  be  glade  yee  might  be  found  innocent."  "  No,"  said  the 
other  :  "  I  am  informed  by  diverse,  that  I  am  already  condemned, 
and  my  cause  prejudged  ;  therefore,  I  might  be  reputed  a  foole,  if 
I  sould  make  you  privie  to  my  defences."  They  seemed  both  of- 
fended. The  secretar  departed.  The  erle  would  have  entered  in 
farther  discourse  of  the  estate  of  the  court.  Mr  Knox  ansAvered, 
"  I  understand  more  than  I  would  of  maters  of  the  court.  If  yee 
stand  in  good  case,  I  am  content :  if  not,  as  I  feare  yee  doe  not 
alrcadie,  or  elles  sail  not  ere  it  be  long,  blame  not  me.  Yee  have 
counsellers  whom  yee  have  chosin.  My  weake  judgement  botli 
they  and  yee  despise.  I  can  doe  nothing  but  behold  the  end, 
which  I  pray  God  be  other  than  my  troubled  lieart  fearctli." 

230  calderwood's  historie  1563. 


Witliiii  foure  dayes,  Mr  Knox  was  called  before  the  queene  and 
counsell,  about  the  middest  of  December.  The  professors  of  Edin- 
burgh followed  in  suche  numbers,  that  the  inner  close  was  full,  and 
all  the  staires,  even  to  the  chamber  doores,  where  the  queen  and 
counsell  sate.  The  lords  had  beene  reasouning  among  themselves 
before,  but  had  not  fullie  satisfeid  the  secretar's  minde.  The  queene 
had  retired  to  her  cabinet,  and  the  lords  were  talking  one  with  an- 
other ;  but  when  Mr  Knox  came,  they  were  commanded  to  tak  their 
places.  The  queene  came  fui'tli :  with  no  small  pompe  was  placed 
in  the  chaire,  having  two  faithfiill  supposts,  the  Master  of  Maxwell 
at  the  one  tore,*  and  the  secretare  at  the  other;  the  one  sometimes 
occupying  her  eare,  sometimes  the  other.  When  she  saw  Mr  Knox 
standing  at  the  end  of  the  table,  bare-headed,  first  she  smiled,  and 
after  burst  fm'th  in  loud  laughter.  Her  placeboes  gave  their  plau- 
dite,  with  the  Hke  countenance.  "  This  is  a  good  beginning,"  said 
she :  "  but  wote  yee  wherat  I  laugh  ?  Yon  man  gart  me  greete,  and 
never  shed  a  teare  himself:  I  wUl  see  if  I  can  cans  him  weepe." 
The  secretar  whispered  in  her  eare,  and  she  again  in  his,  and  gave 
him  a  letter.  After  inspectioun,  he  du'ected  his  speech  to  Mr  Knox, 
saying,  "  The  queen's  Majestic  thinketh  yee  have  travelled  to  raise 
a  tumult  among  her  subjects ;  and  for  prooffe,  there  is  your  owne 
letter.  Becaus  her  Grace  will  doe  nothing  without  advisement,  she 
hath  called  you  before  some  of  the  nobilitie  heere  present,  that  they 
may  beare  witnesse  betwixt  you  and  her."  "  Let  him  acknowledge 
his  owne  hand-writt,"  said  she,  "  and  then  we  sail  judge  of  the  con- 
tents of  the  letter."  So  the  letter  was  reached  from  hand  to  hand, 
tUl  it  was  delivered  to  Mr  Knox.  When  he  had  taken  inspectioun, 
he  said,  "  I  remember  I  dyted  a  letter  in  October  to  brethrein  in 
diverse  quarters,  of  suche  things  as  displeased  me  ;  and  good  con- 
ceate  have  I,  that  the  scribes  willinglie  would  not  adulterat  my  ori- 

'  Arm  ol'  the  chaii'. 

1563.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND,  237 

ginall,  albeit  I  left  diverse  blanks  with  them :  so  I  acknowledge 
both  the  hand-writt  and  the  dytement."  "  Yee  have  done  more,'' 
said  Lethington,  "  than  I  would  have  done."  "  Charitie,"  said  Mr 
Knox,  "  is  not  suspicious."  "  Weill,"  said  the  queene,  "  read  your 
owne  letter,  and  then  answere  as  yee  sail  be  demanded."  "  I  sail 
doe  the  best  I  can,"  said  he.  He  read  it  with  a  loud  voice,  and  de- 
livered it  again  to  Mr  John  Spence,  advocat ;  for  the  queene  com- 
manded him  to  accuse,  which  he  after  did,  but  verie  gentlie. 

After  the  letter  was  read,  the  queene  said  to  the  lords,  "  Heard 
yee  ever,  my  lords,  a  more  despitefull  or  treasonable  letter  ?"  No 
man  answering,  Lethington  said,  "  Mr  Knox,  are  yee  not  sorie  at  the 
heart  that  suche  a  letter  hath  escaped  your  penne,  and  from  you  hath 
come  to  the  knowledge  of  others  ?"  He  answered,  "  My  lord  secre- 
tar,  befoi'e  I  repent,  I  must  be  taught  of  my  offence."  "  Offence !" 
said  Lethington :  "If  there  were  no  more  but  the  convocation  of  the 
queen's  lieges,  the  offence  can  not  be  denied."  "  Remember  your- 
self, my  lord,"  said  the  other ;  "  there  is  a  difference  betwixt  a  law- 
fuU  convocatioun  and  an  unlawfidl.  If  I  be  guiltie  in  this,  I  have 
offended  often  since  I  came  last  in  Scotland ;  for  what  convocatioun 
of  the  brethrein  hath  beene  to  this  houre  to  which  my  penne  hath 
not  served  ?  But  before  this  time,  no  man  layed  it  to  my  charge  as 
a  crime."  "  Then  Avas  then,"  said  Lethington,  "  and  now  is  now  ; 
we  have  no  need  of  suche  convocatioun  as  sometimes  we  have  had." 
Mr  Knox  answered,  "  The  time  which  hath  beene  is  ever  before  my 
eyes :  for  I  see  the  poore  flocke  in  no  lesse  danger  than  at  anie 
time  before,  but  that  the  devill  hath  gottin  a  vizerne  on  his  face. 
Before,  he  came  with  face  discovered,  seeking  by  open  tyrannic  the 
destructioun  of  all  that  resisted  idolatrie  :  then,  I  thinke  yee  will 
confese,  the  brethrein  assembled  themselves  lawfullie  for  defence 
of  their  owne  lives.  Now,  the  devill  cometh  under  the  cloke  of 
justice,  to  doe  that  which  God  would  not  suffer  him  to  doe  by 

"  What  is  this  ?"  said  the  queene.  "  Methinke  ycc  ti-iffle  with 
him.  Who  gave  him  authoritie  to  convocat  my  lieges  ?  Is  not  that 
treasoun?"  "No,  ]\Iadame,"  said  the  Lord  Ruthven :  "he  convocatcth 

238  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

the  people  to  heare  prayers  and  sermons,  almost  daylie  ;  and  what- 
ever yom*  Grrace  or  others  will  thinke  therof,  we  think  it  no  trea- 
soun."  "  Hold  your  peace  !"  said  the  queene  :  "  lett  him  answere  for 
himself."  "  I  beganne,"  said  Mr  Knox,  "  to  reasoim  with  the  secre- 
tar,  whom  I  tak  to  be  a  farre  better  dialectician  than  your  Grace, 
and  said,  that  all  convocatiouns  are  not  unlawfiill.  Now,  my  Lord 
Ruthven  hath  givin  an  instance,  which,  if  your  Grace  "vvill  denie,  I 
Avill  addresse  me  to  prove."  "  I  will  say  nothing,"  said  the  queene, 
against  your  religioun,  for  conveening  to  your  sermons.  But  what 
authoritie  have  yee  to  convocat  my  subjects  when  it  pleaseth  yow, 
without  my  warrant  ?"  "  I  have  no  pleasure,"  said  Mr  Knox,  "  to 
declyne  frome  the  former  purpose.  Yitt,  Madame,  to  satisfie  your 
Grace,  I  answer,  that  at  my  pleasure  I  never  convocated  foure  per- 
sons, but  according  to  the  order  appointed  by  the  brethrein.  I  have 
givin  diverse  advertisements,  and  great  multitudes  have  assembled 
therupon.  If  your  Grace  compleane  that  this  hath  beene  done 
without  your  commandement  or  warrant,  I  answere,  so  hath  all  that 
God  hath  blessed  within  this  realme,  fi'ome  the  beginning  of  this 
actioun.  Therefore,  Madam,  I  must  be  convicted  by  a  just  law, 
that  I  have  done  against  the  duetie  of  God's  messinger,  in  writting 
of  this  letter,  before  I  can  either  be  sorie  or  yitt  repent,  as  my  lord 
secretar  would  perswade  me.  What  I  have  done,  I  have  done  at 
the  commandement  of  the  Kirk  within  this  realme ;  therefore,  I 
think  I  have  done  no  wrong." 

"  Yee  sail  not  escape  so,"  said  the  queene.  "  Is  it  not  treasoun, 
my  lords,  to  accuse  a  prince  of  crueltie  ?  I  thinke  there  be  Acts 
of  Parliament  against  suche  Avhisperers."  That  was  granted  by 
manic.  "  Wherein  can  I  be  accused  ?"  said  Mr  Knox.  "  Kead  this 
part  of  your  ovme  letter,"  said  the  queene : — '  Tliir  fearefull  sum- 
mons are  directed  against  them,  (to  witt,  the  brethrein  forsaid,)  to 
mak,  no  doubt,  a  preparation  upon  some  few,  that  a  doore  may  be 
opened  to  execute  crueltie  upon  a  great  multitude.'  "  Loe,"  said 
the  queene,  "  what  say  yee  to  that  ?" 

AYhill  manic  doubted  Avhat  Mr  Knox  would  answere,  he  said,  "  Is 
it  lawfull  for  me,  Madam,  to  answere  for  myself;  or  sail  I  be  damned 

1563.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  239 

before  I  be  heard  ?"  "  Say  what  yee  can,"  said  she,  "  for  I  thinke 
yee  have  cneugh  to  doc."  "  I  will  first,  then,  aske  of  your  Grace, 
Madam,  and  of  this  honorable  audience,  whether  if  obstinat  Papists 
are  not  deadlie  enemeis  to  all  suche  as  professe  the  Evangell,  and 
eamestlie  thrist  the  exterminioun  of  thcni,  and  the  true  doctrine 
which  is  taught  in  this  realme  ?"  The  queene  held  her  peace.  The 
lords,  with  one  voice,  said,  "  God  forbid  that  ever  the  lives  of  the 
faithfuU,  or  stopping  of  the  preaching  of  the  Word,  stood  in  the 
power  of  Papists  ;  for  just  experience  hath  taught  us  what  crucltie 
lyeth  in  their  hearts."  "  I  proceed,  then,"  said  Mr  Knox,  "  seing  1 
perceave  all  "s^^ll  gi*ant  it  were  a  barbarous  crucltie  to  destroy  suche 
a  multitude  as  professe  the  Evangell  within  this  realme,  which  ofter 
than  once  or  twice  they  have  attempted  to  do  by  force,  as  things 
done  of  late  doe  testifie ;  whereof  they,  being  disappointed  by  God's 
providence,  have  invented  a  more  craftie  and  more  dangerous  prac- 
tise ;  to  witt,  to  make  the  prince  partie,  under  colour  of  law.  So, 
what  they  could  not  doe  by  open  force,  they  sail  perforrae  by  craft 
and  deceate.  Thinke  you,  my  lords,  that  the  insatiable  crucltie  of 
the  Papists  within  this  realme  sail  end  in  the  murthering  of  these 
two  brethrein,  now  unjustlie  summouned,  and  more  unjustlie  to  be 
accused  ?  I  thinke  no  man  of  judgement  can  so  esteeme,  but  ra- 
ther judge,  that  by  these  two  they  intend  to  prepare  a  way  to  their 
bloodie  interprise  against  the  whole  number.  Therefore,  Madame, 
cast  up  when  you  please  the  Acts  of  Parliament.  I  have  offended 
nothing  against  them,  for  I  accuse  not,  in  my  letter,  your  Grace  of 
a  cruell  nature.  But  I  affirme  yitt  againe,  that  the  pestilent  Pa- 
pists, Avlio  have  enflammed  your  Grace  without  just  cans  against 
these  poorc  men  at  this  present,  are  the  sonnes  of  the  devill,  and 
therefore  must  obey  the  desires  of  their  father,  who  hath  beene  a 
manslayer  and  a  leer  from  the  beginning."  "  Yee  forgett  yourself," 
said  one  ;  "  yee  are  not  in  the  pulpit."  "  I  am  in  the  place,"  said 
the  other,  "  where  I  am  demanded  of  conscience  to  specke  the 
truthe.  I  specke :  impugne  whoso  list !  I  adde,  Madame,  that 
natures  otherwise  gentle  and  meeke  in  appearance  may,  by  wicked 
and  corrupt  counsellers,  be  subverted   and  altered   to  a  contrarie 

240  calderwood's  histoiue  1563. 

course.  Exemples  we  have  in  Nero.  Now,  Madame,  I  say  plainlie, 
Papists  and  conjured  enemeis  of  Christ  have  your  eares  patent  at 
all  times :  assure  your  Grace,  they  are  dangerous  counsellers,  and 
this  yom-  mother  found." 

Lethino-ton  smirtelled,  and  rounded  in  her  eare.  Then  she  said, 
"  Weill,  yee  speeke  heere  faire  eneugh  before  the  lords ;  but  the 
last  tyme  I  spake  with  you  secreitlie,  yee  caused  me  weepe  manie 
teares,  and  said  stubbornlie,  Yee  compted  not  for  my  weeping." 
He  repeated  summarilie  the  conference  they  had  before  the  Laird 
of  Dun  concerning  her  matche,  the  occasioun  of  her  weeping,  and 
Avhat  he  said  to  her  when  she  weeped.  After  that  the  secretar  had 
conferred  secreetlie  with  the  queene,  he  said,  "  Mr  Knox,  yee  may 
returne  to  your  hous  for  this  night."  "  I  thanke  God  and  the 
queen's  Majestic,"  said  the  other :  "  I  pray  God,  Madame,  to  purge 
your  heart  from  Poprie,  and  preserve  you  frome  the  counsell  of 
flatterers.  How  pleasant  soever  they  seeme  to  your  eares,  and 
corrupt  affections  for  the  time,  experience  may  teache  to  what  per- 
plexitie  they  have  brought  renowned  princes." 

Mr  Knox  removed,  the  queene  went  to  her  cabinet.  Everie 
man's  vote  was  asked,  if  he  had  not  offended  the  queene's  Ma- 
jestic ?  The  lords  voted  all  as  one  man,  they  could  find  no  offence. 
The  flatterers  of  the  cornet,  Lethington  especiaUie,  raged.  The 
queene  was  brought  againe,  and  placed  in  her  chaire,  and  they 
were  commanded  to  vote  againe.  The  nobilitie  being  offended, 
said,  "  Wliat,  sail  the  Laird  of  Lethington  have  power  to  command 
us  ?  Sail  the  presence  of  a  woman  cans  us  offend  God  ?  Sail  we 
condemne  an  innocent  man  against  our  conscience,  for  the  pleasure 
of  anie  creature  ?"  So  he  was  absolved  againe,  and  they  praised 
God  for  his  modestie,  his  plaine  and  sensible  answeres.  Among 
manie  placeboes  and  flatterers  of  the  court,  not  one  durst  plainlie 
condemne  him,  the  same  God  ruling  their  tongues,  that  some  time 
ruled  the  tongue  of  Balaam;  Avhich,  when  the  queene  perceaved,  she 
upbraided  Mr  Henrie  Sinclare,  Bishop  of  Posse,  saying,  "  Trouble 
not  the  barne,  I  pi'ay  you;  trouble  him  not,  for  he  is  newlie 
wakened  out  of  his  sleepe.     Why  sould  not  the  ckl  foole  follow 

1503.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  241 

the  footsteps  of  othei's  that  have  passed  before  him  ?"  The  bishop 
answered  coldlie,  "  Your  Grace  may  understand,  that  it  is  nather 
affectioun  to  the  man  nor  love  to  his  professioun,  that  moveth  me 
to  absolve  him  ;  but  the  simple  truthe,  which  plauilie  appeareth  in 
his  defence."  This  being  said,  the  lords  and  their  assessors  arose 
and  departed.  The  duke,  the  Erie  of  Argile,  the  Erie  of  Mm'rey, 
the  Erie  of  Glencarne,  the  Erie  Marshall,  the  Lord  Ruthven,  satt 
in  counscll  that  day.  Old  Lethington,  the  Bishop  of  Ivosse,  the 
Clerk-Register,  satt  removed  from  the  table.  The  ComjDtroUer, 
the  Justice-Clerk,  the  Advocat,  and  sindrie  others,  were  standing 
by.  That  night  there  was  neither  dancing  nor  fiddling ;  for  the 
queene  was  disappointed  of  her  puqjose,  which  was  to  have  had 
Mr  Knox  come  in  her  will,  by  vote  of  the  nobilitie.  She  raged, 
and  the  placeboes  of  the  court  stormed.  They  beganne  againe  to 
move  him  to  confesse  an  offence,  and  to  putt  himself  in  the 
queene's  will,  promising  the  greatest  punishment  sould  be  to  enter 
within  the  castell  of  Edinburgh,  and  immediatlie  to  returne  to  his 
owne  hous.  He  answered,  "  God  forbid  that  my  confessioun 
sould  condemne  the  noblemen  who,  upon  their  consciences,  and 
Avith  the  queene's  displeasure,  have  absolved  me.  Farther,  I  am 
assm*ed,  yee  will  not  in  earnest  desire  me  to  confesse  an  offence, 
unlesse  yee  will  also  have  me  to  ceasse  fi-om  preaching ;  for  how 
can  I  exhort  others  to  peace  and  Christian  quietncsse,  if  I  confesse 
myself  to  be  an  author  and  mover  of  seditioun  ?" 


The  Generall  Assemblie  conveened  at  Edinburgh,  the  25th  of 
December,  in  the  new  Tolbuith,  where  were  present  the  duke,  the 
Erles  of  Argile,  Murrey,  INIorton,  Glencarne,  Marshall;  the  Secre- 
tar.  Comptroller,  Justice-Clerk;  the  Superintendents  of  Angus, 
Lothian e,  Fife,  and  the  West ;  Alexander,  styled  Bishop  of  Gal- 
loway, Adame,  Bishop  of  Oi'kney,  ministers,  commissioners,  barons, 
burgesses,  and  gentlemen.  The  exhortatioun  was  made  by  Mr 
Willocke,  Superintendent  of  the  West.     For  avoiding  confusion, 

VOL.  II.  Q 

242  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

it  was  agreed  that  a  Moderator  sould  be  chosin,  to  moderat  during 
the  time  of  everie  Assemblie.  Mr  Johne  Willocke,  Superintendent 
of  the  West,  was  chosin  Moderator  for  this  time. 



The  just  petitions  of  ministers  were  dispised  at  the  first,  with 
these  words : — "  As  ministers  will  not  follow  our  counsel!,  so  will 
we  suffer  ministers  to  labour  for  themselves,  and  see  what  speed 
they  come."  It  was  answered  by  the  commissioners,  "  If  the 
queene  wiU  not  provide  for  ministers,  we  must ;  for  both  the  two 
parts,  and  the  thrid,  are  rigorouslie  exacted  of  us  and  our  tenants." 
"  If  others,"  said  one,  "  will  foUow  my  counsell,  the  guarde  and 
the  Papists  sail  compleane  als  long."  Then  the  speeker  alledged, 
he  meant  not  of  all  ministers,  but  of  some,  to  whom  the  queene  was 
no  debtor  ;  for  what  receaved  she  of  burrowes  ?  Christopher  Gud- 
man  answered,  "  If  yee  can  show  me  what  just  title  either  the 
queene  hath  to  the  thrid,  or  the  Papists  to  the  two  parts,  then  I 
think  I  sonld  resolve  you  whether  she  were  debtor  to  ministers 
within  burghs  or  not."  The  secretare  answered,  ''^  Ne  sit peregrinus 
curiosus  in  aliena  repiiblica ;"  Lett  not  a  stranger  be  curious  in  a 
strange  commonAvealth.  Mr  Gudman  answered,  "  Albeit  in  your 
policie  I  be  a  stranger,  yitt  so  I  am  not  in  tlie  Kirk  of  God.  The 
care  thereof  apperteaneth  no  lesse  to  me  in  Scotland  than  if  I 
w^ere  in  the  middest  of  England." 


Manie  woundered  that  Mr  Knox  Avas  silent  when  these  sharpe 
speeches  past.  He  himself  declared  tlie  cans.  "  I  have  travelled," 
said  he,  "  right  honorable  and  beloved  brethrein,  since  my  last  ar- 
rivall  Avithin  this  realme,  in  an  upright  conscience  before  my  God, 
seeking  nothing  more  (as  he  is  Avitnesse)  than  the  advancement  of 
his  glorie,  and  stabilitie  of  his  Kirk  Avithin  this  realme.     Yitt  of 

15G8.  OF  THE  KIHK  OF  SCOTLAND.  243 

late  I  have  beene  accused  as  seditious,  and  as  one  that  usurped  to 
myself  power  wliich  becometh  me  not.  True  it  is,  I  gave  adver- 
tisement to  brethrein,  in  diverse  quarters,  of  the  rigour  intended 
against  some  honest  men  for  looking  to  the  preest  going  to  the 
masse,  and  observing  these  that  transgressed  this  law.  That  there- 
in I  have  usurped  farther  power  than  was  givin  me,  till  by  you  I 
be  damned,  I  utterlie  denie  ;  for  by  the  charge  of  the  Generall 
Assemblie,  I  have  als  laAvfull  power  to  advertise  the  brethrein,  frome 
time  to  time,  of  dangers  appearing,  as  I  have  to  preache  the  Word 
of  God  in  the  pulpit  of  Edinburgh ;  for  by  you  I  was  appointed 
to  the  one  and  the  other.  Therefore,  in  the  name  of  God  I  crave 
your  judgements.  The  danger  Avhich  appeared  in  my  accusatioun 
was  not  so  fearfull  as  the  words  which  came  to  my  eares  were 
greevous  to  my  heart ;  for  it  was  said,  (and  that  by  some  profes- 
sours,)  '  AVhat  can  the  Pope  doe  more  than  send  furth  his  letters, 
and  command  them  to  be  obeyed  ?' "  Sir  John  Bellendine,  Justice- 
Clerk,  (then  not  the  least  flatterer  of  the  court,)  begaune  to 
storme,  and  said,  "  Sail  we  be  moved  to  justifie  the  wrong  doings 
of  men  ?"  "  My  lord,"  said  Mr  Knox,  "  you  sail  speeke  your 
pleasure  for  the  present :  of  you  I  crave  nothing.  But  if  the  As- 
semblie will  not  either  absolve  me  or  condemn  me,  never  sail  I,  in 
publick  or  in  privat,  as  a  publick  minister,  open  my  mouth  in  doc- 
trine nor  in  reasouning."  After  long  altercatioun,  ]\Ir  Knox  was 
removed.  It  Avas  found  that  char«;e  Avas  jjivin  to  him  to  advertise 
brethrein  in  all  quarters,  and  therefore  the  fact  to  be  not  onlie  his 
but  the  whole  Assemblie's.  The  queen's  placeboes  were  more 
angrie  than  before ;  for  some  of  them  had  promised  to  the  queene 
to  gett  him  convicted  both  by  the  counsell  and  by  the  Assemblie. 
But  being  frustrated  of  both,  she  and  they  thought  themselves  not 
a  little  disappointed. 

The  approbatioun  followeth  in  these  words  :  "  Anent  the  ques- 
tioun  moved  by  Johne  Knox,  minister  of  Edinburgh,  to  the  whole 
Assemblie,  whether  he  receaved  charge  of  the  whole  kirk  conveen- 
ed  in  Edinburgh,  after  the  beginning  of  reformatioun,  to  advertise 
the  brethrein  to  con-seene  at  what  time  it  sould  chance  that  anie 

244  calderwood's  historie  1563. 

member  of  the  kirk  sould  be  troubled,  and  that  for  their  counsell  to 
be  had,"  &c.  To  the  which  the  Lord  Lindsay,  the  Lairds  of  Kel- 
wod,  and  Abbotshall,  Cimninghamheid ;  the  Superintendents  of  An- 
gus, Fife,  Lothiane,  the  West,  and  Galloway  ;  Mr  Johne  Row,  Wil- 
liam Christesone,  Mr  Robert  Hammiltoun,  Mr  Christopher  Gud- 
mau,  ministers,  with  the  most  part  of  the  Assemblie,  made  then- 
declaratioun,  that  they  remembered  verie  weill  that  the  said  Johne 
Knox  Avould  have  had  himself  exonered  of  the  foresaid  charge,  and 
that  the  Assemblie  Avould  no  wise  suifer  him  to  refuse  the  same,  but 
that  he  sould  continue  as  before,  to  advertise  frome  time  to  time,  as 
occasioun  sail  be  givin. 


In  the  triell  of  superintendents,  the  commissioners  of  Fife  craved 
a  dyett  to  be  appointed,  to  give  in  complaints  against  their  superin- 
tendent. For  the  present,  it  was  compleaned,  that  he  preached  not 
at  his  visitatioun,  but  caused  the  minister  of  the  kirk  occupie  the 
place.  The  Superintendent  of  the  West  was  charged  with  negli- 
gence in  extirpatioun  of  idolatrie.  He  layed  the  blame  upon  the 
duke  and  the  Erie  of  Cassils.  The  Superintendent  of  Angus  and 
Mernes  was  compleaned  upon,  that  no  discipline  was  exercised  in 
manie  of  the  kirks  of  Angus  and  Mernes ;  that  there  Avas  no  con- 
ventioun  of  elders  and  deacons  at  kirks,  for  censuring  of  faults  ;  that 
he  preached  not  in  his  visitatiouns  ;  that  being  burthenned  with  the 
visitatioun  of  the  north,  he  might  not  attend  upon  the  charge  alloted 
to  him.  The  questioun,  AA'hether  superintendents  ought  to  preache 
in  all  the  kirks  Avhere  they  did  visite,  Avas  referred  and  discussed  at 
the  end  of  the  Assemblie.  The  Superintendents  of  Lothiane  and 
the  West  desired  to  be  disburthenned  of  their  superintendentships. 
Mr  Robert  Pont,  Commissioner  of  Murrey,  Lmernesse,  and  Bamf ^ 
declared  how  he  had  travelled  in  tliese  parts,  but  confessed  his  ina- 
bilitie,  in  respect  of  the  laike  of  the  Irish  tongue  ;  and  therefore  de- 
sired the  Assemblie  to  appoint  another,  expert  in  the  Irish  tongue, 
to  be  commissioner.     It  Avas  compleaned,  that  Mr  Donald  Monro, 

1563.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  245 

Commissioner  of  Rossc,  was  not  so  apt  to  tcache  as  his  charge  re- 
quired. Six  of  the  number  were  appointed  to  trie  his  gifts,  and  to 
report  to  the  Assembhe.  The  commissioners  and  brethrein  of  Fife 
presented  in  the  fyft  sessioun  a  roll,  wherein  there  were  diverse 
complaints  givin  in  against  their  superintendent.  His  answere  was, 
that  some  of  these  things  layed  to  his  charge  lay  not  in  his  power 
to  amend.  The  compleancrs  were  commended  for  their  zeale,  and 
the  superintendent  admonished  to  be  diligent  in  preaching  and  ex- 
ecutioun  of  his  office.  The  Superintendent  of  Lothiane  craved  li- 
bertie  to  returne  to  his  first  cure.  The  parochiners  of  Calder  de- 
sired likewise  that  he  might  be  suffered  to  retume,  or  ellcs  dcmitt 
the  personage  to  another,  to  serve  the  cure  at  then-  kirk.  The  As- 
semblie  answered  as  before,  in  Julie  1562. 


Commissions  were  renued  for  a  yeere  to  Mr  Robert  Pont,  to 
plant  kirks  frome  Nesse  to  Spey ;  to  Mr  Johne  Hepburne,  mi- 
nister at  Brechin,  to  plant  kirks  in  Bamf,  from  Spey  to  Etham, 
comprehending  Strabogie  land  ;  to  Mr  Patrik  Consteane,  minister 
at  Seres,  to  plant  kirks  frome  Dee  to  Etham.  Mr  Robert  Pont 
accepted  the  commissioun,  with  provisioun  that  he  be  not  bur- 
thenned  with  kirks  speaking  the  Irish  tongue. 


It  was  ordeaned,  that  ministers,  exhortcrs,  readers,  having 
manses,  make  residence  at  the  same,  and  visite  the  sicke  as  they 
may  ;  and  where  the  parish  is  great,  that  the  minister  crave  the 
assistance  of  elders  and  deacons  in  the  said  visitatiouns. 

II.  Tuiching  the  buriall  of  the  poore,  it  was  ordeaned,  that  a 
beare  sould  be  made  in  everie  countric  parish,  to  carie  the  dead 
corps  to  the  buriall  place  ;  and  that  tiicsc  of  tlie  village  or  houses 

246  calderavood's  historie  1563. 

nixt  adjacent  to  the  hous  where  the  dead  lyeth,  or  a  certane  number 
of  everie  hous,  sail  convoy  the  dead  corps  to  the  buriall  place,  and 
burie  it  six  foot  under  the  earth ;  and  that  everie  superintendent 
requeist  the  lords  and  barons  within  his  bounds  to  make  an  act  in 
their  courts  tuiching  this  order,  and  cans  their  officers  warne  the 
neerest  nighbours  where  the  deed  ly,  to  convoy  it  to  the  grave. 

III.  Becaus  superintendents  ordeane  diverse  times  notorious  of- 
fenders to  mak  publick  repentance  in  the  kirk  where  the  offence 
was  committed,  and  yitt  give  not  significatioun  of  the  same  to  the 
ministers  and  elders  of  the  congregatioun,  wherethrough  offenders 
may  easilie  escape  the  making  of  their  repentance  in  due  time ; 
therefore  it  Avas  ordeaned,  that  when  anie  superintendent  injoyneth 
anie  persoun  to  mak  publick  repentance  for  anie  offence,  that  he 
sail  signifie  to  the  parish  what  he  ordeaneth  to  be  done  by  the  of- 
fender, to  the  end  the  ministers,  elders,  and  deacons  of  the  con- 
gregatioun may  notifle  againe  to  the  superintendent  Avhether  the 
offender  obeyeth  his  ordinance  or  not. 


It  was  ordeaned,  that  superintendents  sould  present  to  the  Lords 
of  the  Secreit  Counsell  the  supplications  of  ministers,  that  order 
might  be  takin  for  payment  of  their  stipends,  speciallie  where  the 
thrids  were  remitted  to  the  possessours  by  the  queen's  Majestic. 
Item,  That  supplicatioun  be  presented  to  the  Lords  of  Secreit 
Counsell,  that  evei'ie  minister  may  have  his  stipend  assigned  in  the 
bounds  where  he  serveth.  Item,  That  the  act  of  parliament  tuich- 
ing glebes  and  manses  be  more  speciallie  condescended  upon.  The 
noblemen  and  others  present,  for  intcresse,  were  required  to  conde- 
scend that  the  poore  labourers  might  have  the  tithes  of  the  ground 
for  a  reasonable  compositioun,  either  in  money  or  victuall,  to  be 
payed  to  the  erles,  lords,  barons,  and  other  tacksmen.  The  duke, 
Argile,  Murrey,  Marshall,  Glencarne,  Eothesse,  Lord  Areskine, 
Iluthven,  Lindsay,  and  the  comptroller,  being  present,  consented 

1563.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  247 

for  their  owne  parts.  A  full  answere  was  deferred  till  a  fuller  con- 
ventioun.  The  superintendents  were  appointed  to  travell  with  the 

thj:  booke  OF  discipline  to  be  revised. 

In  the  fourth  sessioun,  the  Erie  Marshall,  Lord  Ruthven,  Lord 
Secretare,  the  Commendatare  of  Kilwinning,  the  Blsliop  of  Orkney, 
the  Clerk  of  Register,  the  Justice-Clerk,  Mr  Henrie  Balnaves, 
David  Foresse,  and  Mr  George  Buchanan,  or  anie  three  or  foure 
of  them,  were  appointed  to  revise  the  Booke  of  Discipline,  to  con- 
sider the  contents,  to  report  their  judgements  in  writt  to  the  nixt 
Assemblie ;  or,  if  a  parliament  be  holdin  in  the  meane  time,  to  the 
Lords  of  the  Articles,  and  to  beginne  at  the  farthest  before  the 
sixt  of  Januar. 

ministers  censured. 

Robert  Ramsay  Avas  accused  for  entrie  to  the  mhiistrie  without 
the  Superintendant  of  Angus  his  admissioun ;  for  affirming  there 
was  a  mid  way  betwixt  Poprie  and  our  religioun ;  for  borrowing 
money  from  the  toun  of  Innernesse,  upon  cautioun,  pretending  he 
was  to  buy  bookes,  and  not  returning,  nor  paying  the  same.  He 
was  suspended  from  his  ministrie  till  further  triell  were  takin  by 
the  Superintendent  of  Fife.  Alexander  Jerdane,  minister  at  Kil- 
spindie,  notwithstanding  he  had  maried  a  woman  with  whom  he 
had  committed  fornicatioun,  and  made  his  publick  repentance,  Avas 
suspended  frome  the  ministrie,  till  the  nixt  Assemblie  adAised  far- 
ther. Other  ministers,  exhorters,  or  readers,  of  the  north,  not  com- 
peering,  were  suspended,  till  farther  triell  were  takin  by  some  su- 
perintendent or  commissioner  to  be  sent  to  these  parts.  David 
Ray,  minister  of  Forrest,  compeering,  was  admonished  to  observe 
a  decent  order  and  forme  in  teaching,  with  suche  gravitie  as  be- 
come preachers  of  God's  AVord  ;  and  to  follow  the  text,  without  iu- 
vc(;tivcs,  otherwise  than  the  text  souM  require  rebooke  of  sinne. 

248  calderwood's  historie  IdCA. 



In  Januarie,  upon  the  20th  day  therof,  the  rain  fallmg  freezed  so 
vehementlie,  that  the  ground  was  like  a  shott  of  yce.  Th,ie  fowles 
of  the  aire  deed,  and  might  not  flee.  In  the  same  moneth  the  sea 
stood  still,  neither  flowing  nor  ebbing  the  space  of  twentie-foure 


This  moneth  MathewErle  of  Lennox  was  restored,  in  a  publick 
conventioun,  to  his  patrimonie.  The  queene  intended  not  onlie  to 
putt  others  out  of  hope  of  successioun,  by  his  sonne  Henrie,  but 
also  to  oppose  him  against  the  Erie  of  Murrey. 


In  the  moneth  of  Februare,  the  15th  and  18th  day  therof,  were 
seene  in  the  firmament  as  it  were  armeis  joyned  together,  with 
speeres  and  other  weapons.  But  the  queene  banketted  the  lords, 
to  remove  all  suspicioun  of  displeasure  for  the  patrocinie  of  Mr 
Knox.  The  lords  banketted  likewise  the  queene,  and  so  bankett- 
ing  continued  till  Fasting-Eve.  The  guard  and  the  queen's  kitchen 
were  so  gripping,  that  ministers  could  not  gett  their  stipends,  not- 
withstanding of  the  promises  made  by  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  and  the 
secretar  in  the  queen's  name,  at  the  Assemblie  before. 

MR  CRAIG's  publick  REBOOK. 

Mr  Craig,  inveying  against  the  corruptions  of  the  time,  said 
in  publick  sermoun,  "  Sometimes  hypocrits  were  knoAvne  by  their 
disguised  habits :  we  had  men  to  be  monkes,   and  Aveoracn  to  bo 

1564.  OF  TITE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  249 

nunnes.  But  now  we  cannot  disccrne  tlic  eric  from  the  abbot,  nor 
the  nunne  from  the  noble  woman.  But  seeing  yee  are  not  ashamed 
of  tliat  professionn,  Avould  to  God  yee  had  therewith  the  cowle,  the 
vaile,  and  the  rest  belonging  thereto,  that  yee  might  appearc  in 
your  owne  coloiu's  !"  Lcthington,  in  the  audience  of  manie,  gave 
himself  to  the  devill,  if  after  that  day  he  sould  regarde  what  sould 
become  of  ministers ;  but  sould  doe  what  he  might  that  his  com- 
panions have  a  skaire  with  him,  lett  them  barke  and  blaw  als  muche 
as  they  list.  The  flatterers  of  the  court  compleaned  that  men's 
persons  were  so  particularlie  described,  that  all  the  world  might 
tak  notice  of  whom  the  preacher  meant.  It  was  answered,  "  Lett 
men  be  ashamed  to  oflPend  publicklie,  and  then  preachers  sail  ab- 
steane  from  particular  descriptioun."  Yitt  Avould  some  of  these 
courteours  have  beene  reputed  the  cheefc  pillers  of  the  kirk  within 
this  realme. 


The  flatterers  of  the  court  daylie  reproached  the  ministers  :  hap- 
pie  was  he  who  could  invent  the  bitterest  taunt,  and  disdainfuUest 
reproache.  At  lenth  they  beganne  to  jest  at  the  terme  idolatrie, 
affirming  men  knew  not  what  they  spake  when  they  called  the 
masse  idolatrie.  Some  feared  not  to  affirme,  they  would  susteane 
the  masse  was  not  idolatrie.  Mr  Knox  directing  his  complaint  in 
publick  to  God,  uttered  these  words : — "  O  Lord,  how  long  sail 
the  wicked  prevaile  against  the  just  ?  Plow  long  sail  thou  suffer 
thyself,  and  thy  blessed  Evangcll,  to  be  despised  by  men — by  men, 
I  say,  who  will  boast  themselves  defenders  of  the  truthe  ?  We 
compleanc  not  of  thy  manifest  and  open  enemeis,  but  of  suche  as 
to  whomc  thou  hath  reveeled  thy  light ;  for  now  it  is  come  to  our 
earcs,  that  cheefe  professors  will  defend  the  masse  to  be  no  idola- 
trie. If  so  were,  O  Lord,  misei'ablie  have  I  beene  deceaved,  and 
miserablie  have  I  deceaved  thy  people,  Avhich  thou,  O  Lord,  know- 
eth,  I  have  ever  abhorred  more  than  a  thowsand  deaths. — But," 
said  he,  turning  his  face  to  the  speckcrs,  "  \i'  I  be  not  able  to  prove 

250  caldekwood's  historie  1564. 

the  masse  to  be  the  most  abominable  idolatrlc  that  ever  was  since 
the  beginning*  of  the  world,  I  offer  to  suffer  the  punishment  ap- 
pointed by  God  for  a  false  teacher.  And  it  appeareth  to  me,"  said 
he,  "  that  the  affirmer  sould  be  subject  to  the  same  law,  for  it  is  the 
truthe  of  God  which  yee  persecute  and  blaspheme  ;  tlie  inventioun 
of  the  devill,  which,  obstinatlie,  against  his  Word  yee  mainteane : 
wherat,  albeit  yee  now  flirt  and  flyre,  as  thogh  all  that  Avere  spokin 
were  but  wind,  yitt  I  am  assured,  as  I  am  assured  God  liveth,  that 
some  that  heare  of  this  defectioun,  and  rayling  against  the  truthe 
and  servants  of  God,  sail  see  God's  judgements  powred  furth  upon 
this  realme  ;  speciallie  upon  you,  who  cleave  fastest  to  the  favour 
of  the  court,  for  the  abominatiouns  mainteaned  by  you."  Albeit 
this  vehemencie  moved  some  to  teares,  yitt  Secretare  Lethington, 
in  a  mocking  maner,  said,  "  We  must  recant,  and  burne  our  bill, 
for  the  preachers  are  angrie." 


The  Generall  Assemblie  Avas  holdin  the  25th  of  Junie,  1564. 
The  invocation  of  the  name  of  God,  and  exhortatioun,  was  made 
by  Mr  Knox. 


The  first  day  of  the  Assemblie,  the  courteours  and  lords  depend- 
ing upon  tlie  court,  conveened  not  with  their  brethrein.  Manie 
woundering  at  this,  an  ancient  and  honorable  baron,  the  Laird  of 
Lundie,  said,  "  Nay,  I  wounder  not  of  their  absence ;  but  I  wounder 
that  at  the  last  Assemblie  they  "not  onlie  withdrcAV  themselves  apart 
from  us,  but  drcAV  also  from  us  some  of  our  ministers,  and  would 
have  them  to  conclude  suche  things  as  were  never  propouned  in 
publick  assemblie,  which  appeareth  to  me  to  be  a  thing  verie  pre- 
judiciall  to  the  lil)crtic  of  the  Assemblie.     Therefore,  in  my  judge- 

1564.  OF  THE  KIUK  OF  SCOTLAND.  251 

nient,  they  sould  be  informed  of  the  offence,  and  humblie  required, 
if  they  be  bi-ethrein  indeid,  to  assist  their  brethrein  with  their  pre- 
sence and  counsel],  for  there  Avas  never  greater  need.  If  they  pui- 
pose  to  foil  backc  from  us,  it  were  better  we  knew  it  now  than 
afterward."  Thereunto  the  whole  Assemblie  agreed,  and  gave 
commissioun  to  certan  brethrein  to  declare  their  mindes  to  the 
lords,  Avliich  Avas  done  after  noone.  The  courteours  at  the  first 
seemed  not  a  little  offended  that  they  sould  seeme  to  be,  as  it  were, 
suspected  of  defectioun  ;  yitt  the  day  following,  they  came  to  the 
Assemblie.  But  they  drew  themselves  a  little  before  apart,  viz., 
the  Duke,  the  Erles  of  Argile,  Murrey,  Morton,  Glencame,  Mar- 
shall, Rothesse,  the  iMaster  of  MaxAvell,  the  Secretare,  the  Justice- 
Clerk,  the  Clerk  of  Register,  the  Comptroller,  and  Avent  in  to  the 
inner  coimsel-house.  After  short  consultatioun,  they  directed  Mr 
George  Hay,  then  called  the  minister  of  the  court,  to  desire  the 
superintendents  and  some  of  the  learned  ministers  to  conferre  Avith 
them.  It  Avas  ansAvered,  they  Avere  conA'ccued  to  deliberat  upon 
the  commoun  effaires  of  the  kirk,  and  therefore  could  not  spaire 
suche  men  Avhose  judgements  Avere  so  necessarie,  that  Avithout  them 
the  rest  sould  sitt  as  it  Avere  idle.  Therefore,  Avilled  them  as  of  be- 
fore, that  if  they  professed  themseh^es  as  members  of  this  kirk,  they 
Avould  joyne  Avith  their  brethrein,  and  Avould  propoune  in  publick 
what  they  pleased :  so  they  sould  have  the  assistance  of  the  Avhole 
Assemblie,  in  all  things  Avhich  might  stand  Avith  God's  Word.  But 
to  send  a  certan  number  might  breed  rather  hurt  and  slaunder  than 
comfort ;  for  it  Avas  to  be  feared  that  all  men  Avould  not  stand  con- 
tent with  the  conclusions,  Avhere  the  conference  and  reasons  were 
heard  but  of  a  fcAv.  This  ansAvere  was  givin  upon  just  reasoun  ; 
for  no  small  travell  Avas  takin  to  draAV  some  ministers  to  the  factioun 
of  the  courteours,  and  to  susteane  their  arguments  and  opiniouns. 
"When  it  was  perceaved  by  the  most  politick  among  them  that  they 
could  not  prevaile  this  way,  they  purged  themselves  that  they  had 
ne\'er  meant  to  separate  themselves  frome  the  societie  of  the  breth- 
rein. But  becaus  they  had  certan  heeds  to  jiropone,  they  thought 
it  more  expedient,  for  avoiding  of  confusioun,  to  have  conference 

252  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

with  a  few,  than  to  propone  in  publick.  The  Assemblie  still  re- 
plyed,  they  would  admitt  no  secreet  conference  in  these  heeds  which 
sould  be  concluded  by  generall  vote.  The  lords  promised  that  no- 
thing sould  be  concluded,  no  vote  asked,  till  both  the  propositiouns 
and  reasons  were  heard  and  considered  of  the  whole  bodie.  Upon 
that  conditioun  were  directed  to  them,  Avith  expresse  charge  to  con- 
clude nothing  without  knowledge  and  advice  of  the  Assemblie,  the 
Superintendents  of  Angus,  Fife,  Lothiane,  Mr  Johne  Row,  Mr 
Johne  Craig,  William  Christisone,  and  Mr  David  Lindsay,  mini- 
sters, and  Mr  George  Hay.  Johne  Willocke  was  Moderator  of  the 
Assemblie,  and  Mr  Knox  attended  upon  the  scribe,  and  therefore 
were  appointed  to  stay  still  with  the  brethrein  ;  yitt,  becaus  the 
principall  complaint  concerned  Mr  Knox,  he  was  also  called. 


The  ministers  forenamed  being  conveened  with  the  lords  above- 
named,  Secretar  Lethington  began  with  an  harang,  conteaning 
these  heeds  :  First,  How  muche  we  were  addebted  unto  God,  by 
whose  goodnesse  we  have  libertic  of  religioun  under  the  queen's 
Majestic,  albeit  she  was  not  perswaded  in  the  same.  Secundarilie, 
How  necessar  a  thing  it  was  the  queen's  Majestic,  by  all  good 
offices  (so  spake  he)  of  the  part  of  the  Church,  and  ministers  prln- 
cipallie,  sould  be  interteaned  in  that  constant  opinioun,  that  they 
unfainedlie  favoured  her  advancement,  and  procured  her  subjects 
to  have  a  good  opinioun  of  her.  And  last,  How  dangerous  a  thing- 
it  was,  that  ministers  sould  be  noted,  one  to  disagree  from  another, 
in  forme  of  prayer  for  her  Majestic,  or  in  doctrine,  concerning  obe- 
dience to  her  authoritie.  "  And  in  these  two  last  heeds,"  said  he, 
"  we  desire  you  all  to  be  circumspect ;  but  speciallie,  Ave  must  crave 
of  you,  our  brother  Johne  Knox,  to  moderat  your  self  als  weill  in 
forme  of  prayer  for  the  queen's  Majestic,  as  in  doctrine  that  yee 
propone  concerning  her  estate  and  obedience.  Neither  sail  yee  tak 
this  as  spokin   to  your  rcproache,  {quia  nevus  interdum  in  corpore 

15(>4.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  253 

])ulchrn  ;)  but  becaus  that  others  by  your  exemple  may  imitate  the 
like  libertie,  albeit  not  with  the  same  modestie  and  foresight." 

What  opinioun  that  might  engender  in  the  hearts  of  the  people, 
wise  men  doe  foresee.  The  said  Johne  prepared  for  answere  as 
followeth : 


"  If  suche  as  feare  God  have  occasioun  to  praise  her,  becaus  idol- 
atrie  is  mainteaned,  the  servants  of  God  despised,  wicked  men 
placed  again  in  authoritie  and  honour,  (Mr  Henrie  Sinclar  was  a 
short  time  before  made  president,  who  before  durst  not  sitt  in 
judgement ;)  and,  finallie,"  said  he,  "  if  we  ought  to  praise  God,  be- 
caus vice  and  impietie  overfloweth  this  whole  realme  without  pun- 
ishment, then  have  we  occasioun  to  rcjoyce,  and  praise  God.  But 
if  these  and  the  lilce  use  to  provoke  God's  vengeance  against  realmes 
and  natiouns,  then,  in  my  judgement,  the  godlie  within  Scotland 
ought  to  lament  and  mourne,  and  so  to  prevent  God's  judgements, 
least  that  he,  finding  all  in  like  securitie,  strike  in  his  bote  indigna- 
tioun,  beginning,  perchance,  at  suche  as  thinke  they  offend  not." 

"  That  is  an  heed,"  said  Lethington,  "  Avherinto  yee  and  I  never 
agreed  :  for,  how  are  yee  able  to  prove  that  ever  God  stroke  or 
plagued  a  natioun  or  people  for  the  iniquitie  of  their  prince,  if  they 
themselves  lived  godlie  ?"  "  I  looked,"  said  he,  "  to  have  had  audi- 
ence till  I  had  ended  the  other  two  parts  ;  but,  seing  it  pleaseth 
your  lordship  to  cut  me  off  before  the  middest,  I  will  answere  to 
your  questioun.  The  Scripture  of  God  sheweth  me,  that  Jerusa- 
lem and  Judah  were  punished  for  the  sinne  of  Manasseh.  And,  if 
yee  will  alledge  that  they  Avere  punished  becaus  they  were  wicked, 
and  offended  with  the  king,  not  becaus  the  king  was  wicked,  I  an- 
swere, that  albeit  the  Spirit  of  God  maketh  for  me,  saying  in  ex- 
presse  words,  ^  For  the  sinnes  of  Manasseh ;'  yitt  I  will  not  be  so 
obstinat  as  to  lay  the  whole  sinne,  and  plagues  that  therof  followed, 
upon  the  king,  and  utterlie  absolve  the  people  ;  but  1  will  grant  with 
you,  that  the  whole  people  offended  with  the  king.     But  how,  and 

254  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

in  Avhat  fashioun,  I  feare  that  yee  and  I  sail  not  agree.  I  doubt 
not  but  the  whole  multitude  accompaneid  him  in  all  the  abomina- 
tions which  he  did ;  for  idolatrie  and  a  false  religioun  hath  ever 
beenc,  is,  and  will  be,  pleasing  to  the  most  part  of  men.  But,  to 
aflfirme  that  all  Judah  committed  reallie  the  acts  of  his  impietie,  is 
but  to  affirme  that  which  neither  hath  certaintie,  nor  yitt  appear- 
ance of  anie  truthe.  For,  who  can  thinke  it  to  be  possible,  that  all 
those  of  Jerusalem  sould  so  shortlie  turne  to  externall  idolatrie, 
considering  the  notable  reformatioun  latelie  before  had  in  the  dayes 
of  Ezekias  ?  But  yitt,  sayeth  the  text,  '  Manasseh  made  Israel  and 
the  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem  to  erre,'  Para,  xxxiii.  True  it  is ;  for 
the  one  part,  as  1  have  said,  willinglie  followed  him  in  his  idolatrie, 
and  the  other,  by  reasoun  of  his  authoritie,  suffered  him  to  defile 
Jerusalem  and  the  temple  of  God  Avith  all  abominatiouns.  And 
so  were  they  all  criminall  of  his  sinne,  the  one  by  the  act  and  deid, 
the  other  by  suffering  and  permissioun ;  even  as  whole  Scotland  is 
this  day  guiltie  of  the  queen's  idolatrie,  and  yce  lords,  especiallie, 
above  others." 

"Weill,"  said  Lethington,  "  that  is  the  cheefe  heed  wherln  Ave 
never  agreed ;  but  of  that  we  sail  speeke  heerafter.  Wliat  Avill 
yee  say,  as  tuiching  the  moving  of  the  people  to  have  a  good  opi- 
nioun  of  the  queen's  Majestic,  and  as  concerning  obedience  to  be 
givin  to  her  authoritie  ;  as  also,  of  the  forme  of  prayer  AA^hich  com- 
mounlie  yee  use  ?"  "  My  lord,"  said  he,  "  more  earnestlie  to  moA^e 
the  people,  or  yitt  otherwise  to  pray  than  heertofore  I  haA^e  done, 
a  good  conscience  Avill  not  suffer  me.  For  He  Avho  seeth  the  se- 
creets  of  hearts  knoAvcth  that,  privatlie  and  publicklie,  I  have  called 
to  God  for  her  conversioun,  and  have  willed  the  people  to  doe  the 
same,  shoAving  unto  them  the  dangerous  estate  Avherin  not  onlie 
she  herself  standeth,  but  also  the  Avhole  realme,  by  reasoun  of  her 
indurcd  blindnesse."  "  That  is  it,"  said  Lethington,  "  Avherin  we 
find  greatest  fault :  your  extremitie  against  her  masse,  in  particu- 
lar, passeth  measure.  Yee  call  her  a  slave  to  Sathan  ;  yee  afHrme, 
that  God's  vengeance  hangeth  over  the  realme  becaus  of  her  ini- 
quitie  :  and  AAdiat  is  this  elles,  but  to  raise  the  hearts  of  the  people 

1564.  OF  TirE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  255 

against  her  Majestic,  and  against  them  that  heard  ?"  Then  there 
was  heard  an  exclamatioini  of  the  rest  of  the  flatterers,  that  suche 
extremitie  could  not  profite.  The  Master  of  Maxwell  said,  in 
plaine  words,  "  If  I  Avere  in  the  queen's  Majestie's  place,  I  would 
not  suffer  suche  things  as  I  heare."  ''  If  the  words  of  the  preachers 
(said  Mr  Knox)  sail  alwise  be  rest  in  worst  part,  then  it  Avill  be 
hard  to  speeke  anie  things  so  circumspectlie  (provided  that  the 
truthe  be  spokin)  which  sail  escape  the  censure  of  calumniators. 
The  most  vehement,  and  (as  yee  speeke)  excessive  manor  of  prayer 
that  I  use  in  publick,  is  this,  '  O  Lord,  if  it  be  thy  good  pleasure, 
purge  the  heart  of  the  queen's  ISIajestie  frome  the  venome  of  idol- 
atrie,  and  dehver  her  frome  the  boundago  and  thraldome  of  Satan, 
into  which  she  hath  bcene  brought  up,  and  yitt  remaineth,  for 
laike  of  true  doctrine.  And  lett  her  see,  by  the  illuminatioun  of 
thy  Holie  Spirit,  that  there  is  no  meanes  to  please  thee  but  by 
Jesus  Christ  thy  onlie  Sonne ;  and  that  Jesus  Christ  cannot  be 
found  but  in  thy  Holie  Word,  nor  yitt  receaved  but  as  it  pre- 
scribeth ;  which  is,  to  renounce  our  owne  Avitt,  and  pre-conceaved 
opinions,  and  worship  thee  as  thou  commandeth  :  that  in  so  doing, 
she  may  avoide  the  eternall  damnatioun  which  abideth  all  obstinat 
and  disobedient  to  the  end,  and  that  this  poore  realme  may  also 
escape  that  plague  and  vengeance  which  inevitablie  followeth  idol- 
atrie  mainteaned  against  the  manifest  Word,  and  the  open  light 
therof.'  This,"  said  he,  "  is  the  forme  of  my  commoun  prayer,  as 
yee  yourselves  can  Avitnesse  :  noAv,  Avhat  is  Avorthie  repi'ehensioun 
in  it,  I  Avould  heare." 

"  There  are  three  things,"  said  Lethington,  "  that  never  liked 
me.  And  the  first  is,  Yee  pray  for  the  queen's  Majestic  Avith  a 
conditioun,  saying,  '  Illuminat  her  heart,  if  it  be  thy  good  pleasure  ;' 
Avhereby  it  may  appeare,  that  yee  doubt  of  her  conversioun.  Where 
have  yee  the  exemple  of  suche  prayer  ?"  "  Wheresoever  the  exem- 
ples  are,"  said  the  other,  "  I  am  sure  of  the  rule,  which  is  this,  '  If 
yee  sail  aske  anie  thing  according  to  His  Avill,  he  saU  heare  you.' 
And  our  Master,  Christ  Jesus,  commandeth  us  to  pray  to  our  Fa- 
ther, '  Thy  Avill  be  done.'  "    "  But,"  said  Lethington,  "  Avhcre  ever 

256  calderwood's  uistorie  1564. 

found  yce  anie  of  the  propliets  so  to  have  prayed  ?"  "  It  sufficeth 
me,"  said  the  other,  "  my  lord,  that  the  Master  and  Teacher  both 
of  prophets  and  apostles,  hath  taught  me  so  to  pray."  "  But  in  so 
doing,"  said  he,  "  yee  putt  a  doubt  in  people's  hearts  of  her  con- 
versioun."  "  Not  I,  my  lord,"  said  the  other  ;  '•  but  her  ovrne  ob- 
stinat  rebellioun  causeth  moe  nor  me  to  doubt  of  her  conversioun." 
"  Wherin  rebelleth  she,"  said  he,  "  against  God  ?"  "  In  all  the  ac- 
tiouns  of  her  life,"  said  the  other,  "  but  in  these  two  heeds  espe- 
ciallie :  First,  That  she  will  not  heare  the  preaching  of  the  blessed 
Evangell  of  Jesus  Christ :  Secundarlie,  That  she  mainteaneth  that 
idol,  the  masse."  "  She  thinketh  not  that  rebellioun,  but  good  re- 
ligioun,"  said  Lethington.  "  So  thought  they,"  said  he,  "  that  of- 
fered their  childrein  unto  Molech ;  and  yitt,  the  Spirit  of  God  af- 
firmeth,  that  they  oiFered  them  to  devills,  and  not  to  God.  And 
this  day,  the  Turkes  thinke  they  have  a  better  religioun  than  the 
Papists  have ;  and  yitt,  I  thinke,  yee  will  excuse  neither  of  both 
against  God.  Neither  yitt  justlie  can  yee  doe  the  queene,  unlesse 
yee  will  make  God  to  be  partiall."  "  But  yitt,"  said  Lethington, 
"  Avhy  pray  yee  not  for  her  Majestic  without  a  doubt  ?"  "  Becaus," 
said  the  other,  "  I  have  learned  to  pray  in  faith.  Now,  faith,  yee 
know,  dependeth  upon  the  Word  of  God ;  and  so  it  is  that  the 
Word  of  God  teacheth  me,  that  pi^ayers  profite  the  sonnes  and 
daughters  of  God's  electioun,  of  which  number,  whether  she  be  or 
not,  I  have  just  occasioun  to  doubt.  And,  therefore,  I  pray  that 
God  would  illuminate  her  heart,  if  it  be  his  good  will  and  pleasure." 
"  But  yitt,"  said  Lethington,  "  yee  can  produce  the  exemple  of 
none  that  so  hath  prayed  before  you."  "  Thereto  have  I  alreadie 
answered,"  said  Mr  Knox.  "  But  yitt  for  farther  declaratioun  I 
will  demand  one  questioun,  which  is  this,  Whether  yee  thinke 
that  the  apostles  prayed  themselves  as  they  command  others  to 
pray  ?"  "  Who  doubteth  of  that  ?"  said  the  whole  companie  who 
were  present.  "  Weill  then,"  said  Mr  Knox,  "  I  am  assured  that 
Peter  said  thir  words  to  Simon  Magus,  '■  Repent  therefore  of  this 
thy  wickednesse,  and  pray  to  God,  that  if  it  be  possible,  the  thought 
of  thy  heart  may  be  forgiven  thee.'     Heere  we  may  cleerelie  see, 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  257 

that  Peter  joyneth  a  conditioim  with  his  commandement,  that  Si- 
mon sould  repent  and  pray,  to  witt,  if  it  were  possible  that  his  sinnes 
might  be  forgivin  him ;  for  he  was  not  ignorant,  that  some  sinnes 
are  unto  death,  and  so  without  all  hope  of  repentance  or  remissioun. 
And  thinke  yee  not,  my  lord  secretar,"   said  he,  "  but  the  same 
doubt  may  tuiche  my  heart,  as  tuiching  the  queen's  eonversioun, 
that  then  tuiched  the  heart  of  the  apostle  ?"     "  I  would  never," 
said  Lethington,  "  heare  you,  or  anie  other,  call  that  in  doubt." 
"  But  your  will,"  said  the  other,  "  is  no  assurance  to  my  conscience. 
And  to  speeke   freelie,  my  lord,   I  wounder  if  that  yee  yourself 
doubt  not  of  the  queen's  eonversioun  ;  for  more  evident  signes  of 
induratloun  have  appeared,  and  still  doe  appeai'e  in  her,  than  Peter 
outwardlie  could  have  espied  in  Simon  Magus.     For,  albeit  some- 
times he  was  a  sorcerer,  yitt  joyned  he  Avith  the  apostles,  beleeved, 
and  was  baptized.     And,  albeit  the  venome  of  avarice  remained  in 
his  heart,  and  that  he  would  have  bought  the  Holie  Ghost,  yitt, 
when  he  heard  the  fearefuU  threatning  of  God  pronounced  against 
him,  he  trembled,  desired  the  assistance  of  the  prayers  of  the  apos- 
tles, and  humbled  himself  (so  farre  as  the  judgement  of  man  might 
pierce)  like  a  true  penitent.     And  yitt  we  see  that  Peter  doubteth 
of  his  eonversioun.  Why,  then,  may  not  all  the  godlie  justlie  doubt 
of  the  eonversioun  of  the  queene,  who  hath  used  idolatrie,  which  is 
no  lesse  odious  in  the  sight  of  God  than  is  the  other,  and  still  con- 
tinueth  in  the  same ;   yea,   she  despiseth  all  tlu-eatniugs,  and  re- 
fuseth  all  godlie  adraonitiouns  ?"     "  AVliy  say  yee,   that   she  re- 
fuseth  admonitioun  ?"  sayeth  Lethington  :   "  She  will  gladlie  heare 
anie  man."     "  But  what  obedience  to  God,"  said  the  other,  "  or 
to  his  Word,  ensueth  to  all  that  is   spokin  unto  her,  or  when 
sail  she  be   secne  to  give  presence  to  the  publick  preaching?" 
"  I  thinke  never,"   said  Lethington,   "  so  long  as  she  is  thus  in- 
treated."     "  And  so  long,"   said  the  other,   "  yee  and  all  others 
must  be  content,  that  I  pray  so  as  that  I  may  be  assured  to  be 
heard  of  my  God ;  that  is,  that  his  good  will  may  be  done,  either 
in  making  her  comfortable  to  his  Church,  or,  if  that  he  hath  ap- 

VOL.  IT.  R 

25S  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

pointed  her  to  be  a  scourge  to  the  same,  that  Ave  may  have  pa- 
tience, and  she  may  be  bridled." 

"  Weill,"  said  Lethington,  "  lett  us  come  to  the  secund  heid. 
Where  find  yee,  that  the  Scriptures  call  anie  the  blind  slaves  of 
Sathan  ;  or  that  the  prophets  of  God  speeke  of  kings  and  princes 
so  unreverently  ?"  "  The  Scripture,"  said  Mr  Knox,  "  sayeth  that 
by  nature  we  are  all  the  sonnes  of  wrathe.  Our  Master,  Christ 
Jesus,  affirmeth,  that  suche  as  doe  sinne  are  servants  to  sinne,  and 
that  it  is  the  onlie  Sonne  of  God  who  setteth  men  at  freedome. 
Now,  what  difference  is  there  betwixt  the  sonnes  of  wrathe,  the 
servants  of  sinne,  and  slaves  to  Satan,  I  understand  not,  unlesse 
that  I  be  taught.  And  if  the  sharpenesse  of  the  terme  offend  you, 
I  have  not  invented  that  phrase  of  specking,  but  have  learned  it 
furth  of  God's  Scriptures.  For  these  Avords  I  find  spokin  unto  Paul 
— '  Behold,  I  send  thee  unto  the  Gentiles,  to  open  their  eyes,  that 
they  may  turne  from  darknesse  unto  light,  and  frome  the  poAver  of 
Satan  unto  God,'  Acts  xxvi.  Mark  the  words,  my  lord,  and  sturre 
not  at  the  specking  of  the  Holie  Ghost.  And  the  same  apostle 
Avritting  to  his  OAvne  scholler,  Timotheus,  sayeth,  '  Instruct  with 
meekenesse  these  that  are  contrarie  minded,  if  that  God  at  anie 
time  will  give  them  repentance ;  that  they  may  know  the  truthe, 
and  that  they  may  come  to  amendiment,  out  of  the  snare  of  the  de- 
vill,  Avhich  are  takin  of  him  at  his  will,'  2  Tim.  ii.  If  your  lord- 
ship doe  rightlie  consider  these  sentences,  yee  sail  not  onlie  find 
my  words  to  be  the  words  of  the  Holie  Ghost,  but  also  the  condi- 
tioun  which  I  use  to  adde,  to  have  the  assurance  of  God's  Scrip- 
ture." ''  But  they  speeke  nothing  against  kings  in  speciall,"  said 
Lethington  ;  "  and  yitt  your  continuall  crying  is,  '  The  queen's 
idolatrie !  the  queen's  masse  will  provoke  God's  wrathe  !' "  "  In 
the  former  sentences,"  said  the  other,  "  I  heare  not  kings  nor 
queens  excepted ;  but  all  unfaithfull  are  pronounced  to  stand  in  one 
ranke,  and  to  be  in  boundage  to  one  tyranne,  the  devill.  But  be- 
like, my  lord,"  said  he,  "  ye  little  regarde  the  estate  Avherin  they 
stand,  Avhen  yee  would  have  them  so  flattered  that  the  danger 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  259 

therof  80uld  neither  be  knowne,  neither  yitt  declared  to  the  people." 
"  Where  will  yee  find,"  said  Lethington,  "  that  anie  of  the  pro- 
phets did  so  intreate  kings,  queens,  rulers,  or  magistrats  ?"  "  In 
moe  places  than  one,"  said  the  other.  "  Achab  was  a  king,  Jesa- 
bell  was  a  queene,  and  yitt  what  the  prophet  Elias  said  to  the  one 
and  the  other  I  suppose  yee  be  not  ignorant."  "  That  was  not 
cried  out  before  the  people,"  said  Lethington,  "  to  make  them 
odious  unto  their  subjects."  "  That  Elias  said,  '  Dogges  sail  licke 
the  blood  of  Achab  and  eate  the  flesh  of  Jesabell,'  Scriptures  assure 
me ;  but  that  it  was  whispered  in  then-  owne  eare,  or  in  a  corner, 
I  read  not.  But  the  plaine  contrare  appeareth  to  me,  which  is, 
that  both  the  people  and  the  coiu't  understood  weill  enough  what 
the  proj)het  had  pronounced ;  for  so  witnessed  Jehu,  after  that 
God's  vengeance  had  stricken  Jesabell."  "  These  were  singular 
motiouns  of  the  Spii'it  of  God,"  said  Lethington,  "  and  apperteane 
nothing  to  this  age."  "  Then  hath  the  Scripture  farre  deceaved 
me,"  said  the  other,  "  for  Sanct  Paul  teacheth  me  that  whatsoever 
is  writtin  within  the  Holie  Scriptures,  the  same  is  writtin  for  our 
instruction.  And  my  Master  sayeth,  that  everie  learned  and  wise 
scribe  bringeth  furth  of  his  treasurie  both  things  old  and  things 
new.  And  the  Prophet  Jeremiah  aflfirmeth  that  everie  realme  or 
citie  that  likcAvise  offendeth,  as  then  did  Jerusalem,  sould  likewise 
be  punished.  Why  that  the  facts  of  the  ancient  prophets,  and  the 
fearefuU  judgements  of  God  executed  before  us  upon  the  disobedi- 
ent, apperteane  not  to  this  our  age,  I  neither  see  nor  yitt  can  un- 
derstand. But  now,  to  putt  an  end  to  this  heed,  my  lord,"  said  he, 
"  the  prophets  of  God  have  not  spau-ed  to  rebooke  wicked  kings, 
als  Aveill  in  their  face  as  before  the  people  and  subjects.  EUsaeus 
feared  not  to  say  to  King  Jehoram,  '  What  have  I  to  doe  with 
thee  ?  Gett  thee  to  the  prophets  of  thy  father,  and  to  the  prophets 
of  thy  mother ;  for  as  the  Lord  of  Hoasts  liveth,  in  whose  sight  I 
stand,  if  it  were  not  that  I  regarded  the  presence  of  Jehosaphat, 
King  of  Judah,  I  Avould  not  have  looked  towards  thee  nor  scene 
thee.'  Plain  it  is,  that  the  prophet  was  a  subject  in  the  kingdom 
of  Israel ;  and  yitt,  how  little  reverence  giveth  he  to  the  king  ?  In 

260  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

the  secund  of  Jeremie,  the  prophet  was  commanded  to  crie  to  the 
king  and  the  queene,  and  to  say,  '  Behave  yourselves  lowlie  in  jus- 
tice and  judgement,  or  elles  your  carcases  sail  be  cast  to  the  heate 
of  the  day,  and  to  the  frost  of  the  night.'  Of  Sallum  and  Zedekias 
he  speeketh  in  speciaU,  and  sheweth  unto  them,  in  his  publick  ser- 
mons, their  miserable  ends.  And,  therefore,  yee  ought  not  to 
thinke  it  strange,  my  lord,"  said  he,  "  albeit  the  servants  of  God 
taxe  the  vices  of  kings  and  queens  als  weil  as  other  offenders,  and 
that  becaus  their  sinnes  are  more  noysome  to  the  commounwealth 
than  are  all  the  sinnes  of  inferiour  persons." 

The  most  part  of  this  reasoning  Secretar  Lethington  leaned  upon 
the  breast  of  the  Master  of  MaxweU,  and  said,  "  I  am  almost  wearie  : 
I  would  that  some  would  reasoun  in  the  cheefe  heed,  which  is  not 
yitt  tuiched."  Then  the  Erie  of  Morton,  ChanceUer,  commanded 
Mr  George  Hay  to  reasoun  against  Mr  Knox,  in  the  heed  of  obe- 
dience due  unto  magistrats ;  who  bcganne  so  to  doe.  Unto  whom 
Mr  Knox  said,  "  That  yee  sail  reasoun  in  my  contrare,  I  am  weill 
content,  becaus  I  know  you  are  both  a  man  of  learning  and  of  mo- 
destie.  But  that  yee  sail  oppone  yourself  unto  the  truthe,  Avherof 
I  suppose  your  owne  conscience  is  no  lesse  perswaded  than  is  myne, 
I  cannot  weill  approve ;  for  I  would  be  sorie  that  I  and  yee  sould 
be  appointed  to  reasoun,  as  two  schollers  of  Pythagoras,  to  shew 
the  quicknesse  of  our  ingyne,  as  it  were,  to  reasoun  on  both  parts. 
I  doe  protest  heere  before  God,  that  whatsoever  I  susteane,  I  doe  the 
same  of  conscience  ;  yea,  I  darre  no  more  susteane  anie  propositioun 
knowne  to  my  self  untrue,  than  that  I  darre  teache  false  doctrine  in 
the  publick  place.  And,  therefore,  brother,  if  conscience  move  you 
to  oppone  yourself  to  that  doctrine  which  yee  have  heard  of  my 
mouth  in  that  mater,  doe  it  boldlie ;  it  sail  never  offend  me.  But 
that  yee  sail  be  found  to  oppone  yourself  unto  me,  yee  being  per- 
swaded in  the  same  truthe,  I  say  yitt  againe,  it  pleaseth  me  not ; 
for  thereof  may  arise  greater  inconveniences  than  either  yee  or  I 
consider  for  the  present."  The  said  Mr  George  answered,  "  That 
I  would  oppone  myself  unto  you,  as  willing  to  impugne  or  confute 
that  heed  of  doctrine,  which  not  onlie  yee,  but  manie  others,  yea. 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  261 

and  I  myself  have  affirmed,  farre  be  it  frome  me,  for  so  I  sould  be 
found  contrarioiis  to  myself;  for  my  lord  secretare  knowetli  my 
judgement  in  that  heed." 

"  Marie,"  said  the  secretar,  "  yee  are  the  weill  worst  of  the  two, 
for  I  remember  yitt  our  reasoning  when  the  queene  was  in  the  ca- 
binet. Weill,"  said  Lethington,  "  I  am  somwhat  better  provided 
in  this  last  heed  than  I  Avas  in  the  other  two.  Mr  Knox,"  said  he, 
"  we  heard  yom*  judgement  upon  the  13tli  to  the  liomans  ;  we 
heard  the  minde  of  the  apostle  weill  opened  ;  we  heard  the  cans 
why  God  established  powers  upon  the  earth ;  we  heard  the  neces- 
sitie  that  mankinde  hath  of  the  same,  and  we  heard  the  duetie  of 
raagistrats  sufficientlie  declared.  But  in  two  things  I  was  offended, 
and  I  thinke  some  of  the  lords  that  were  present.  The  one  was, 
yee  made  difference  betwixt  the  ordinance  of  God  and  the  persons 
that  were  placed  in  authoritie ;  and  yee  affirmed  that  men  might 
resist  the  persons,  and  yitt  not  offend  God's  ordinance.  This  is 
the  first.  The  other  yee  had  no  time  to  explaine.  But  this  me- 
thought  yee  meant.  That  subjects  were  not  bound  to  obey  their 
princes  if  they  commanded  unlawful  things ;  but  that  they  might 
resist  their  princes,  and  were  not  ever  bound  to  suffer." 

"  In  verie  deed,"  said  the  other,  "  yee  have  both  rightlie  marked 
my  words,  and  understood  my  minde  ;  for  of  the  same  judgement 
have  I  long  beenc,  and  so  yitt  I  remaine."  "  How  will  ye  prove 
your  divisioun  and  difference  ?"  said  Lethington ;  "  and  that  the 
persoun  placed  in  authoritie  may  be  resisted,  and  God's  ordinance 
not  transgressed,  seing  that  the  apostle  sayeth,  '  He  that  resisteth 
the  powers  resisteth  the  ordinance  of  God?'  My  lord,"  said  he, 
"  the  plaine  words  of  the  apostle  affirme  that  the  powers  are  or- 
deaned  of  God,  for  the  preservatioun  of  quiet  and  peaceable  men, 
and  for  the  punishcment  of  malefactors.  Wherof  it  is  plaine,  that 
the  ordinance  of  God  and  power  givin  to  man  is  one  thing,  and 
the  person  clothed  with  the  power  or  authoritie  is  another  :  for 
God's  ordinance  is  the  preservatioun  of  mankinde,  the  punishcment 
of  sinne,  and  the  maintcaning  of  vcrtue,  which  is  in  itself  holie,  just, 
constant,  stable,  and  perpetuall.    But  men  clothed  with  the  autho- 

262  caldekwood's  historie  1564. 

ritie  are  commounlie  profane  and  unjust ;  yea,  they  are  mutable, 
transitorie,  and  subject  to  corruption,  as  God  threatneth  them  by 
his  prophet  David,  saying,  '  I  have  said  yee  are  gods,  and  everie  one 
of  you  the  sonnes  of  the  Most  High  ;  but  yee  sail  dee  as  men,  and 
yee  princes  sail  fall  as  others,'  Ps.  Ixxxii.  Heere,  I  am  assured,  the 
persons,  both  soule  and  bodie,  are  threatned  with  death :  I  thinke 
that  so  yee  will  not  affirme  is  the  authoritie,  the  ordinance,  and  the 
power  wherewith  God  hath  endued  suche  persons  as  I  have  said. 
As  it  is  holie,  so  it  is  the  permanent  will  of  God.  Now,  my  lord, 
that  the  prince  may  be  resisted,  and  yitt  the  ordinance  of  God  not 
violated,  it  is  evident.  For  the  people  resisted  Saul,  when  he  had 
swome  by  the  Hving  God  that  Jonathan  sould  dee  :  the  people,  T 
say,  swore  in  the  contrarie,  and  delivered  Jonathan,  so  that  an  hairc 
of  his  head  fell  not  to  the  ground.  Now,  Saul  was  their  owne 
anointed  king,  and  they  were  his  subjects  ;  and  yitt,  they  resisted 
him,  in  that  they  made  him  no  better  than  mansworne." 

"  I  doubt,"  said  Lethington,  "  if,  in  so  doing,  the  people  did 
Weill."  "  The  Spirit  of  God  accuseth  them  not  of  anie  crime,"  said 
the  other,  "  but  rather  praiseth  them,  and  damneth  the  king,  als 
Weill  for  his  foolish  vow  and  law  made  without  God,  as  for  his 
crueU  minde,  that  so  severelie  would  have  punished  an  innocent 
man.  But  in  this  I  mil  not  insist.  The  same  Saul  commanded 
Ahimelech  and  the  preests  of  the  Lord  to  be  slaine,  becavis  they 
had  committed  treasoun,  as  he  alledged,  by  intercommuning  with 
David.  His  guarde  and  principall  servants  would  not  obey  his  lui- 
just  commandements  ;  but  Doeg,  the  king's  flatterer,  putt  the  king's 
crueltie  in  executioun.  I  will  not  aske  your  judgement  whether 
the  servants  of  the  king,  in  not  obeying  his  commandement,  resisted 
God  or  not,  or  whether  Doeg,  in  murthering  the  preests,  gave  obe- 
dience to  a  just  authoritie  ;  for  I  have  the  Spirit  of  God  specking 
by  the  mouth  of  David,  to  assure  me,  als  weill  of  the  one  as  of  the 
other.  For  he,  in  the  fiftie-two  Psalme,  damneth  the  fact  as  a 
cruell  murther,  and  affirmeth,  that  God  would  punishe  not  onHe 
the  commander,  but  also  the  mercilesse  executer.  Therefore,  I 
conclude,  that  they  who  withstood  his  commandement  resisted  not 

1564.  OF  TPIE  KIKK  OF  SCOTL.VND.  263 

the  ordinance  of  God.  Now,  my  lord,  to  answere  to  the  place  of 
the  apostle,  affirmmg  that  suche  as  resist  the  powers  resist  the  or- 
dinance of  God,  I  say,  that  by  power  in  that  place  is  to  he  under- 
stood, not  the  unjust  conmiandement  of  men,  but  the  lawfull  power 
wherwith  God  hath  armed  his  magistrats,  as  lieutenants,  to  punishc 
sinne,  and  to  mainteane  vertue.  And  if  anie  man  sould  enterprise 
to  take  frome  the  hands  of  the  lawful!  judge  a  murtiierer,  adulterer, 
or  anie  other  malefactor  deserving  death  by  God's  hiAV,  he  resisteth 
God's  ordinance,  and  procureth  to  himself  vengeance  and  damna- 
tioun,  becaus  he  stayeth  God's  sword  to  strllte.  But  so  is  it  not 
if  men,  in  the  feare  of  God,  oppone  themselves  to  the  furie  and 
blind  rage  of  princes;  for  so,  they  resist  not  God  but  the  devill, 
who  abuseth  the  sword  and  authoritie  of  God." 

"  I  understand  sufficientlie,"  said  Lethington,  "  what  yee  meane, 
and  to  the  one  part  I  will  not  oppone ;  but  I  doubt  of  the  other. 
For  if  the  queene  would  command  me  to  kill  Jolme  Knox,  becaus 
she  is  offended  at  him,  I  would  not  obey  her.  But  if  she  would 
command  others  to  doe  it,  or  by  colour  of  justice  take  his  life  frome 
him,  I  cannot  tell  if  I  be  bound  to  defend  against  the  queene 
and  her  officei's."  "  Under  protestatioun,"  said  the  other,  "  that 
the  auditors  thinke  not  that  I  speeke  in  favours  of  my  self,  I  say, 
my  lord,  that  if  yee  be  perswaded  of  my  innocencie,  and  if  God 
hath  giviu  you  suche  power  or  credite,  as  thereby  yee  might  de- 
liver me,  and  yitt  suffer  me  to  perish,  that  so  doing  yee  sould  be 
criminall  and  guiltie  of  my  blood."  "  Prove  that,  and  wonne  the 
plea !"  said  Lethington.  "  The  prophet  Jeremie  was  apprehended 
by  the  preests  and  prophets,  Avho  were  a  part  of  the  authoritie 
within  Jerusalem,  and  by  the  multitude  of  the  people.  This  sen- 
tence was  pronounced  against  him  :  '  Thou  sail  dee  the  deatli,  for 
thou  hath  said.  This  hous  sail  be  like  Siloah,  and  this  citie  sail  be 
desolat  without  an  inhabitant,'  Jerem.  xxvi.  The  princes  hearing 
the  uproare,  came  frome  the  king's  hous,  and  satt  doun  in  judge- 
ment, in  the  entrie  of  the  new  gate  of  the  Lord's  hous.  There  the 
preests  and  prophets  accused  him  before  the  princes  and  before  all 
the  people,  in  these  words,   '  This  man  is  worthie  to  dee,  for  he 

264  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

hath  propheceid  against  this  citie,  as  your  eares  have  heard.'  Jere- 
mie  answered,  whatsoever  he  had  spokin  proceeded  from  God ; 
therefore,  said  he,  '  As  for  me,  behold  I  am  in  your  hands ;  doe 
with  me  as  yee  thinke  good  and  right.  But  know  yee  for  certane, 
that  if  yee  putt  me  to  death,  yee  sail  bring  innocent  blood  upon 
yourselves,  and  upon  this  citie,  and  upon  the  inhabitants  therof ; 
for  of  truthe  the  Lord  hath  sent  me  unto  you,  to  speeke  all  these 
words.'  Now,  my  lords,  if  the  princes  and  the  whole  people  sould 
have  beene  guiltie  of  the  prophet's  blood,  hoAV  sail  yee  or  others 
be  judged  innocent  before  God,  if  yee  sail  suffer  the  blood  of  suche 
as  have  not  deserved  death  to  be  shed,  when  yee  may  save  it  ?" 
"  The  case  is  not  alike,"  said  Lethington.  "  And  I  would  learn 
wherin  the  dissimilitude  standeth,"  said  the  other.  "  First,"  said 
Lethington,  "  The  king  had  not  condemned  him  to  death  :  Nixt, 
The  false  prophets,  the  preests,  and  people,  accused  him  without  a 
caus,  and  therefore  could  not  but  be  guiltie  of  his  blood."  "  Neither 
of  these  fighteth  against  my  argument,"  said  the  other.  "  For  albeit 
that  neither  the  king  was  present,  nor  yitt  had  condemned  him, 
yitt  were  his  princes  and  cheefe  rulers  there  sitting  in  judgement, 
who  represented  the  king's  person  and  authoritie,  hearing  the  accu- 
satioun  layed  to  the  charge  of  the  prophet.  Therefore  he  fore- 
warneth  them  of  the  danger,  as  was  said  before,  to  witt,  that  in 
case  he  sould  be  condemned,  and  so  putt  to  death,  that  the  king, 
the  counsell,  and  the  whole  citie  of  Jerusalem,  sould  be  guiltie  of 
his  blood,  because  he  had  committed  no  crime  worthie  of  death. 
If  yee  thinke  that  they  sould  all  have  beene  criminall,  onlie  becaus 
that  all  accused  him,  the  text  witnesseth  plainlie  the  contrare  ;  for 
the  princes  defended  him,  and  so,  no  doubt,  did  a  great  part  of 
the  people  :  yitt  he  boldhe  affirmeth,  that  they  sould  all  be  guiltie 
of  his  blood  if  he  were  putt  to  death.  The  prophet  Ezechiel  giveth 
a  reasoun  why  all  are  guiltie  in  a  commoun  corruptioun.  '  Becaus,' 
sayeth  he,  '  I  sought  a  man  amongst  them,  that  sould  make  up  the 
hedge,  and  stand  in  tlie  gape  before  me,  for  the  land,  that  I  sould 
not  destroy  it,  but  I  found  none  ;  therefore  have  I  poured  out  myne 
indignatioun  upon  them.'     Heere,  my  lord,  it  is  plaine,  that  God 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  265 

craveth  not  onlie  that  a  man  committ  not  iniquitle  in  his  owne  per- 
soun,  but  also  that  he  oppone  himself,  so  farre  as  in  him  lyeth,  to 
the  iniquitie  of  others." 

"  Then  will  yee,"  said  Lethington,  "  have  subjects  to  controU 
their  princes  and  rulers."  "  Wliat  harme  sould  the  commoun 
wealth  receave,"  said  the  other,  "  if  the  corrupt  affectiouns  of  igno- 
rant and  godlesse  rulers  were  moderated,  and  so  bridled  by  the 
wisdome  and  discretioun  of  godlic  subjects,  that  they  doe  no  wrong 
nor  violence  to  anie  man  ?"  "  All  this  reasoning,"  said  Lethington, 
"  is  out  of  purpose  ;  for  we  reasoun  as  if  the  queene  sould  become 
suche  an  enemie  to  our  religioun  that  she  sould  persecute  and  putt 
innocent  men  to  death  for  it,  which,  I  am  assured,  she  never  thought, 
nor  never  will  doe.  For  if  I  sould  see  her  beginne  at  that  end,  or 
if  I  sovild  suspect  anie  such  thing  in  her,  I  sould  be  als  fordward  in 
that  argument  as  yee  are,  or  anie  within  this  realme :  but  there  is 
no  suche  thing.  Our  questioun  is,  whether  we  may  and  ought  to 
suppresse  the  queen's  masse,  or  whether  her  idolatrie  sail  be  layed 
to  our  charge  ?"  "  What  yee  may,"  said  INIr  Knox,  "  by  force,  I 
dispute  not ;  but  what  yee  may  and  ought  to  doe  by  God's  com- 
mandement,  that  I  can  tell.  Idolatrie  ought  not  onlie  to  be  sup- 
pressed, but  the  idolater  ought  to  dee  the  death,  unlesse  we  will 
accuse  God."  "  I  knoAV,"  said  Lethington,  "  the  idolater  ought  to 
dee  the  death;  but  by  whom  ?"  "By  the  people  of  God,"  said 
the  other;  "for  the  commanderaent  was  made  to  Israel,  as  yee 
may  read,  '  Heare,  O  Israel,  sayeth  the  Lord,  the  statuts  and  com- 
mandements  of  the  Lord  thy  God.'  Yea,  commandements  are 
givin,  that  if  it  be  heard  that  idolatrie  is  committed  in  anie  citie, 
that  inquisitioun  sail  be  takin  ;  and  if  it  be  found  true,  that  then 
the  whole  bodie  of  the  people  sail  arise,  and  destroy  that  citie, 
spairing  neither  man,  woman,  nor  childe."  "  But  there  is  no  com- 
mandement  givin  to  the  people,"  said  the  secretare,  "  to  punishe 
their  king,  if  he  be  an  idolater."  "  I  find  no  priviledges  granted  to 
kings,"  said  the  other,  "  by  God,  more  than  to  the  people,  to  offend 
God's  ISIajestie."  "  I  graunt,"  said  Lethington  ;  "  yitt  the  people 
may  not  be  judge  to  their  king,  to  punishe  him,  howbeit  he  be  an 

266  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

Idolater."  "  God,"  said  Mi*  Knox,  "  is  a  commoun  judge,  als  weill 
to  the  king  as  to  the  people ;  so  that  what  his  Word  commandeth 
to  be  punislied  in  the  one,  is  not  to  be  forborne  in  the  other."  "  We 
agree  in  that,"  said  Lethington :  "  but  the  people  must  not  execute 
God's  judgements,  but  leave  it  to  himself;  who  will  either  punishe 
by  death,  by  warre,  by  imprisonnment,  or  other  kinde  of  plagues." 
"  I  know,"  said  Mr  Knox,  "  the  last  part  of  your  reasoun  to  be 
true  ;  but  for  the  first,  to  witt,  that  the  people,  or  a  part  of  the 
people,  may  not  execute  God's  judgements  against  their  king,  being 
an  offender,  I  am  sure  yee  have  no  other  wai-rant  but  your  owne 
imaginatioun,  and  the  opinioun  of  suche  as  feare  more  to  offend 
princes  than  God." 

"  Why  say  yee  so  ?"  said  Lethington  :  "  I  have  the  judgement  of 
the  most  famous  men  in  Europe,  and  of  suche  as  yee  yourself  Avill 
confesse  both  godlie  and  learned."  And  with  that  he  called  for  his 
papers,  which  being  exhibited  by  Mr  Robert  Matlane,  he  beganne  to 
read  with  great  gravitie  the  judgement  of  Luther,  Melancthon,  the 
mindes  of  Bucer,  Musculus,  and  Calvine,  Low  Christians  sould  be- 
have themselves  m  time  of  persecutioun ;  yea,  the  Booke  of  Baruch 
was  not  omitted.  Then  he  concluded,  that  the  gathering  of  these 
things  had  cost  him  more  traveU  than  he  had  takin  these  seven 
yeeres  in  reading  of  anie  commentars.  "  The  more  pitie,"  said  the 
other :  "  yitt  what  have  yee  profitted  your  owne  cans  lett  others 
judge.  As  for  my  assertioun,  I  am  assured  yee  have  infirmed  it 
nothing ;  for  your  first  two  witnesses  spake  against  Anabaptists, 
who  denie  that  Christians  sould  be  subject  to  magistrats  ;  which 
opinioun  I  no  lesse  abhorre  than  yee  doe,  or  anie  other  living.  The 
others  speeke  of  Christians  subject  to  tyranns  and  infidels ;  so  dis- 
persed, that  they  have  no  power  but  onlie  to  sobbe  to  God  for  de- 
liverance. That  suche  indeid  sould  hazard  anie  farther  than  these 
godlie  men  wiU  them,  I  Avould  not  wittinglie  be  upon  counsell. 
But  my  assertioun  hath  another  ground.  For  I  speeke  of  a  people 
assembled  together  in  one  bodie  of  a  commoun  wealth  ;  unto  Avhom 
God  hath  givin  sufficient  poAver,  not  onlie  to  resist,  but  also  to  sup- 
presse  all  kinde  of  open  idolatric.     Suche  a  people,  yitt  againe  I 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  2G7 

affirme,  is  bound  to  keepe  their  land  cleane  and  unpolluted.  That 
this  my  divisioun  may  not  appeare  strange  unto  you,  yee  sail  under- 
stand that  God  required  one  thing  of  Abraham  and  his  seed,  when 
he  and  they  were  pilgrims  and  strangers  in  Egypt  and  Canaan ; 
another  thing  frome  them  after  their  deliverance  from  the  boundagc 
of  Egypt,  and  possessioun  of  the  land  of  Canaan  granted  unto  them. 
At  the  first,  and  during  the  time  of  their  boundage,  God  craved  no 
more  but  that  Abraham  sould  not  defile  himself  Avith  idolatric. 
Neither  he  nor  his  posteritie  were  commanded  to  destroy  the  idols 
that  were  in  Canaan  or  Egypt.  But  when  God  gave  unto  them 
possession  of  the  land,  he  gave  unto  them  this  strait  commande- 
ment,  'Beware  that  thou  make  confederacie  or  league  with  the 
people  of  this  land.  Give  not  thy  sonnes  to  their  daughters,  nor 
thy  daughters  to  their  sonnes.  But  this  yee  sail  doe  unto  them  : 
cutt  doun  their  groaves,  destroy  their  images,  breake  doun  their 
altars,  and  leave  you  no  kinde  of  remembrance  of  these  abomina- 
tions which  the  inhabitants  of  the  land  used  before  :  for  thou  art 
an  holie  people  to  the  Lord  thy  God.  Defile  not  thyself,  there- 
fore, with  their  gods.'  To  the  same  commandement,  I  say,  are  yee, 
my  lords,  and  suche  as  professe  the  Lord  Jesus  within  this  realme, 
bound ;  for  God  hath  wrought  no  lesse  miracle  upon  you,  both  cor- 
porallie  and  spirituallie,  than  he  did  upon  the  carnall  seede  of  Ab- 
raham. For,  in  what  estate  your  bodeis  and  this  realme  were 
within  these  seven  yeeres  yee  cannot  be  ignorant.  Yee,  and  it 
both,  were  under  the  boundage  of  a  strange  natioun.  And  what 
tyranns  raigned  over  your  consciences,  it  may  be  God  yitt  once 
againe  lett  you  feele,  becaus  yee  doe  not  rightlie  acknowledge  the 
benefite  receaved.  When  our  poore  brethrein  before  us  yeelded 
their  bodeis  to  the  flammes  of  fire  for  the  testimonie  of  the  trutlie, 
and  when  skarse  ten  could  be  found  in  a  countrie  that  rightlie  knew 
God,  it  had  beene  foolishnesse  either  to  have  craved  of  the  nobilltie 
or  of  the  subjects  the  suppressing  of  idolatrie  ;  for  that  had  beene 
nothing  but  to  have  exponed  the  simple  sheepe  as  a  prey  to  the 
woolfe.  But,  since  God  hath  midtipleid  knowledge,  yea,  and  hath 
givin  the  victoria  to  his  truthe  even  in  the  hands  of  his  servants,  if 

268  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

yee  suffer  the  land  agaiiie  to  be  defiled,  yee  and  your  princesse  sail 
drinke  the  same  cuppe  of  God's  indignatloun ;  she  for  her  obstinat 
abiding  in  manifest  idolatrie  in  this  great  light  of  the  Evangell  of 
Jesus  Christ,  and  yee  for  your  permissioun  and  mainteaning  of  her 
in  the  same." 

Lethington  said,  "In  that  point  we  will  never  agree.  Where 
find  yee,  I  pray  you,  that  anie  of  the  prophets  or  apostles  taught 
suche  doctrine,  that  the  people  sould  be  plagued  for  the  iniquitie  of 
their  prince ;  or  that  subjects  might  suppresse  the  idolatrie  of  their 
rulers,  and  punishe  them  for  the  same  ?"  "  What  was  the  com- 
missioun  givin  to  the  apostles,  my  lord  ?"  said  he.  "  It  was  to 
preache  and  plant  the  EvangeU  of  Jesus  Christ,  where  darknesse  be- 
fore had  dominioun.  Therefore,  it  behooved  them  first  to  lett  them 
see  the  light,  before  they  sould  will  them  to  putt  to  their  hands  to 
suppresse  idolatrie.  What  precepts  the  apostles  gave  to  the  faith- 
full  in  particular,  other  than  that  they  commanded  all  to  flee  li'ome 
idolatrie,  I  will  not  afllirme.  But  I  finde  two  things  that  the  faith- 
full  did.  The  one  was,  that  they  assisted  their  preachers  even 
against  their  rulers  and  magistrats ;  the  other,  that  they  suppressed 
idolatrie  whensoever  God  gave  them  force,  asking  no  licence  at  the 
emperour,  nor  at  his  deputs.  Read  the  ecclesiasticall  historie,  and 
yee  sail  find  a  sufficient  number  of  exemples.  As  to  the  doctrine  of 
the  prophets,  we  know  they  spake  as  weill  to  kings  as  to  the  people. 
I  read  that  neither  would  hear  them ;  therefore  came  the  plague 
upon  both.  But  that  they  flattered  kings  more  than  they  did  the 
people  I  cannot  be  perswaded.  Now,  God's  law  pi'onounceth 
death,  as  before  I  have  said,  upon  idolaters  without  cxceptioun. 
NoAV,  how  the  prophets  covdd  rightlie  interprete  the  law,  and  show 
the  causes  of  God's  judgements,  Avhich  ever  they  threatned  sould 
follow  idolatrie,  and  the  rest  of  the  abominatiouns  which  accom- 
panie  it,  (for  it  goeth  never  alone ;  but  ever  a  corrupt  religioun 
bringeth  with  it  a  filthie  and  a  corrupt  Kfe :)  how,  I  say,  the  pro- 
phets could  reprove  these  vices,  and  not  shoAv  the  people  their 
duetie,  I  understand  not.  Therefore  I  constantlie  beleeve  tliat  the 
doctrine  of  the  prophets  was  so  sensible,  that  the  kings  understood 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  269 

what  were  their  OAvne  abominatiouns,  and  the  people  understood 
what  they  ought  to  have  done,  in  punishing  and  repressing  the  same. 
But  becaus  the  most  part  of  the  people  were  no  lesse  rebellious 
against  God  than  were  their  princes,  therefore  the  one  and  the  other 
were  conjured  enemeis  against  God  and  his  servants.  And  yitt, 
my  lord,  the  facts  of  some  prophets  are  so  evident,  that  casilie 
therof  we  may  collect  what  doctrine  they  taught ;  for  it  Averc  no 
small  mater  to  affirme  that  their  facts  sould  repugne  to  their  doc- 

"  I  thinke,"  said  Lethington,  "yee  meane  of  the  historic  of 
Jehu  :  what  will  yee  prove  thereby  ?"  "  The  cheefe  heed,"  said 
Mr  Knox,  "which  yee  denie,  to  witt,  that  the  prophets  never 
taught  that  it  apperteaned  to  the  people  to  punishe  the  idolatrie  of 
their  kings,  the  contrarie  wherof  I  affirme  ;  and  for  probatioun,  I 
am  readie  to  produce  the  fact  of  a  prophet.  For  yee  know,  my 
lord,"  said  he,  "  that  Elisffius  sent  one  of  the  childrein  of  the  pro- 
phets to  anoint  Jehu,  who  gave  him  a  commandement  to  destroy 
the  hous  of  his  maister  Achab,  for  the  idolatrie  committed  by  him, 
and  for  the  innocent  blood  Avhich  Jesabell,  his  wicked  wife,  shed ; 
which  he  obeyed,  and  putt  into  executioun.  For  this,  God  pro- 
mised unto  him  the  stabilitie  of  his  kingdome  to  the  fourth  genera- 
tioun.  Now,"  said  he,  "  heere  is  the  fact  of  a  prophet  proving  that 
subjects  were  commanded  to  execute  God's  judgements  upon  their 
king  and  prince."  "  There  is  eneugh  to  answere,"  said  Lething- 
ton ;  "  for  Jehu  was  a  king  before  he  putt  anie  thing  in  executioun. 
Farther,  the  fact  is  extraordinar,  and  ought  not  to  be  imitated." 
"My  lord,"  said  the  other,  "he  was  a  mere  subject,  and  no  king, 
when  the  prophet's  servant  came  unto  him  ;  yea,  albeit  his  fellow 
captans,  hearing  of  the  message,  blew  the  trumpet,  and  said,  '  Jehu 
is  king,'  yitt  I  doubt  not  but  Jesabell  both  thought  and  said  that 
he  was  a  traitour,  and  so  did  manie  moe  in  Israel  and  Samaria. 
As  tuiching  that  which  yee  alledge,  that  the  fact  was  extraordinar, 
and  not  to  be  imitated,  I  say  it  had  the  ground  of  God's  ordinarie 
judgement  and  command,  which  commandcth  idolaters  to  be  putt 
to  death.     Therefore,  I  yitt  affirme  that  it  is  imitable,  and  to  be 

270  calderwood's  histoeie  1564. 

followed  by  those  who  prefere  the  true  honour,  worship,  and  glorie 
of  God,  to  the  affectiouns  of  the  flesh  and  of  wicked  princes." 

"  We  are  not  bound  to  follow  extraordinarie  exemples,"  said  Le- 
thington,  "unlesse  we  have  like  commandement  and  assurance." 
"  I  grant,"  said  the  other,  "  if  the  exemple  repugne  to  the  law  ;  as 
if  an  avaritious  and  deceatfuU  man  would  borrow  gold,  silver,  ray- 
nient,  or  other  necessareis  from  his  nighbour,  and  withhold  the 
same,  alledging,  that  so  he  might  doe  without  oiFence,  becaus  the 
Israelits,  at  their  departure  out  of  Egypt,  did  so  to  the  Egyptians : 
the  exemple  serveth  him  to  no  purpose,  unlesse  he  could  alledge 
the  like  caus,  and  the  like  commandement,  becaus  their  fact  re- 
pugneth  to  this  commandement  of  God,  'Thou  sail  not  steale.' 
But  where  the  exemple  agreeth  with  the  law,  and  is,  as  it  were,  the 
executioun  of  God's  judgement  expressed  in  the  same,  I  say,  that 
the  exemple  approved  by  God  standeth  unto  us  in  place  of  a  com- 
mandement ;  for  as  God  in  his  nature  is  constant  and  immutable, 
so  can  he  not  damne  the  ages  subsequent  for  that  which  he  ap- 
proved before  in  his  servants.  But  in  his  servants  before  us  He, 
by  his  owne  commandement,  hath  approved  that  subjects  have  not 
onlie  destroyed  their  kings  for  idolatrie,  but  also  have  rooted  out  all 
their  posteritie,  so  that  none  of  their  race  was  left  after,  to  impyre 
above  the  people  of  God."  "  Whatsoever  they  did,"  said  Lething- 
ton,  "  was  done  at  God's  commandement."  ^'  That  fortifeith  my 
assertioun,"  said  the  other ;  "  for  God  by  his  commandement  hath 
approved  that  subjects  punishe  their  kings  for  idolatrie  and  wicked- 
nesse  committed  by  them."  "  We  have  not  the  like  commande- 
ment," said  Lethington.  "  That  I  denie,"  said  the  other ;  "  for  the 
commandement  that  the  idolater  sail  dee  the  death  is  perpetuall,  as 
yee  your  self  have  granted.  Yee  doubt  onlie  who  sould  be  the 
executers  against  the  king.  I  say  the  people  of  God  :  and  I  have 
sufficientlie  proven,  as  I  thinke,  that  God  hath  raised  up  the 
people,  and  by  his  prophet  anointed  a  king,  to  take  vengeance  upon 
the  king  and  his  posteritie  ;  which  fact,  since  that  time,  was  never 
retracted.  Therefore,  to  me  it  remaineth  for  a  constant  and  cleere 
commandement  to  all  people  professing  the  truthe,  and  having 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  271 

power  to  punishe  vice,  what  they  ought  to  doe  in  the  like  case.  If" 
the  people  had  interprised  anie  thing  against  God's  commande- 
ment,  we  might  have  doubted  whether  they  had  done  weill  or  cvill. 
But  scing  God  bringeth  the  executioun  of  his  hiAv  in  practise,  after 
it  was  come  in  oblivioun  and  contempt,  Avhat  reasonable  man  can 
doubt  now  of  God's  will,  unlesse  he  will  doubt  of  all  things  which 
Godrenewethnot  unto  us  by  miracles,  as  it  were,  from  age  to  age? 
But  I  am  assured  that  the  ansAvere  of  Abraham  to  the  riche  man, 
who,  being  in  hell,  desired  that  Lazarus,  or  some  other  from  the 
dead,  sould  be  sent  unto  his  brethrein  and  freinds,  to  forewarne 
them  of  his  incredible  paines  and  torments,  so  to  behave  themselves 
that  they  come  not  to  that  place  of  torment — the  answere,  I  say, 
givin  to  him,  sail  confound  all  suche  as  crave  farther  approbatioun 
of  God's  will  than  is  alreadie  expressed  within  his  holie  Sci'iptures. 
For  Abraham  said,  '  They  have  Moses  and  the  prophets  ;  whom,  if 
they  wiU  not  beleeve,  neither  will  they  beleeve  albeit  one  frome 
the  dead  sould  rise  againe.'  Even  so,  my  lord,  I  say,  that  suche 
as  will  not  be  taught  Avhat  they  ought  to  doe  by  the  commande- 
ment  of  God  once  givin,  and  once  putt  in  practise,  wiU  not  beleeve 
nor  obey  albeit  God  would  send  angels  from  heaven  to  instruct 

"  Yee  have  produced  but  one  exemple,"  said  Lethington.  "  One 
sufficeth,"  said  the  other.  "  Yitt  praised  be  God,  we  laike  not 
other;  for  the  Avhole  people  conspired  against  Amaziah,  king  of 
Judah,  after  that  he  had  turned  away  from  the  Lord ;  pursued  him 
to  Lachish,  and  slue  him,  and  tooke  Uzziah,  and  annointed  him 
king  instead  of  his  father.  The  people  had  not  altogether  forgot 
the  league  and  covenant  which  was  made  betwixt  their  kings  and 
them,  at  the  inauguration  of  Joash  his  father ;  to  witt,  that  the 
king  and  the  people  sould  be  the  people  of  the  Lord,  and  then 
sould  they  be  his  faithfull  subjects.  From  which  covenant,  when 
first  the  father,  and  after  the  sonne  declynned,  they  were  both  pu- 
nished to  death,  Joash  by  his  owne  servants,  and  Amaziah  by  the 
whole  people."  "  I  doubt,  said  Lethington,  "  whether  they  did 
Weill  or  not."     "  It  sail  be  free  to  you,"  said  the  other,  "  to  doubt 

272  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

as  yee  please.  But  when  I  find  executioun  according  to  God's  law, 
and  God  himself  not  to  accuse  the  doers,  I  darre  not  doubt  of  the 
equitie  of  their  caus.  Farther,  it  appeareth  to  me  that  God  gave 
sufficient  approbatioun  and  allowance  of  their  fact ;  for  he  blessed 
them  with  victorie,  peace,  and  prosperitie,  the  space  of  fiftie-two 
yeeres."  "  Prosperitie,"  said  Lethington,  "  doth  not  alwayes  prove 
that  God  approveth  the  facts  of  men."  "  Yes,"  said  the  other  : 
"  when  the  facts  of  men  agree  with  the  law  of  God,  and  are  re- 
warded by  God's  owne  promise  expressed  in  his  law,  I  say,  that 
prosperitie  succeeding  the  fact  is  a  most  infallible  assurance  that 
God  hath  approved  the  fact.  Now,  so  it  is,  that  God  hath  pro- 
mised in  his  law,  when  people  sail  exterminat  and  destroy  suche  as 
declyne  from  him,  that  he  will  blesse  and  midtiplie  them,  as  he 
promiseth  unto  their  fathers.  But  so  it  is,  that  Amaziah  turned 
from  God  ;  the  people  slue  him,  and  God  blessed  them.  Therefore, 
yitt  againe,  I  conclude,  that  God  approved  their  fact,  in  so  farre  as 
it  was  done  according  to  his  commandement,  and  blessed  them  ac- 
cording to  his  promise." 

"  Weill,"  said  Lethington,  "  I  thinke  not  the  ground  so  sicker, 
as  that  I  dm-st  build  my  conscience  therupon."  "  I  pray  God," 
said  the  other,  "  that  your  conscience  have  no  worse  ground  than 
this,  whensoever  yee  sail  beginne  a  worke  like  that  which  God,  in 
your  owne  eyes,  hath  alreadie  blessed.  Now,  my  lord,"  said  he, 
I  have  but  one  exemple  to  produce,  and  then  I  wiU  putt  an  end  to 
my  reasoning,  becaus  I  wearie  to  stand  longer."  He  was  biddin 
sitt  doun,  but  he  refused,  and  said,  "  Melancholious  reasouning 
would  have  some  mirth  intermixed.  My  last  exemple,  my  lord,  is 
this  : — Uzziah  the  king,  not  content  with  his  royall  estate,  mala- 
pertlie  tooke  upon  him  to  enter  within  the  temple  of  the  Lord,  to 
burne  incense  upon  the  altar  of  incense  ;  and  Azariah  the  preest 
went  in  after  him,  and  with  him  eightie  preests  of  the  Lord,  va- 
lient men.  They  withstood  Uzziah  the  king,  and  said  unto  him, 
'  It  apperteaneth  not  unto  Uzziah  to  burne  incense  unto  the  Lord ; 
but  to  the  preests,  the  sonnes  of  Aaron,  who  are  consecrated  to 
offer  incense.     Goe  furth  of  the  sanctuarie,  for  thou  hath  trans- 

1564.  OP  THE  KIUK  OF  SCOTLAND.  273 

gressed,  and  thou  sail  have  no  lionour  of  the  Lord.'  Hecrof,  my 
lords,  I  conclude,  that  subjects  not  onlie  may,  but  also  ought  to 
withstand  and  resist  their  princes,  whensoever  they  doe  anie  thing 
expresslie  repugnant  to  God's  law  or  ordinances." 

"These  who  withstood  the  king  were  not  simple  subjects,  but 
preests  of  the  Lord,  and  types  of  Christ :  suche  persons  have  we 
none  this  day,  to  withstand  kings  when  they  doe  wrong,"  said  Le- 
thington.  "  That  the  High  Freest  was  a  type  of  Christ,"  said  the 
other,  "  I  grant.  But  that  he  was  not  a  subject,  I  denie  ;  for  lam 
assured,  that  he,  in  his  preesthood,  had  no  prerogative  above  these 
that  passed  before  him.  Now,  so  it  is,  that  Aaron  was  subject 
to  Moses,  and  called  him  his  lord.  Samuel  being  both  preest  and 
prophet,  subjected  himself  to  Saul,  after  that  he  was  inaugurated 
by  the  people.  Zadock  bowed  before  David,  and  Abiather  was 
deposed  from  the  preesthood  by  Salomon.  All  these  confessed 
themselves  subject  to  their  kings,  albeit  they  ceased  not  to  be 
figures  of  Christ.  Where  as  yee  say  that  we  have  no  suche  preests 
this  day,  I  may  answere,  that  as  then  kings  were  anointed  at  God's 
commandement,  and  satt  upon  the  seate  of  David,  were  no  lesse 
figures  of  Christ  Jesus  in  their  just  ministratioun,  than  were  the 
preests  in  their  office.  Suche  kings,  I  am  assured,  we  have  not 
now,  more  than  we  have  suche  preests ;  for  Christ  Jesus  being 
anointed  in  om*  nature  by  God  his  Father,  king,  preest,  and  pro- 
phet, hath  putt  an  end  to  all  suche  externall  things.  Yitt  I  thinke 
yee  will  not  say,  that  God  hath  more  diminished  the  graces  of  these 
whome  he  appointeth  ambassaders  betwixt  lum  and  his  people, 
than  he  doth  of  kings  and  princes.  Therefore,  why  the  servants  of 
Jesus  Christ  may  not  als  justlie  withstand  this  day  Idngs  and  princes 
offending  God's  Majestic  no  lesse  than  Uzziah  did,  I  see  not,  un- 
lesse  yee  will  say,  that  we  in  the  brightnesse  of  the  Evangell  are 
not  so  straitlie  bound  to  rcgarde  God's  glorie,  nor  yitt  his  com- 
mandement, as  were  the  fathers,  who  lived  under  the  darke  shadows 
of  the  law." 

"  Weill,"  said  Lethington,  "I  will  dippe  no  farther  in  that  Iieed. 
But  how  resisted  the  preests  the  king  ?  They  onlie  spake  to  him, 
VOL.   u.  s 

271  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

without  farther  violence  intended."  "  That  they  withstood  him," 
said  the  other,  "  the  text  assureth  me ;  but  that  they  did  nothing 
but  speeke,  I  cannot  understand ;  for  the  text  affirmeth  plainlie  the 
contrare,  to  witt,  that  they  caused  him  hastilie  to  depart  out  of  the 
sanctuarie ;  yea,  that  he  Avas  compelled  to  depart.  Which  maner  of 
speeche,  I  am  assured,  in  the  Hebrew  tongue  importeth  more  than 
exhortatioun,  or  commanding  by  word."  "  They  did  that,"  said 
Lethington,  "  after  he  was  espied  to  be  leprous."  "  They  with- 
stood him  before,"  said  the  other.  "  But  yitt  their  last  fact  con- 
firmeth  my  propositioun ;  for  my  assertioun  is  this,  that  kings  have 
no  more  priviledge  than  the  people  to  offend  God's  Majestic :  and 
if  they  so  doe,  that  they  are  no  more  exempted  from  the  punishe- 
ment  of  the  law  than  anie  other  subject ;  yea,  and  that  subjects 
may  not  onlie  lawfuUie  oppone  themselves  to  their  kings,  whenso- 
ever they  doe  anie  thing  expresshe  repugning  to  God's  comman de- 
ment, but  also  that  they  may  execute  judgement  upon  them,  ac- 
cording to  God's  law.  So  that,  if  the  king  be  a  murtherer,  adul- 
terer, or  idolater,  he  sould  suffer  according  to  God's  law,  not  as  a 
king,  but  as  an  offender.  That  the  people  may  putt  God's  law  in 
executioun,  this  historie  proveth ;  for  how  soone  the  leprosie  was 
espied  in  his  forehead,  he  was  not  onlie  compelled  to  depart  out  of 
the  sanctuarie,  but  was  also  removed  frome  all  publict  societie,  and 
administratioun  of  the  kingdome  ;  and  compelled  to  dweU  in  a  hous 
apart,  even  as  the  law  commanded,  and  gott  no  farther  prerogative 
in  that  case  than  anie  other  of  the  people  sould  have  done.  This 
was  executed  in  part  by  the  people ;  for,  no  doubt,  there  were 
more  witnesses  of  his  leprosie  than  the  pixests.  We  find  none  op- 
pone themselves  to  the  sentence  of  God,  pronounced  in  his  law 
against  the  leprous.  Therefore,  yitt  againe  say  I,  that  the  people 
ought  to  execute  God's  law,  even  upon  their  princes,  when  their 
knowne  crimes  by  God's  law  deserve  death,  speciallie  suche  as 
may  infect  the  rest  of  the  multitude.  Now,  my  lord,  I  will  rea- 
soun  no  longer,  for  I  have  spokin  more  than  I  intended." 

"  Yitt,"  said  Lethington,  "  I  cannot  tell  what  may  be  concluded." 
"  Albeit  yee  cannot,"  said  the  other,  "  yitt  I  am  assured  of  that 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  275 

which  I  have  provin,  to  witt,  that  subjects  have  delivered  an  inno- 
cent out  of  the  hands  of  the  king,  and  therin  have  not  offended 
God :  that  subjects  have  refused  to  strike  innocents  when  a  king 
commanded,  and,  so  doing,  denyed  no  just  obedience  :  that  suche 
as  stroke  at  the  commandement  of  the  king  were  reputed  as  mur- 
therers :  that  God  not  onHe  hatli  of  a  subject  made  a  king,  but  also 
hath  armed  the  subjects  against  their  naturall  kings,  and  com- 
manded them  to  execute  vengeance  upon  them,  according  to  the 
law.  And  last,  that  God's  people  have  executed  God's  law  against 
their  king,  having  no  farther  regarde  to  him  in  that  behalfe  than  if 
he  had  beene  the  most  simple  subject  within  the  realme.  There- 
fore, albeit  that  yee  vnll  not  understand  what  sould  be  concluded, 
yitt  I  am  assured  that  God's  people  not  onlie  may,  but  also  are 
bound  to  doe  the  same,  where  the  like  crimes  are  committed,  and 
where  he  giveth  them  the  like  power."  "  Weill,"  said  Lethington, 
"  I  thinke  yee  sail  not  find  manie  learned  men  of  your  opinioun." 
"  My  lord,"  said  the  other,  "  the  truthe  ceasseth  not  to  be  the 
truthe,  howsoever  it  be  that  men  either  misknow  or  withstand  it : 
yitt,"  said  he,  "  I  laike  not  the  counsell  of  God's  servants  in  that 
heed."  And  with  that  he  presented  to  the  secretar  the  Apologie 
of  Magdeburg,  and  willed  him  to  read  the  names  of  the  ministers 
who  had  subscrived,  wherin  the  defence  of  the  toun  was  justifeid  as 
most  lawfull :  and  therwith  added,  that  to  resist  a  tyranne  is  not  to 
resist  God  his  ordinance.  When  Lethington  had  viewed  the  Apo- 
logie, he  scripped  and  said,  "  Homines  obscuri ;"  the  other  answered, 
"  Dei  tamen  serviT 

So  Lethington  ai'ose  and  said,  "  My  lords,  yee  have  heard  the 
reasouns  upon  both  the  parts  :  it  becometh  you  noAv  to  decide,  and 
to  put  an  order  to  preachers,  that  they  may  be  uniforaie  in  doc- 
trine. May  we,  thinke  yee,  take  the  queen's  masse  from  her  ?" 
Whill  as  some  beganne  to  give  their  votes,  (for  some  Avere  ap- 
pointed to  be  leaders  to  the  rest,)  Mr  Knox  said,  "  My  lords,  I 
suppose  that  your  lordships  will  not  doe  contrare  to  your  promise 
made  to  the  whole  Assemblie,  which  was,  that  nothing  sould  be 
voted  in  secreit  till  first  that  all  maters  be  debated  in  publick  ;   and 

276  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

that  then  the  votes  of  the  Asseinblie  soulcl  put  an  end  to  the  con- 
troversie.  I  have  rather  showin  my  conscience  in  simple  maner, 
than  insisted  upon  the  force  of  anie  argument.  Therefore  I,  for  my 
part,  utterlie  disassent  from  all  voting,  till  that  the  whole  Assemblie 
have  heard  the  questioun  and  reasouns  on  both  parteis ;  for  I  un- 
fainedlie  acknowledge,  that  manie  in  that  companie  are  more 
able  to  susteane  that  assertioun  than  I  am."  "  Thinke  yee  it 
reasounable,"  said  Lethington,  "  that  suche  a  multitude  as  is  now 
conveened  sould  reasoun  and  vote  upon  these  heeds  and  maters, 
which  concerne  the  queen's  Majestie's  owne  persoun  and  effaires  ?" 
"  I  think,"  said  the  other,  "  that  whatsoever  sould  bind  the  multi- 
tude the  multitude  sould  heare,  unlesse  they  have  resigned  their 
power  to  their  commissioners,  which  they  have  not  done,  so  farre  as 
I  understand ;  for  my  Lord  Justice-Clerk  heard  them  with  one  voice 
say,  that  in  no  wise  would  they  consent  that  anie  thing  sould  be 
voted  or  concluded  heere."  "  I  cannot  tell,"  said  Lethington,  "  if 
the  lords  heere  present,  and  that  beare  the  burthein  of  these  ma- 
ters, sould  be  bound  to  their  wiU.  What  say  yee,  my  lords  ?  Will 
yee  vote  in  this  mater  or  not  ?"  After  long  reasouning,  some  made 
for  the  purpose,  said,  "  Why  may  not  the  lords  vote,  and  then  show 
to  the  Assemblie  whatsoever  is  done  ?"  "  That  appeareth  to  me," 
said  Mr  Knox,  "  not  onlie  a  backward  order,  but  also  a  tyrannicall 
usurpation  over  the  Assemblie.  But  as  for  me,  doe  as  yee  please," 
said  he,  "  for  as  I  reasoun,  so  I  vote ;  yitt  protesting  as  before,  that 
I  disassent  from  all  voting,  till  the  whole  Assemblie  understand 
what  the  questioun  and  reasouns  are."  "  Weill,"  said  Letliington, 
"  that  cannot  be  done  now,  for  the  time  is  spent.  Therefore,  my 
Lord  Chanceller,"  said  he,  "  aske  the  votes  at  one  of  the  ministers, 
and  at  one  of  us  by  course."  So  the  Rector  of  Sanct  Andrewes 
was  first  demanded.  He  said,  "  I  refere  it  to  the  Superintendent 
of  Fife ;  for  I  thinke  we  are  both  of  one  judgement.  Yitt,"  said  he, 
"  if  yee  will  that  I  first  declare  what  in  conscience  I  judge,  I  thinke, 
that  if  the  queene  oppone  herself  to  om"  religioun,  which  is  the  onlie 
true  religioun,  that  in  that  case  the  nobihtic  and  states  of  the 
realme  professing  the  same  may  justlie  oppone  themselves  to  her. 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  277 

As  concerning  her  masse,  I  know  it  is  idolatrie ;  yitt  I  am  not  re- 
solved, whether  that  by  violence  we  may  take  it  from  her  or  not." 
The  Superintendent  of  Fife,  and  others  of  the  nobilitie,  affirmed  the 
same.  Others  voted  franklie,  that  as  the  masse  is  abominable  idol- 
atrie, so  ought  it  to  be  repressed ;  and  that,  in  so  doing,  men  did 
no  more  wrong  to  the  queen's  Majestic  than  these  who  sould  by 
force  tak  from  her  a  poysoned  cuppe,  when  she  was  going  to  diinkc 

At  last,  Mr  Johne  Craig,  fellow  minister  with  Mr  Knox,  was  re- 
quired to  give  his  vote,  who  said,  "  I  will  gladelie  show  unto  your 
honours  what  I  thinke.  But  I  greathe  doubt  whether  that  my 
knowledge  and  conscience  sail  satisfie  you,  seing  yee  have  heard  al- 
readie  so  manie  reasouns,  and  are  so  little  moved  with  them.  Yitt 
I  sail  not  conceale  my  judgment,  adhering  to  my  brother  his  pro- 
testatioun,  to  witt,  that  our  voting  prejudge  not  the  libertie  of  the 
Generall  Assembhe.  I  was,"  said  he,  "  in  the  Universitie  of  Bo- 
nonia,  in  the  yeere  of  our  Lord  1553,  where,  in  the  place  of  the 
Blacke  Friers  of  the  same  toun,  I  saw  this  conclusioun  following 
sett  furth  in  time  of  their  Generall  Assembhe,  reasouned  and  de- 
termined :  *  Principes  omnes  tarn  supremi,  quam  wferiores,  possunt, 
et  debent  reformari  vel  deponi,  per  eos  per  quos  eliguntur,  confirman- 
tur,  vel  admittuntur  ad  officium,  quoties  a  fide  prastita  subditis  per 
juramentum  deficiunt.  Quoniam  relatio  juramenti  subditorum  et  prin- 
cipum  mutua  est,  ut  utrinque  cBquojure  servanda  et  reformanda,  juxta 
legem  et  conditionem  juramenti  ab  utraque  parte  factV  That  is,  '  All 
rulers,  be  they  supreme  or  be  they  inferiom*,  may  and  ought  to  be 
reformed  or  deposed  by  these  by  whom  they  are  chosin,  confirmed, 
or  admitted  to  their  office,  als  oft  as  they  breake  their  promise 
made  by  oath  to  their  subjects ;  becaus  the  prince  is  no  Icsse  bound 
to  subjects,  than  subjects  are  to  princes.  And  therefore  ought  it 
to  be  keeped  and  reformed,  equallie  according  to  the  law  and  con- 
dition of  the  oath,  which  is  made  of  either  partie.'  This  proposi- 
tioun,  my  lords,  I  heard  susteaned  and  concluded,  as  I  have  said, 
in  a  most  notable  auditorie.  The  susteaner  was  a  learned  man, 
Thomas  de  Smola,  Rector  of  the  Universitie,  a  famous  man  in  that 

278  CALDERWOOlVs  lIISTt)IME  1564. 

countrie.  Vincentius  de  Placentia  affirmed  the  assertioun  to  be 
most  true  and  certane,  agreeable  both  with  the  law  of  God  and 
man.  The  occasioun  of  the  disputatioun  was  a  certane  disorder 
and  tyrannie  attempted  by  the  Pop's  govemom's,  who  beganne  to 
make  innovatiouns  in  the  countrie  against  the  lawes  formerlie  esta- 
blished, alledging  themselves  not  to  be  subject  to  suche  lawes,  by 
reasoun  they  were  not  constituted  by  the  people,  but  by  the  Pope, 
who  Avas  king  of  that  countrie  ;  and,  therefore,  that  having  ftdl  com- 
missioun  and  authoritie  frome  the  Pope,  they  might  alter  and 
change  statuts  and  ordinances  of  the  countrie,  without  all  consent 
of  the  people.  Against  this  their  usurped  tyrannie,  the  learned 
among  the  people  opponned  themselves  openlie.  When  all  the  rea- 
souns  which  the  Pop's  governours  did  alledge  were  heard  and  con- 
futed, the  Pope  himself  was  faine  to  take  up  the  controversie,  and 
to  promise  that  he  not  onhe  sould  keepe  the  libertie  of  the  people, 
but  also  that  he  sould  neither  abrogat  anie  law  or  statute,  nor  mak 
anie  ncAV  law  without  their  owne  consent.  Therefore,"  said  Mr 
Craig,  "  my  vote  and  judgement  is,  that  princes  are  not  onlie  bound 
to  keepe  lawes  and  promises  to  their  subjects,  but  also,  that  if  they 
faile  they  may  be  justlie  deposed  ;  for  the  band  betwixt  the  prince 
and  the  people  is  reciprock." 

Then  start  up  a  claw-backe  of  the  corrupt  court  and  said,  "  Yee 
know  not  Avhat  yee  say,  for  yee  tell  us  what  was  done  in  Bononia. 
Wee  are  in  a  kingdome,  they  are  in  a  commoun  wealth."  "  My 
lord,"  said  he,  "  everie  kingdome  is  a  commoun  wealth,  or  at  least 
sould  be,  albeit  everie  commoun  wealth  is  not  a  kingdome.  There- 
fore, I  thinke,  that  in  a  kingdome,  no  lesse  diligence  ought  to  be 
used,  that  lawes  be  not  violated,  than  in  a  commoun  Avealth ;  be- 
caus  the  tyrannie  of  princes  who  rule  in  a  kingdome  is  more  hurt- 
fidl  to  the  subjects  than  the  misgovernement  of  these  who,  from 
ycere  to  ycere,  are  changed,  in  free  commoun  wealths.  To  assure 
your  lordships  yitt  farther,  that  heed  was  disputed  to  the  uttermost. 
In  end,  it  was  concluded  and  interpreted,  that  they  spake  not  of 
suclie  things  as  were  done  in  diverse  kingdoms  and  natiouns,  by 
tyrannic  and  negligence  of  the  pcoi)lc,  '  but  we  conclude,'  say  they, 

1564.  OF  TUE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  271) 

'  what  ought  to  be  done  in  all  kingdoms  and  comnioiiu  wealths,  ac- 
cording to  the  law  of  God,  and  just  laAves  of  men.  And  if,  through 
the  negligence  of  the  people,  or  by  tyrannic  of  princes,  contrarie 
lawes  have  beene  made,  yitt  may  that  same  people,  or  theu*  posteritie, 
justlie  crave  all  things  to  be  reformed,  according  to  the  originall 
institutioun  of  kingdoms  and  commoun  wealths  :  and  suche  as  will 
not  doe  so  deserve  to  eate  the  fruict  of  their  owne  foolishnesse.' " 

Mr  James  Makgill,  then  Clerk-Register,  perceaving  the  votes  to 
be  different,  and  the  plainnesse  and  libertie  of  Mr  Craig,  said,  "  1 
remember  this  questioun  was  long  debated  before  this  time  in  my 
hous ;  and  there,  by  reasoun  we  were  not  all  of  one  minde,  it  was 
concluded,  that  Mr  Knox  sould  write  in  all  our  names  to  Mr  Cal- 
vine,  to  require  his  judgement  in  this  controversie."  "  Nay,"  said 
Mr  Knox,  "  my  lord  secretare  he  would  not  consent,  alledging 
that  the  answere  would  depend  muche  upon  the  narrative  ;  and 
therefore  promised  that  he  would  write,  and  that  I  sould  see  it. 
But  when  diverse  times  I  required  him  to  remember  his  promises, 
I  found  nothing  but  delay."  "  True  it  is,"  said  Lethington,  "  I 
promised  to  write,  and  that  Mr  Knox  required  me  diverse  times  so 
to  doe.  But  when  I  had  deepelie  advised  and  considered  the  weight 
of  that  mater,  I  beganne  to  find  moe  doubts  than  I  did  before,  and 
among  the  rest  this  : — How  durst  I,  being  a  subject,  and  the  queen's 
Majestie's  secretare,  take  upon  me  to  seeke  resolution  of  controver- 
seis,  depending  betwixt  her  Highnesse  and  her  subjects,  without 
her  owne  knowledge  and  consent  ?"  Then  was  there  an  acclama- 
tioun  of  the  claw-backes  of  the  com't,  as  if  Apollo  had  givin  his  re- 
sponse. "  Weill,"  said  Mr  Knox,  "  let  Avorldlie  men  praise  world- 
lie  wisdome  als  muche  as  they  please  :  I  am  assured  that  by  suche 
shifts  idolatrie  is  mainteaned,  Christ  his  truthe  is  betrayed,  for  the 
which,  God  one  day  will  be  avenged."  At  this  and  the  like  sharp- 
nesse,  manic  offended,  the  voting  ceassed,  and  everie  factioun  spake 
as  affectioun  moved  them.  In  end,  Mr  Knox  was  againe  desired 
to  write  to  Mr  Calvine,  and  to  the  learned  in  other  kirks,  to  know 
their  judgement  in  that  questioun.  lEc  refused  with  this  reasoun  : 
— "  I  am  not  onlie  fullie  resolved  in  conscience  myself,  but  also  I 

280  calderwood's  historie  1564. 

have  had  the  judgements  in  this  and  all  other  things  which  I  have 
mainteaned  within  this  realme,  of  the  most  godlie  and  learned  that 
be  knowne  to  be  in  Europe.  I  came  not  to  this  realme  without 
their  resolution  ;  and  for  my  better  assurance  I  have  the  hand- 
writt  of  manie.  If  I  sould  move  the  same  questioun  againe,  what 
sould  I  doe,  but  either  shew  my  owne  ignorance  or  forgetfulnesse  ? 
And,  therefore,  it  may  please  you  to  pardoun  me,  albeit  I  doe  write 
not.  But  I  will  shew  you  a  surer  way  :  write,  and  compleane  upon 
me,  that  I  have  taught  and  mainteaned  constantlie  suche  doctrine 
as  offendeth  you  ;  so  sail  yee  know  their  mindes  plainlie,  whether 
they  and  I  agree  in  judgement  or  not."  Divers  said  the  offer  was 
good ;  but  no  man  was  found  to  take  it  in  hand.  So  that  meeting 
brake  up.  After  this  time,  the  ministers  who  were  called  precise 
were  holdin  by  the  courteours  as  monsters.  All  this  time,  the  Erie 
of  Mvu'rey  was  so  frem'  to  Mr  Knox,  that  nather  by  word  nor  by 
writt  was  there  anie  communicatioun  betwixt  them.  Mr  Knox 
endeth  this  Fourth  Booke  of  his  Historie  with  this  conference. 


It  was  thought  good  in  this  Assemblie,  and  conforme  to  the  acts 
made  before  the  queen's  Majestic  her  arrivall,  and  approved  since 
her  arrivall,  that  Clu'ist's  true  rcHgioun  be  de  novo  estabhshed,  ra- 
tifeid,  and  approved  throughout  the  whole  realme ;  and  that  aU  idol- 
atrie,  speciallie  masse,  be  abolished  everie  where,  so  that  no  other 
face  of  religioun  be  suffered  to  be  erected  within  this  realme.  And 
for  this  effect,  that  the  ministrie  be  sufEcientlie  provided  with  main- 
tenance, and  siu'c  appointment,  where  they  sail  take  up  their  sti- 
pends. In  like  maner,  to  desire  that  the  transgressors  of  the  saids 
lawes  be  punished,  speciallie  in  Aberdeen,  the  Karse  of  Gowrie, 
Seyfeild,  and  other  places  which  sail  be  specifeid.  The  Lairds  of 
Lundie,  Abbotshall,  Spott,  Elphinston,  Wedderburne,  Fadownside, 
Carnall,  Kersc,  Kelwod,  Craig,  Gairleis,  Mr  George  Gordoun,  and 

'  Foreign,  strange. 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  281 

the  Proveist  of  Dundie,  were  appointed  to  present  these  artieles  to 
the  Lords  of  Secreit  Counsell.  The  Erles  of  Murrey,  Argile,  Glen- 
came,  and  the  Seeretare,  being  present,  and  sent  by  the  queenc,  to 
observe  what  things  were  propouned  in  the  Assemblie,  thought 
not  good  the  articles  sould  be  propouned  after  that  maner,  but  drew 
out  two  heeds.  First,  They  would  declare  the  good  minde  and 
obedience  of  the  Assemblie.  Nixt,  They  would  labour  at  her  Grace's 
hands  for  establishing  religioun,  according  to  the  order  established 
before  her  arrivall.  They  promised  also  to  deal  with  her  for  sett 
stipends.  Letliington  returned  a  gracious  answere  to  these  heeds. 
It  was  appointed  that  a  requeist  sould  be  presented  to  the  queene, 
for  obteaning  the  gift  of  the  friers'  kirk  of  Kirkudbright,  to  be 
holdin  heerafter  the  parish  kirk  of  Kirkudbright. 


It  was  concluded,  that  no  minister  placed  in  anie  congregatioun 
sail  leave  the  same,  and  passe  to  another,  without  knowledge  of  the 
flocke,  the  superintendent,  or  whole  Assemblie  ;  and  that  the  caus 
be  considered  by  the  superintendent  or  the  Assemblie,  whether  it  be 
lawfuU  or  not.  Mr  Patrik  Constane  craving  licence  to  passe  to 
other  countreis  for  a  time,  to  acquire  increasse  of  knowledge,  was 
inhibited  to  leave  his  congregatioun  without  licence  of  the  Assem- 


In  the  fyft  sessioun  it  was  concluded,  that  the  Superintendents 
of  Angus,  Lothiane,  Fife,  and  the  West ;  Mrs  Johne  Row,  George 
tlay,  Robert  Pont,  Christopher  Gudman,  Johne  Knox,  Johne 
Craig,  George  Buchanan,  Johne  Rutherforde,  Thomas  Drummond, 
Robert  Ilammiltoun,  Clement  Littell,  the  Lairds  of  Lundie,  El- 
phinston,  Carnall,  Kerse,  Abbotshall,  conveene  the  day  following, 
after  scrmoun,  to  conferre  anent  the  causes  appertcaning  to  the 

282  calderwood's  iiisTORiE  1564. 

jurisdictioun  of  the  kirk,  and  to  report  their  judgements  to  the  nixt 


The  labourers  of  the  ground  compleaned  of  the  rigourous  exac- 
tioun  of  the  tithes.  The  Erie  of  Murrey,  Johne  Maxwell  of  Tarr- 
gles,  Knight,  the  Erie  of  Menteith,  the  Lords  Lindsay  and  Uchil- 
tree,  the  Secretare,  the  Lairds  of  Kerse  and  Letham,  Alexander 
Bishop  of  Galloway,  and  the  gentlemen  of  the  west,  promised  to  be 
content  of  money  or  victuall,  as  indifferent  men  sould  modifie. 

Commissioun  givin  in  the  preceding  Assemblie  to  visite  the  lios- 
pitall  of  Glasgow,  was  takin  a  compt  of.  Commission  is  givin  to 
trie  the  expediencie  of  the  removall  of  a  minister  from  one  place  to 
another.  A  soliciter  is  chosin  for  the  actions  of  the  ku'k,  to  be 
pleaded  before  the  Lords  of  Counsell  and  Sessioun.  Ministers  are 
censured,  or  commissioun  givin  to  censure  them.  Commissioners 
of  provinces  continued  for  a  yeere,  or  appointed  of  new.  Mr  Knox 
is  appointed  to  visite  the  kirks  of  the  north,  and  to  remaine  there 
six  or  seven  weekes,  becaus  the  north  parts  were  destitute  of  super- 
intendents and  commissioners. 


The  Generall  Assemblie  conveened  at  Edinbm-gh,  the  25th  of 
December,  in  the  upper  tolbuith.  Mr  Knox  made  the  exhorta- 
tioun.  Johne  Areskine  of  Dun,  Superintendent  of  Angus,  was 
chosin  Moderator. 


In  the  triell  of  superintendents  and  commissioners,  it  was  de- 
manded by  some  brethrein,  Avhether  the  Commissioners  of  Gallo- 
Avay  and  Orkney  might  both  duelic  exerce  the  office  of  a  Super- 
intendent and  office  of  a  Lord  of  the  Colledore  of  Justice.     It  was 

1564.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTL.VND.  283 

ordeaned,  that  no  questioun  sould  be  propouned  till  the  eff'aires  of 
the  Asscmblie  were  ended ;  and  that  then  it  be  presented  in  writt. 
And  if,  for  shortnesse  of  time,  it  could  not  be  decided  before  the 
end  of  the  Assemblie,  that  the  decisioiin  be  referred  to  the  super- 
intendent of  the  bounds  where  the  questioun  ariseth,  and  a  certanc 
number  of  ministers  witliin  his  bounds,  as  he  sail  choose  to  assist 
him  ;  and  that  their  reasons  be  reported  in  writt  to  the  nixt  As- 


The  articles  follo>ving  were  ordeaned  to  be  presented  to  the 
Lords  of  Secreit  Counsell,  that  they  may  crave  answere  from  the 
queen's  Majestic.  First,  The  Asscmblie  humblie  required  their 
honours  to  signifie  to  the  queen's  Majestic,  that  the  transgresscrs 
of  the  edicts  published* against  hearers  and  sayers  of  masse,  and 
abusers  of  the  sacraments,  are  become  so  manie,  that  it  may  be 
greatlie  feared  that  judgements  sail  suddanlic  follow,  except  re- 
meed  be  provided  in  due  time.  Secundlie,  To  require  payment  to 
ministers  of  their  stipends  for  the  times  bypast,  according  to  the 
promise  made  ;  and  to  lett  the  Asscmblie  know  how  the  ministers 
sail  be  susteaned  in  times  to  come.  Thridlie,  To  require  superin- 
tendents to  be  placed  where  none  are  as  yitt  placed,  to  witt,  in  the 
Merce,  Tiviotdaill,  Forrest,  Tweddaill,  and  the  rest  of  the  dailes  in 
the  south  ;  Aberdeen,  and  other  parts  in  the  north.  Fourthlie, 
To  require  suche  to  be  punished  as  have  shoot  the  doores  of  parish 
kirks,  and  would  not  open  the  same  to  preachers  presenting  them- 
selves to  preache  the  Word ;  as  at  Paisley,  Aberdeene,  Tirray, 
Dupline,  and  Aberdegie,  &c.  Fyftlie,  To  requii'C  of  the  queen's 
Majestic  what  the  Asscmblie  sould  looke  for,  tuiching  provisioun 
of  benefices  vacant  and  to  vaike,  &c.  Sixtlie,  By  what  meanes  the 
ministers  sail  come  to  the  possessioun  of  their  manses  and  gleebes, 
whether  they  be  sett  in  few  or  not.  Lastlio,  That  the  Act  tuich- 
ing roparatioun  of  kirk.s  might  l)e  i)utt  in  executioiai. 

284  calderwood's  historie  1564. 


It  was  ordeaned,  that  everie  minister,  exliorter,  and  reader,  sail 
have  one  of  the  Psalmes  bookes  latelie  printed  in  Edinburgh,  and 
use  the  order  conteaned  therin,  in  prayers,  mariage,  and  ministra- 
tion of  the  sacraments. 

2d,  Item,  That  no  minister  sail  admitt  to  publict  repentance  per- 
sons relapsed  the  thrid  time  in  fofnicatioun,  drunkennesse,  or  the 
like  crime ;  but  that  he  send  them  to  the  superintendent  of  the 
diocie  where  the  crime  is  committed,  and  that  they  cause  the  of- 
fender satisfie  the  Kirk  for  the  offence  committed,  als  manie  dayes, 
and  in  that  forme  that  the  superintendent  sail  thinke  good. 


Persons  nominated  for  electioun  to  th5  Superintendentship  of 
Aberdeen,  in  December  1562,  were  again  putt  in  leits,  that  edicts 
might  be  served,  and  the  person  chosin  might  be  inaugurated.  Su- 
perintendents were  appointed  to  try  ministers,  exhorters,  readers ; 
suspend  for  a  time,  or  depose  for  anie  crime,  ignorance,  or  other  in- 
sufficiencie,  in  the  bounds  of  other  superintendents,  as  was  alloted 
to  them  by  the  AssembHe.  Mr  Knox  was  appointed  to  visite  the 
ku'ks  of  Fife,  Stratherne,  GoAvrie,  and  Menteith.  It  was  ordeaned 
that  these  visiters  report  their  diligence  to  the  nixt  Assemblie  in 


The  Assemblie  was  content  to  receave  Paul  Methven  to  publict 
repentance,  providing  he  presented  himself  personallie,  and  obeyed 
the  forme  which  soidd  be  injoyned  to  him ;  but  would  not  delete 
the  processe  led  against  him  out  of  their  bookes,  nor  admitt  him  to 
the  ministrie  Avithin  this  rcalmc,  till  his  former  offence  were  buried 
in  oblivioun,  and  some  particiUar  congregatioun  requested  for  him. 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  285 

The  Assemblie  willed  the  presenters  of  the  supplicatioun  to  signifie 
unto  him,  that  they  were  greevouslie  offended  that  he,  being  ex- 
communicated and  unreconciled,  had  entered  in  the  ministrie  with- 
in England. 


Henrle  Lord  Darly,  sonne  to  the  Erie  of  Lennox,  came  to  Scot- 
land about  the  middest  of  Februarie,  having  obteaned  licence  for 
three  moneth  from  Queen  Elizabeth.  Muche  talke  there  was  of 
the  apparaunt  matche  betwixt  the  queene  and  him.  The  nobilitie 
repyned  not,  providing  Queene  Elizabeth  consented.  Queene 
Ehzabeth  did  not  so  muche  repyne  at  the  matche,  as  provide  that 
the  cai'iage  of  the  bussinesse  might  seeme  cheefelie  to  depend 
upon  her. 


David  Eizio,  commounlie  called  among  us  Seigneur  Davie,  not 
being  interteancd  in  the  Duke  of  Savoye's  court  as  he  wished, 
came  with  the  Duke  of  Savoye's  ambassader,  Moret,  to  Scotland, 
who  left  him  heere  at  cornet,  having  no  need  of  his  service.  He 
had  some  skill  in  musick.  His  father  was  an  instnicter  of  schollers 
in  that  art.  He  purchased  favour  among  the  musicians  and  fidlers, 
the  most  part  wherof  were  Frenchcmen.  He  insinuated  himself  so 
in  the  queen's  favour,  that  he  not  onlie  overtopped  all  the  rest  of 
his  fellowes  in  credite,  but  also  was  preferred  to  be  her  secretar  in 
forraine  effaii'es ;  and  upon  that  occasioun  was  oft  tymes  in  secrcit 
with  the  queene.  Sindrie  of  the  nobles  attended  upon  him,  and 
convoyed  him  to  and  fro.  The  Erie  of  Murrey  signifcid  by  his 
verie  countenance,  that  he  disdained  him,  wherat  not  onlie  the 
seigneur,  but  also  the  queene  herself,  was  offended."     To  strcntlien 

'  The  behaviour  of  other  Scotish  noblemen  towards  the  Italian  upstart  was  still 

286  calderwood's  historie  1565. 

himself  against  these  who  hated  him,  he  insinuated  himself  in  the 
favom's  of  Lord  Darly  so  farre,  that  they  would  ly  some  times  in 
one  bed  together.  He  assm'eth  him,  that  by  his  procurement  the 
queene  had  fastenned  her  eyes  upon  him.  He  did  what  he  could 
to  sow  dissensioun  betwixt  Lord  Darly  and  the  Erie  of  Murrey. 
The  erle  perceaving  how  matters  went,  and  that  his  admonitions 
Avere  not  regarded,  left  the  court.  The  queene  was  weill  content ; 
for  she  intended  now  to  strenthen  herself  by  a  factioim  of  the  no- 
bilitie,  that  she  might  accomplishe  her  designes.  For  this  cans, 
the  Erie  Bothwell  was  called  home  out  of  France,  Sutherland  out 
of  Flanders,  George  Erie  of  Huntlie  restored. 


The  Erie  Bothwell  had  conspired  against  the  Erie  of  Muitcj^ 
He  is  accused  by  the  erle.  When  the  queene  could  not  disswade 
him  from  pursuing,  she  terrifeid  sindi'ie  noblemen,  by  her  letters, 
from  keeping  the  day  of  law  ;  yitt  Bothwell,  conscious  of  his  owne 
guiltinesse,  durst  not  abide  the  triell.  The  favour  caried  by  the 
people  to  the  Erie  of  Murrey  was  a  mater  of  great  displeasure  to 
the  queene.  His  death  was  contrived  after  this  rnaner.  He  w^as 
to  be  called  for  to  Sanct  Johnstoun,  where  the  queene  was  resident 
for  the  time.  Lord  Darly  soidd  enter  in  conference  "with  him,  and 
a  little  after,  as  offended  vnih  liis  free  speeches,  sould  fall  in  chyd- 
ing  with  him.  Then  soidd  Seigneur  Davie  give  him  the  first  stob, 
and  others  follow,  till  he  were  dispatched.  The  erle,  advertised  by 
some  freinds  at  court,  holdeth  on  notwithstanding  in  his  journey, 
till  Patrik  Lord  Lindsay  disswaded  him.  Then  he  turned  off  the 
way  to  Lochlevin,  and  fained  as  if  he  had  beene  sicke.  Becaus 
some  freinds  came  to  visite  him,  the  bruite  was  spread  incontinent, 
that  he  stayed  there  to  intercept  the  queene  and  Lord  Darly,  when 

more  unequivocal. — "  Some  of  the  nobilitie  (says  Melvil)  would  frown  upon  him  ; 
others  would  shoulder  and  shoot  him  by,  when  they  entered  the  queen's  chamber, 
and  found  him  alwayes  speaking  with  her." — Sir  James  Melvil's  Mernoirs,  yi.  107. 
Ldiu.  1735. 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  287 

they  were  to  returne  to  Edinburgh,  The  feilds  are  searched.  IIow- 
l)eit  there  was  no  appearance  of  anie  suchc  thing,  the  qucene  came 
to  Edinburgh  in  all  haste,  as  if  there  had  beene  some  imminent 
and  certane  danger. 


The  Generall  Assemblie  conveened  at  Edinburgh  in  the  neather 
tolbuith,  the  25th  day  of  June,  where  exhortation  being  made  by 
the  Superintendent  of  the  West,  he  was  chosin  Moderator. 


The  nobllitie  who  were  present  were  requeisted  to  be  humble 
suters  to  her  Higlmess,  for  execution  of  the  Acts  latelie  made 
against  the  violaters  of  the  Sabbath,  committers  of  adulterie  and 
fornicatioun.  Everie  superintendent  was  desired  to  sute  for  com- 
missiouns  to  judges  within  their  jurisdictions,  to  punishe  the  com- 
mitters of  the  saids  crimes  according  to  the  tenor  of  the  saids  lawes 
and  acts.  Item,  To  compleane,  that  the  tithes  assigned  before  in 
some  parts  for  payment  to  ministers,  were  givin  by  her  Grace  to 
some  gentlemen,  and  to  understand  her  Grace's  will  theranent. 
The  Superintendents  of  Angus  and  the  West,  Christopher  Gud- 
mau,  and  Mr  Johne  Row,  minister  at  Perth,  were  appointed  to 
forme  some  articles  to  be  presented  to  the  queene's  Majestic,  which 
they  did,  in  tenor  as  followeth  : — 

Imprimis,  That  the  papisticall  and  blasphemous  masse,  with  all 
Papistrie  and  idolatrie,  and  Pope's  jurisdictioun,  be  imiversallie 
suppressed  and  abolished  throughout  the  I'ealme,  not  onlie  in  the 
subjects,  but  also  in  the  quecne's  Majestie's  owne  person  ;  and  all 
persons  which  sail  be  deprehended  to  transgresse  or  offend  in  the 
same  be  punished  :  and  that  the  sincere  Word  of  God  and  true  re- 
ligioun  now  received  may  be  established,  ratifeid,  and  approved 
throughout  the  whole  rcalme,  as  Aveill  in  the  qucene's  Majestie's 
owne  person    as    in   tlie  subjects,  without  anie  impediment ;   and 

288  calderwood's  historie  15G5. 

that  the  people  be  astricted  to  resort,  upon  the  Lord's  day  at  least, 
to  the  prayers  and  preachmg  of  God's  Word,  as  they  were  astricted 
before  to  the  idolatrous  masse :  and  these  heeds  to  be  established 
by  Act  of  Parhament,  with  consent  of  the  Estats,  and  the  queene's 
Majestie's  ratificatioun. 

Secundhe,  That  sure  provisioun  be  appointed  for  sustentatioun 
of  the  ministrie,  als  weill  for  the  time  present  as  for  the  time  to 
come ;  and  that  suche  persons  as  are  presentlie  admitted  have 
their  stipends  assigned  unto  them  in  the  places  where  they  travell, 
or,  at  the  least,  in  the  nixt  adjacent,  that  they  have  no  occasioun  to 
crave  the  same  at  the  hands  of  others  :  and  that  the  benefices  now 
vacant,  or  that  have  vaiked  since  the  moneth  of  Marche  1558,  or 
that  heerafter  sail  happin  to  vaike,  be  dispouned  to  qualifeid  per- 
sons, able  to  preache  God's  Word,  and  discharge  the  office  of  the 
ministiie,  according  to  the  ti'iell  and  admissioun  of  then-  superin- 
tendents ;  and  that  no  bishoprick,  abbacie,  pryorie,  nor  deanerie, 
provestrie,  or  anie  other  benefices,  having  manie  kirks  annexed  to 
them,  be  dispouned  whollie  in  time  to  come  to  anie  one  man ;  but 
that,  at  least,  the  kirks  therof  be  severallie  disponed  to  severall 
persons,  that  everie  one  having  charge  may  serve  at  his  owne  kirk, 
according  to  his  vocatioun ;  and  to  this  effect,  that  the  gleebes  and 
manses  be  givin  to  ministers,  that  they  may  make  residence  at  their 
kirks,  and  discharge  their  conscience  in  the  exercise  of  their  call- 
ing :  and  also,  that  the  kirks  may  be  repaired  accordinglie ;  and 
that  a  law  be  made  and  established  for  this  effect. 

Thridhe,  That  none  be  permitted  to  have  charge  of  schooles, 
colledges,  or  universiteis,  or  yitt  privatlie  or  publiclie  instruct  tlic 
youth,  but  suche  as  shall  be  tried  by  the  superintendents  or  visiters 
of  the  kirk,  found  sound  and  able  in  doctrine,  and  admitted  by 
them  to  their  charges. 

Fourthlie,  For  sustentatioun  of  the  poore,  that  all  lands  founded 
for  hospitalitie  be  restored  againe  to  the  same  use ;  and  that  all 
lands,  annuel  rents,  or  anie  other  emoluments  perteaning  anie  wise 
some  time  to  the  friers,  of  whatsoever  order  they  have  beene  of,  or 
annuel  rents,  alterages,  obits  perteaning  to  preests,  be  applyed  to 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  289 

the  sustentatioun  of  the  poore,  and  upholding  of  schooles,  in  the 
toims  and  other  places  where  they  ly. 

Fyftlie,  That  suche  horrible  crimes  as  now  abound  in  this  realme 
without  correctioun,  to  the  great  contempt  of  God  and  his  holie 
Word,  as  idolatrie,  blaspheming  of  God's  name,  manifest  breache 
of  the  Sabboth-day,  witchecraffc,  sorcerle,  and  inchantment,  adul- 
terie,  incest,  whoordome,  maintenance  of  brothells,  murther,  slaugh- 
ter, reafe,  spoilzie,  with  manic  other  detestable  crimes,  may  be  se- 
verelie  punished ;  and  judges  appointed  in  everie  province  or  dio- 
cie,  with  power  to  execute,  and  that  by  Act  of  Parliament. 

Lastlie,  That  some  oi'der  be  devised  and  established  for  the  ease 
of  the  poore  labourers  of  the  ground,  concerning  the  reasonable 
payment  of  their  tithes,  now  rigourouslie  exacted  without  their 
advice  and  consent. 

Walter  Lundie  of  that  Ilk,  William  Cuninghame  of  Cuninghame- 
heid,  William  Durhame  of  Grange,  George  Hume  of  Spot,  James 
Baron,  burgesse  of  Edinburgh,  were  appointed  to  present  these 
articles  to  her  Highnesse,  and  to  report  an  answere  before  the  dis- 
solving of  the  Assemblie,  if  they  may  convenientlie  :  if  not,  to  re- 
port to  the  eldership  of  Edinburgh,  that  they  may  signifie  the 
samine  to  the  superintendents. 


Becaus  sindrie  ministers  desired  libertie  to  remove  to  places  des- 
titute of  the  Word,  where  they  might  be  susteaned  by  the  godlie, 
it  was  ordeaned,  that  no  minister,  exhorter,  or  reader,  placed  pre- 
sentlie  at  anie  kirk,  sail  attempt  to  remove  till  answere  be  receaved 
againe  from  the  queene's  Majestic  to  the  articles  directed  to  her ; 
and  that  after,  none  remove  without  the  advice  of  the  superintend- 
ent of  his  diocie,  and  his  Hcense  in  Avi'itt,  under  the  paine  of  dc- 

VOL.  II. 

290  calderwood's  historie  1565. 


Adam  Bishop  of  Orkney,  Maisters  Johne  Craig,  Christopher 
Gudman,  Johne  Row,  George  Buchanan,  and  Robert  Pont,  were 
ordeaned  to  conveene  apart  everie  morning,  to  decide  questions 
j)ropouned,  or  to  be  propouned ;  and  to  report  their  decisions  to  the 
Assemblie,  that  the  samine  may  be  insert  in  the  register.  They 
reported  their  decisions  in  the  thrid  sessioun.  They  determined, 
that  parteis  proceed  not  orderlie  in  mariage,  who  nather  obteane 
the  consent  of  their  parents,  nor  make  sute  to  the  sessioun  of  the 
kirk,  to  concurre  with  them  in  their  lawfull  proceedings.  Item, 
That  no  minister  ought  to  injoy  anie  benefice  or  stipend  belonging 
to  anie  kirk,  except  he  remaine  at  the  said  kirk,  to  discharge  his 
office.  And  if  he  be  transplanted  by  the  Assemblie  or  superintend- 
ent to  another  congregation,  whereby  he  may  not  discharge  his 
charge  in  both,  that  he  be  deprived  of  the  one  benefice  or  stipend, 
providing  he  be  sufficientlie  answered  of  one  stipend.  Item,  Though 
it  was  not  found  contrarie  to  the  Word  of  God,  that  a  man  abusing 
his  father's  brother's  daughter  seven  yeeres,  and  begetting  childrein 
upon  her,  may  marie  her,  yitt  becaus  it  hath  not  beene  accustomed 
in  this  realme,  and  diverse  inconveniences  may  ensue  upon  this 
libertie,  it  was  referred  to  the  civill  magistrat,  or  to  a  parliament ; 
granting  libertie,  notwithstanding,  to  the  persons  in  whose  name 
the  questioun  was  propouned,  to  joyne  in  mariage,  after  their  pub- 
lict  repentance,  jDrovyding  it  be  not  a  preparative  to  others,  till 
farther  order  be  takin  by  the  civill  magistrat.  Tuiching  the  re- 
queist  of  the  commissars  of  Edinburgh,  that  everie  minister  or 
reader  sould  have  a  register  of  the  names  of  the  deceassed  in  the 
parish  where  they  dwell,  the  day  of  the  moncth,  and  the  yeere, 
and  deliver  the  copie  therof  to  the  Procurator  Fiscall,  that  pupills 
and  creditors  be  not  defrauded  ;  it  was  answered,  they  could  not 
lay  suche  a  charge  upon  their  brethrein,  in  respect  none  or  few  of 
the  ministrie  had  manses  or  glcebes  to  make  residence.     But  how 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  291 

soone  they  obteaned  their  manses,  they  sail  desii'c  them,  as  they 
sail  be  required,  to  doe  conforme  to  the  said  requeist. 


Ministers  compleaned  upon  in  this  Assemblie  were  to  be  tried 
and  censured  for  these  offences  following  :  viz.,  for  not  repairing  to 
the  exercise  of  prophecie,  or  not  repairing  to  Synodall  and  Generall 
Assembleis ;  or  for  not  ministring  the  communioun  for  six  yeeres 
bypast ;  or  for  deserting  their  flocke,  and  not  discharging  their 


When  the  time  of  the  queen's  mariage  drew  neere,  that  there 
might  be  some  show  of  publick  consent,  a  great  number  of  the  no- 
bilitie  were  conveened  at  Stirline ;  but  suche  as  either  would  will- 
ingly consent,  or  durst  not  contradict.  Manie  assented,  upon  con- 
ditioun  that  no  alteratioun  be  made  in  religioun :  manie  assented 
without  anie  suche  exceptioun.  Andrew  Lord  Uchiltrie  professed 
plainlie  he  would  never  assent  that  anie  of  the  Popish  faction 
sould  be  their  king.  Tlie  Erie  of  Murrey  perceaving  that  libertie 
of  voting  would  be  restrained,  and  fearing  troubles  might  ensue  if 
the  Queene  of  England  did  not  consent,  absented  himself  from  the 
conventioun.  Yitt  had  he  promised  to  procm'e  her  consent,  pro- 
viding sufficient  suretie  were  made  for  religioun.  Muche  dispu- 
tation there  was  among  men  about  her  mariage.  Some  thought 
after  the  death  of  her  first  husband,  she  ought  to  have  the  like  li- 
bertie that  weomen  of  low  degree  have.  Others  said,  the  case  was 
not  like,  becaus  in  choosing  herself  a  husband  she  choosed  also  a 
king  to  the  realme  ;  and  that  it  was  more  equitable  that  the  people 
sould  choose  a  husband  to  one  woman,  than  one  woman  a  king  to 
all  the  subjects.  There  came  an  ambassader  out  of  England,  in 
Julie,  to  expostulat,  that  they  being  so  neere  of  kin  to  his  mistresse, 
and  in  equall  degree  of  consanguinitic,  sould  precipltat  the  mariage 

292  calderwood's  historie  1565. 

without  her  consent ;  and  to  admonishe  them  to  weygh  more 
deepelie  so  Aveightie  a  mater.  When  this  ambassader  had  effec- 
tuat  nothing,  Sir  Nicolas  Throgmorton  was  sent  to  recall  the  Erie 
of  Lennox  and  his  sonne,  under  the  paine  of  forfaultrie  of  all  they 
had  in  England,  in  respect  the  time  of  their  licence  was  expired. 
But  they  insisted  in  their  purpose.  In  the  meane  time,  to  dimi- 
nishe  the  disparagement  of  the  matche,  she  caused  Lord  Darly  be 
proclamed  Duke  of  Rothesay  and  Erie  of  liosse ;  or,  as  others 
write,  first  made  him  knight,  afterward  Lord  Ardmannoch,  Erie  of 
Rosse,  Duke  of  Rothesay.  Witches  in  both  the  realmes  had  fore- 
told, that  if  the  manage  were  celebrated  before  the  end  of  Julie, 
both  the  realmes  sould  reape  great  benefite  thereby  ;  if  otherwise, 
great  inconveniences  would  follow.  A  day  was  sett,  before  which 
it  was  bruited  the  Queene  of  England  sould  dee  ;  which  savoured 
i-ather  of  conspiracie  than  soothsaying.  Our  queene  herself  feared 
her  uncles  would  cast  in  some  impediment  if  it  were  delayed.  But 
Seisfneur  David  assured  them,  that  both  the  father  and  the  sonne 
were  zealous  Catholicks,  of  a  noble  familie,  great  freindship  and 
superioritie,  weill  beloved  in  both  the  realmes;  so  there  was  no 
impediment  more  feared  that  way.  The  Bishop  of  Dumblane  was 
sent  to  Rome  for  a  dispensatioun,  becaus  the  queene  and  Darly 
were  in  the  secund  degree  of  consanguinitie  ;  which  was  obteaned. 
The  mariage  was  solemnized  upon  the  27th  of  Julie.  They  were 
proclamed  the  day  following  in  Edinburgh,  Henrie  and  Marie, 
King  and  Queene. 


Not  onlie  manie  of  the  nobilitie,  but  also  of  the  commouns,  were 
offended,  that  by  the  voice  of  an  herald,  at  the  queen's  commande- 
ment.  Lord  Darly  sould  have  been  proclamed  king  without  con- 
sent of  the  estats  in  Parliament.  The  number  of  malcontents  was 
the  greater,  becaus  manie  of  the  nobilitie  were  absent,  or  did  not 
countenance  either  the  mariage  or  the  proclamatioun  :  viz.  the  Duke 
of  Chatelerault,  theErles  of  Argyle,  Murrey,  Alexander  Erie  of  Glen- 

15G0.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  293 

carne,  Andrew  Erie  of  Rothesse,  the  Lord  Uchiltree,  and  sindrie 
others.  Heralds  were  sent  to  call  them  in.  They  refuse,  and  are 
condemned  to  banishment.  The  king  and  queene  goe  to  Glasgow 
with  foure  thowsand  men,  to  persue  so  manic  rebells  as  remained  at 
Paisley.  An  herald  was  sent,  to  command  the  castell  of  Hammiltoun 
to  be  delivered.  The  Hammiltons  breathed  nothing  but  crueltie.  No 
assured  peace  could  be  had  in  then' judgement  but  by  cutting  off  both 
king  and  queene ;  "  For  the  inimitie  of  kings,"  said  they,  "  could  not 
be  extinguished  but  by  death."  The  Erles  of  Murrey  and  Glencarne 
knowing  verie  weill  the  Hammiltons  aimed  at  their  owne  particu- 
lar profite,  and  abhorring  their  governement  and  all  crueltie,  per- 
swaded  to  a  mylder  course,  for  the  king  and  queene  had  not  yitt 
committed  anie  suche  crimes  as  tended  to  the  overthrow  of  the 
commoun  weale,  but  suche  as  might  be  cured  by  gentler  remedeis. 
Farther,  they  were  perswaded  there  were  manic  in  the  other  campe 
would  endevoure  to  prociu'e  peace  and  reconciliatioun.  The  Ham- 
miltons departed  malcontent ;  the  duke  himself,  with  other  sixteene 
of  his  freinds,  remained  with  the  noblemen.  They  goe  to  Hammil- 
toun, frome  thence  to  Edinbm-gh,  to  consult  farther.  The  captan 
of  the  castell  shooteth  daylie  at  them.  Their  freinds  were  not  able 
to  conveene  with  suche  speed  as  was  requisite.  At  the  instant  re- 
queist  of  Johne  Lord  Hereis,  they  went  out  of  Edinbm-gh  toDum- 
freis.^  The  king  and  queene  retm'ne  to  Glasgow,  where  the  Ei-le  of 
Lennox  was  made  Wardane  of  the  West  Marches.  They  returns 
to  Stirline,  and  therafter  make  their  progresse  through  Fife,  where 
noblemen  and  barons  were  compelled  to  sweare  and  promise  assist- 
ance, if  there  came  anie  armie  frome  England.  Some  were  fynned, 
some  confynned,  as  they  favoured  the  lords.  The  goods  and  mov- 
ables of  suche  as  had  fled  to  England  were  made  a  prey.  About  the 
9th  of  October  the  king  and  queene  went  Avith  an  armie  to  Dum- 
freis.  The  Lord  Hereis  coraeth  furth  to  meete  the  queene,  as  it 
were  to  interceed  for  the  lords ;  but  he  treated  for  a  part  of  the 
patrimonie  which  belonged  to  his  father-in-law,  which  he  obteaned. 
He  rcturneth  to  the  lords,  showeth  to  them  he  cannot  helpe  them, 
'    For  the  declaration  of  the  lords  at  Dumfries  soo  Appontlix,  letter  A. 

294  calderwood's  historie  1565. 

advisetli  them  to  flee  to  England,  and  promiseth  to  follow  and  joyne 
his  fortouns  with  theirs,  so  soone  as  he  could  sett  his  efFaires  in  or- 
der. So  the  duke,  the  Erles  of  Murrey,  Glencarne,  Rothesse,  the 
Lord  Uchiltrie,  the  Abbot  of  Kilwinning,  the  Lau-d  of  Grange, 
Cunninghamheid,  Pittarrow,  Mr  James  Halyburton,  Tutor  of  Pit- 
cur,  and  others,  went  to  Carlill,  where  they  were  receaved  courte- 
ouslie  by  the  Erie  of  Bedford,  then  Lieutenant  of  the  North.  The 
king  and  queene  returne  about  the  end  of  October.  This  road  was 
called  the  Chase-about  Road.  The  lords  went  from  Carlill  to  New- 
castell :  frome  thence  the  Erie  of  Murrey  and  the  Abbot  of  Kilwinning 
were  sent  to  the  Queene  of  England,  to  intreate  her  intercessioun, 
which  she  promised,  but  could  not  obteane  favour.  The  duke  sent 
after  the  Abbot  of  Kilwinning,  with  letters  to  the  queene,  wherin 
he  submitted  himself,  and  so  obteaned  pardoun  to  him  and  his 
freinds,  and  licence  to  passe  to  France,  there  to  remaine  the  space 
of  five  yeeres. 


The  Generall  Assemblie  was  holdin  at  Edinburgh,  in  the  upper 
tolbuith,  the  25th  of  December.  Johne  Areskine  of  Dun,  Super- 
intendent of  Angus,  was  chosin  Moderator. 


In  the  triell  of  superintendents  and  commissioners,  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Ano^us  confessed  he  had  not  visited  anie  kirk  these  two 
moneths  bypast;  but  withaU  alledged,  that  his  visitatioun  could 
not  be  verie  profitable,  in  respect  it  behoved  him  to  loodge,  in  time 
of  visitatioun,  with  his  freinds  for  the  most  part,  who  had  most 
need  of  correctioun  and  discipline.  Therefore  he  besought  the  As- 
semblie to  provide  some  other  to  that  office.  But  Alexander,  Com- 
missioner of  Galloway,  excused  his  not  visiting  with  the  building 
of  his  nephcwc's  hous. 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  295 



Follow  the  answeres  givin  by  the  queen's  Majestie  to  the  articles 
presented  to  her  Grace,  by  the  Commissioners  of  the  Assemblie, 
holclin  in  June  last  bypast. 

To  the  first,  desiring  the  masse  to  be  suppressed  and  abolished, 
als  Weill  in  the  head  as  in  the  members,  with  punishement  of  the 
controveeners,  &c.,  as  alsua  tliat  reUgioun  now  professed  be  esta- 
blished by  Act  of  Parliament,  it  is  answered  : — 

Fu-st,  For  her  Majestie's  owne  part,  that  her  Hignesse  is  no  wise 
yitt  perswaded  of  the  truthe  of  our  religioun,  nor  that  anie  mipietie 
is  in  the  masse;  and  therefore  beleeveth  that  herjoving  subjects 
will  in  no  wise  preasse  her  to  embrace  anie  religioun  against  her 
owne  conscience,  and  so  draw  her  upon  perpetuall  unquietnesse 
and  remorse  of  conscience.  And  to  deale  plainlie  with  her  subjects, 
lier  Majestie  neither  will,  nor  may  forsake  the  religioun  wherin  she 
hath  beene  nourished  and  brought  up,  and  beleeveth  to  be  weill- 
grounded ;  knowing,  that  besides  grudge  of  conscience  which  may 
be  wrought  by  change  in  religioun,  that  she  sail  lose  the  freindship 
of  the  King  of  France,  the  ancient  allya  of  this  realme,  and  of  other 
great  princes,  her  freinds  and  confederats,  who  would  take  it  in 
evill  part,  of  whome  she  may  looke  for  support  in  aU  her  necessiteis. 
And  having  no  assurance  of  anie  thing  that  may  countervaile  the 
same,  she  will  be  loath  to  hazard  the  freindship  of  her  freinds  in  one 
instant ;  beseeching  all  her  loving  subjects,  seing  they  have  had 
experience  of  her  goodnesse,  that  she  neither  hath  in  times  bypast, 
nor  yitt  meaneth  heerafter,  to  preasse  the  conscience  of  anie  man, 
but  to  suffer  them  to  worship  God  in  suclie  sort  as  they  are  per- 
swaded to  be  best,  that  they  will  also  not  prease  her  to  offend  her 
owne  conscience.* 

'  Yet  Mary,  as  appears  by  a  letter  from  the  Earl  of  Bedford,  ambassador  at  the 
Scottish  court,  addressed  to  Sir  William  Cecil,  was  earnestly  employed  in  alluring 
the  courtiers    back  to    the  Romish  faith.      "  The  (jueene  (he  writes)  there  useth 

29()  calderwood's  historie  1565. 

As  for  establishing  of  religioun  in  the  whole  bodie  of  the  realme, 
that  they  themselves  know,  as  appeareth  weiU  by  their  articles, 
that  it  cannot  be  done  by  her  assent  onlie,  but  requireth  necessarilie 
the  consent  of  the  three  estats  in  parliament.  Therefore,  so  soone 
as  the  parliament  sail  hold  that  wherupon  the  three  estats  sail  agree 
among  themselves,  her  Majestic  sail  graunt,  and  alwayes  assure, 
that  no  man  sail  be  troubled  for  behaving  himself  in  religioun  ac- 
cording to  his  conscience,  or  that  anie  man's  life  or  heritage  sail  be 
in  hazard  for  religion. 

As  to  the  secund  article,  it  is  answered,  that  her  Majestic  think- 
eth  it  no  wise  reasonable,  that  she  sould  defraud  herself  of  so  great 
a  part  of  the  patrimonie  of  the  crowne,  as  to  denude  her  owne  hands 
of  the  patronages  of  benefices  ;  for  her  owne  necessitie,  in  bearing 
her  port  and  commoun  charges  will  require,  that  she  reteane  them 
in  her  owne  hands.  Nothelesse  her  Majestic  is  weill  pleased,  that 
consideratioun  being  had  of  her  owne  necessitie,  a  speciall  assigna- 
tion be  had  to  ministers,  for  their  reasonable  sustentatioun,  in  places 
most  commodious  for  them,  where  with  her  Majestic  saU  not  intro- 

To  the  thrid  article,  her  Majestic  sail  doe  therln  as  sail  be  agreed 
upon  by  the  estats  of  parliament. 

To  the  fourth  article,  her  Majestie's  liberalitie  towards  the  poore 
sail  be  alwayes  als  farre  extended  as  can  be  reasonablie  required  at 
her  hands. 

To  the  fyffc  and  sixt  article,  her  Majestic  referreth  the  ordering 
to  the  parliament, 


Mr  Johne  Row,  minister  at  Sanct  Johnstoun,  was  appointed  to 

some  speeche  to  some,  and  other  she  useth  to  take  them  by  the  hands,  to  leade  them 
with  her  to  masse."  The  blundering  zeal  of  her  husband  must  have  counteracted, 
rather  than  seconded,  her  efforts  ;  for  Bedford  adds,  "  The  Lord  Darneloy  sometyme 
would  shutt  up  the  noblemen  in  chambres,  thereby  to  bringe  them  to  heare  masse  ; 
but  suche  kinde  of  persuasions  take  no  place  with  them." 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  297 

peune  a  reply  to  these  answeres,  becaus  they  satisfeid  not  the  As- 
semblie ;  and  to  present  the  same  in  writt  to  the  Assemblie,  to  be 
considered,  before  it  be  presented  to  the  queen's  Grace.  The  re- 
})ly  penned  and  approved  followeth  : — 

"  First,  AVhere  her  Majestic  answereth,  that  she  is  not  perswaded 
in  our  religion,  nor  understandeth  anie  impietie  to  be  in  the  masse, 
but  that  the  same  is  -weill  grounded,  etc.,  this  is  no  small  greefe  to 
the  hearts  of  her  godlie  subjects,  considering  that  the  trumpet  of 
Christ's  Evangell  hath  beene  so  long  blowTie  in  this  countrie,  and 
Ilis  mercie  so  plainlie  offered  in  the  same,  that  her  Majestic  re- 
maineth  yitt  unperswaded  of  the  truth  of  this  our  rcligioun.  For  our 
reliffioun  is  nothing  elles  but  the  same  which  Christ  Jesus  in  the 
last  dayes  reveeled  frome  the  bosome  of  his  Father,  wherof  he  made 
his  apostles  messingers,  and  which  they  preached  and  established 
among  the  faithfuU,  to  continue  till  the  secund  comming  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ.  AYhich  differeth  from  the  impietie  of  the  Turkes, 
the  blasphemie  of  the  Jewes,  the  vaine  superstitioun  of  the  Papists, 
in  this,  that  ourrehgion  onlie  hath  God  the  Father,  his  onlie  Sonne 
Jesus  Christ  our  Lord,  his  onlie  Spirit  speaking  in  his  prophets  and 
apostles,  for  authors  therof,  and  their  doctrine  and  practise  for  the 
ground  of  the  same  ;  which  no  other  religion  upon  the  face  of  the 
earth  can  justlic  challenge,  or  plainlie  prove.  Yea,  whatsomever 
assurance  the  Papists  have  for  their  religion,  the  same  have  the 
Turkes  for  the  maintenance  of  their  Alcaron,  and  the  Jewes  farre 
greater  w'arrant  for  the  defence  of  their  ceremoneis,  whether  anti- 
quitie  of  time,  consent  of  people,  authoritie  of  councels,  great 
numbers  or  multitude  consenting  together,  or  anie  other  like  clokes 
they  can  pretend.  Therefore,  as  we  are  dolorous  that  her  Majestic  is 
not  perswaded  of  this  our  religioun,  so  most  reverentlie  we  require, 
in  the  name  of  the  Eternall  God,  that  her  Higlmesse  would  cm- 
brace  the  meanes  whereby  she  may  be  perswaded  of  the  truthe, 
which  we  presentlie  offer  to  her,  als  weill  by  preaching  of  the 
Word,  which  is  the  cheefe  meane  appointed  by  God  to  perswade 
all  his  chosin  childrcin  of  his  infallible  veritie,  as  by  publict  dispu- 
tation against  the  adversareis  of  this  our  religion,  deceavers  of  her 

298  calderwood's  historie  1565. 

Majestic,  whensoever  lier  Grace  sail  think  it  expedient.  As  for 
the  impietic  of  the  masse,  we  darre  be  bold  to  affirme,  that  in  that 
idol  there  is  great  impietie ;  yea,  it  is  nothing  eUcs  but  a  masse  of 
impictie,  from  the  beginning  to  the  end.  The  author,  the  sayer, 
the  action  itself,  the  opinion  conceaved  therof,  the  hearers  and 
gazers  upon  it,  avow  sacrilege,  pronounce  blasphemie,  and  committ 
most  abominable  idolatrie,  as  we  have  ever  offered  and  yitt  offer 
to  prove  evidentlie.  And  where  her  Majestic  feareth  that  the 
change  of  religion  sail  dissolve  the  confederacie  and  alliance  she 
hath  with  the  King  of  France  and  other  princes,  etc. — assuredlie, 
Christ's  true  religioun  is  the  undoubted  meane  to  knitt  up  surelie 
perfyte  confederacie  and  freindship  with  Him  who  is  King  of  all 
kings,  and  who  hath  the  hearts  of  all  princes  in  his  owne  hands ; 
which  ought  to  be  more  pretious  to  her  Majestic  than  the  confede- 
racie of  all  the  princes  of  the  earth,  without  which,  neither  confe- 
deracie, love,  nor  kindnesse  can  endure. 

"  Concerning  her  Majestie's  answere  to  the  secund  article,  where 
as  she  thinketh  it  no  wise  reasonable  to  defraud  herself  of  the  pa- 
tronages of  the  benefices,  which  her  Majestic  esteemeth  to  be  a 
portioun  of  her  patrimonie;  and  that  her  Majestic  is  minded  to  re- 
teane  a  good  part  of  the  benefices  in  her  owne  hands,  to  susteane 
commoun  charges,  etc.  To  the  first  point,  it  is  not  our  meaning 
that  her  Majestic  or  anie  other  patron  within  the  realme  sail  be  de- 
frauded of  then-  just  patronages.  But  we  meane,  that  whensoever 
her  Majestic  or  anie  other  patron  doth  present  anie  persoun  to  anie 
benefice,  that  the  person  presented  sail  be  tried  by  learned  men  in 
the  kirk,  suche  as  presentlie  are  the  Superintendents  appointed  for 
that  use.  And  as  the  presentatioun  of  the  benefices  perteaneth  to 
the  patron,  so  the  collatioim,  by  law  and  reasoun,  perteaneth  to  the 
kirk,  wherof  the  ku'k  sould  no  more  be  defrauded  than  the  patrons 
of  their  presentatioun.  For  otherwise,  if  it  sail  be  leasome  to  pre- 
sent absolutelie  whome  they  please,  without  triell  or  examinatloun, 
what  then  may  we  looke  for  but  meere  ignorance,  without  all  order 
in  the  kirk  ?  As  to  the  secund  point,  the  reteaning  of  a  good  part 
of  the  benefices  in  her  owne  hands,  it  abereth  so  farrc  from  good 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLiVJ^D.  299 

conscience,  the  law  of  God,  and  the  comnioun  law  and  publict  or- 
der, that  we  are  loath  to  open  up  the  ground  of  the  mater  by  manie 
cii'cumstances.  Therefore  we  most  reverentlle  wishe  that  her  Ma- 
jestic would  consider  the  mater  with  herself  and  her  wise  counsell, 
that  howsoever  the  patronages  of  benefices  may  apperteane  to  her- 
self, yitt  the  reteaning  of  them  in  her  owne  hands,  undispouned  to 
qualifeid  persouns,  is  ungodlie,  and  contrare  to  all  publict  order ; 
and,  finallie,  confusioun  to  the  poore  soules  of  the  commoun  people, 
who,  by  this  meanes,  are  provided  with  teachers  to  instruct  them  in 
the  way  of  salvatioun.  And,  where  her  Majestic  concludeth  in  her 
secund  answere,  that  she  is  content  that  a  sufficient  and  reasoun- 
able  sustentatioun  be  appointed  for  ministers,  by  assignations  in 
places  most  commodious,  consideration  being  had  of  lier  owne  ne- 
cessitie ;  as  we  are  verie  desirous  that  her  Grace's  necessitie  be  re- 
leeved,  so  our  duetie  urgeth  that  we  notifie  to  her  Grace  the  right 
order  which  sould  be  observed  by  her  in  this  behalfe,  which  is  this  : 
The  tithes  are  to  be  reputed  properlie  the  patrimonie  of  the  kirk, 
wherewith,  before  all  other,  these  that  travell  in  the  ministrie,  and 
the  poore  indigent  members  of  Christ's  bodie,  ought  to  be  susteaned, 
kirks  repaired,  and  the  youth  brought  up  into  letters.  Which 
things  being  done,  other  necessiteis  may  be  reasounablie  supplecd, 
according  as  her  Grace  and  godlie  counsell  sail  thinke  expedient. 
Alwise,  we  cannot  but  thank  her  Majestic  most  reverenthe  for  her 
liberall  offer  of  assignatioun  to  be  made  to  ministers  for  their  sus- 
tentatioun. Which  not  the  lesse  is  conceaved  in  so  generall  termes, 
that  without  condescending  more  speciallie  upon  the  particulars,  no 
executioun  can  follow  therupon.  And  so,  to  conclude  at  this  pre- 
sent, Ave  desire  eamestlie  her  Majestie's  answere  to  the  saids  articles 
to  be  reformed ;  beseeching  God,  that  as  they  are  reasonable  and 
godlie  in  themselves,  so  her  Majestic  and  the  estats  presentlie  con- 
veened  may  be  inclynned  and  perswaded  to  approve  and  accom- 
plishe  the  same." 

300  calderwood's  historie  1565. 


The  Lord  Lindsay,  and  David  Murrey,  brother  to  the  Laird  of 
Balvaird,  were  appointed  to  present  a  supplicatioun  in  name  of  the 
AssembHe  to  the  queene  and  counsell,  for  payment  of  ministers' 
stipends,  and  for  order  to  be  takin,  that  suche  as  putt  violent  hand 
in  ministers  for  reproving  of  vice ;  that  suche  as  have  receaved  as- 
signations of  their  bygane  stipends  from  the  former  collectors  may 
have  execution  of  their  assignations ;  and  that  assignatioun  be  ap- 
pointed, as  was  promised  in  her  Highness'  last  answers  to  the  pe- 
titions of  the  Assemblie. 


It  was  ordeaned,  that  the  superintendent  call  the  disobedient  mi- 
nister, exhorter,  or  reader  before  him,  and  some  of  the  neerest  dis- 
creet ministers ;  and  if,  being  convicted  of  disobedience,  he  refuse 
to  satisfie  according  to  their  injunctions,  that  he  be  suspended  from 
his  ministrie  and  stipend  till  the  nixt  Assemblie ;  at  the  which  the 
superintendent  sail  notifie  the  whole  proceeding,  that  by  their  cen- 
sure he  may  be  farther  corrected,  or  elles  restored  to  his  former 
estate,  according  to  the  evidence  of  his  repentance ;  providing  the 
kirk  be  provided  in  the  meane  time  by  the  superintendent. 

2.  That  everie  superintendent  within  his  owne  bounds  inquire 
dillgentlie  if  ministers  and  exhorters  having  stipends,  manses, 
and  gleebes,  teache  the  youth  in  countrie  parishes ;  and  if  they  doe 
not,  that  he  compell  them  to  doe  the  same,  under  the  paine  of  re- 
movall,  and  others  to  be  placed  in  their  rowme. 

3.  That  all  persons  which  have  heeretofore  joyned  themselves  to 
the  kirk,  and  after  revolt,  offering  theu'  childrein  to  be  baptised  by 
Popish  preests,  or  receaving  the  abominable  sacrament  of  the  altar, 
or  approving  in  anie  sort  Popish  wickednesse,  after  due  admonition 
givin  by  the  superintendent  of  the  diocie,  or  principall  reformed 
kirk,  sail  be  excommunicated,  if  no  repentance  be  offered. 

4.  That  no  minister  celebrat  the  mariage  of  two  parteis  dwelling 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  301 

without  his  parish,  without  sufficient  testimonial!  of  the  minister 
or  ministers  from  whom  they  are  come,  that  their  bannes  were  or- 
derlie  proclamcd,  and  no  impediment  found,  under  the  paine  of  de- 
positioun  from  his  office,  losse  of  his  stipend,  and  other  punish- 
ments, as  the  Generall  Assembhe  sail  thinke  good. 

5.  It  was  found  that,  according  to  God's  Word,  none  might 
marie  his  wife's  brother  daughter,  or  Avifc's  sister  daughter ;  and 
that,  if  anie  such  mariage  was  contracted,  the  samine  ought  to  be 


Sir  Johne  Bellendine  of  Auchinoull,  knight,  Justice-Clerk,  Mr 
James  Makgill  of  Kankcillour  Neather,  Clerk  of  Register,  Mr  Johne 
Spence,  Advocat,  Mr  Thomas  Makcalzeane,  Maisters  Johne  Row, 
Johne  Craig,  WiUiam  Christesone,  David  Lindsay,  ministers,  and 
David  Forrest,  were  appointed  to  conveene  upon  Wednesday,  to 
decide  questions,  and  to  report  answers.  They  reported  their  de- 
cisions as  followeth : 

"  1.  That  no  minister,  receaving  sufficient  sustentatioun  for 
preaching  of  the  Evangell,  may  with  safe  conscience  leave  his 
flocke,  or  the  place  appointed  for  his  ordinar  residence,  Avhatsoever 
patrocinie  or  oversight  he  have,  through  corruptioun  often  times,  or 
negligence  of  rulers,  so  to  doe. 

"  2.  Seing  our  Master  pronounceth  that  he  is  but  a  mercenarie, 
who  seing  the  woolfe  comming,  fleeth  for  his  owne  safeguarde,  and 
that  the  verie  danger  of  life  cannot  be  a  sufficient  excuse  for  suche 
as  fall  backe,  we  no  wise  thinke  it  lawfull  that  suche  as  have  putt 
their  hand  to  the  pleugh  saU  leave  that  heavenlie  vocatioun  for  in- 
digence and  povertie.  They  may  lawfidlie  leave  an  unthankfull 
people,  and  seeke  where  Christ  Jesus  his  holie  Evangell  may  bring 
furth  good  fruict ;  but  lawfuUie  they  may  not  change  their  voca- 

"  3.  Whensoever  fearefull  crimes  are  committed,  as  murther, 
adulterie,  or  the  like,  if  it  be  in  the  countrie,  the  minister,  reader,  or 

302  calderwood's  historie  1565. 

exhorter  of  that  place,  or,  if  there  be  none  there,  the  minister  of  the 
place  nixt  adjacent,  ought  to  give  significatioun  of  the  fact  to  the 
superintendent  of  that  diocie ;  who,  without  delay,  ought  to  direct 
his  summouns,  to  charge  the  persons  slaundered  to  compeere  be- 
fore him  at  a  certane  day  and  place.  Or,  if  they  be  committed  in 
touns  or  burghes,  where  order  is  established,  the  sessioun  therof  to 
call  the  offenders  accused  or  suspected ;  who,  if  they  compeere,  or 
either  alledge  just  defence,  or  show  themselves  unfainedlie  peni- 
tent, then  may  the  superintendent,  or  kirk  reformed,  without  the 
superintendent,  dispense  somewhat  with  the  rigour  of  the  punish- 
ment, secluding  the  offender  onlie  from  participatioun  of  the  sacra- 
ments, till  farther  trieU  of  his  repentance;  and  that  their  sentence 
be  pronounced  in  the  kirk  where  the  offence  is  knowne.  But  if  the 
offender  be  stubborne,  if  he  compeere  not,  or  shew  himself  little 
tuiched  with  his  offence,  then  ought  the  superintendent,  with  ad- 
vice of  the  nixt  reformed  kirk,  decerne  him  or  them  to  be  secluded 
from  all  participatioun  or  communicatioun  with  the  faithftill  mem- 
bers of  Christ.  If  the  person  or  persons  secluded  from  the  sacra- 
ment be  negligent  in  seeking  reconciliatioun  with  the  kirk,  behave 
themselves  insolentlie,  or  otherwise  than  becometh  penitent  per- 
sons, the  kirk,  after  admonitioun,  may  proceed  to  the  uttermost. 

"  4.  When  childrein,  baptized  by  a  Papistical}  preest,  or  in  Pa- 
pistical} maner,  come  to  the  yeeres  of  understanding,  they  sould  be 
instructed  in  the  doctrine  of  salvatioun,  and  what  is  the  corruptioun 
of  Poperie,  which  they  must  publicldie  damne,  before  they  be  ad- 
mitted to  the  Lord's  Table.  Which  if  they  doe,  they  need  not  the 
externall  forme  to  be  reiterated ;  for  no  preest  ministreth  baptisme 
without  water,  and  the  forme  of  words,  which  are  the  principall  ex- 
ternall parts  of  baptisme.  We  ourselves  were  baptized  by  Popish 
preests,  whose  corruptions  and  abuses  now  we  damne,  cleaving  onlie 
to  the  simple  ordinance  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  to  the  veritie  of  the 
Holie  Spirit,  which  maketh  baptisme  to  worke  in  us  the  proper 
effects  therof,  without  anie  iteration  of  the  externall  signe.  If 
suche  childrein  come  never  to  knowledge  of  true  doctrine,  they  are 
to  be  left  to  the  judgement  of  God. 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  303 

"  5.  As  for  oppressours  of  chiklrein,  their  civill  punishement 
ought  to  be  ordeaned  and  appointed  by  the  civill  magistrat.  As 
for  the  slaunder,  the  offenders  ought  to  be  sechided  from  participa- 
tioun  of  the  sacraments,  till  they  have  satisfied  the  kirk,  as  sail  be 

"  6.  Persons  lying  in  fornication,  under  promise  of  mariagc,  which 
they  differe  to  solemnize,  sould  satisfie  publicklie  in  the  place  of  re- 
pentance, upon  the  Lord's  Day,  before  they  be  maried." 


Mr  Patrik  Creigh,  minister  of  Rathow,  was  ordeaned  to  make 
satisfaction  in  the  kirk  of  Edinburgh  two  severaU  Sabboth  dayes, 
and  upon  the  tlirid,  in  the  kirk  of  Dummenie,  for  celebrating  ma- 
nage betwixt  Robert  Patersone  and  Jonet  Littill,  in  Dummenie 
kirk,  without  proclamatioun  of  bannes,  or  satisfactioun  made  to  the 
kirk  of  Edinburgh,  according  to  the  decreit  of  the  last  Assemblie. 


It  was  ordeaned,  that  according  to  the  complaint  of  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Fife,  Johne  Melvill,  minister  at  Craill,  sould  be  inhi- 
bited to  proceed  to  the  solemnizatioun  of  mariage  betwixt  Robert 
Amot  and  Ewphame  CorstoqAine,  till  Mr  Johne  Dowglas,  Rector 
of  the  Universitie,  and  Mr  James  Wilkie,  regent,  trie  the  super- 
intendent's complaint,  and  the  other  woman's  claime,  alledging  the 
said  Robert's  promise ;  giving  them  power  to  pronounce  sentence, 
and  to  proceed  to  censure  against  the  disobedient.  Heere  yee  may 
see,  the  superintendent's  complaints  were  tried  by  others  than  su- 


Mr  Johne  Craig,  one  of  the  ministers  of  Edinburgh,  Mr  Johne 

304  calderwood's  historie  1565. 

Dowglas,  Rector  of  the  Universitie  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  Mr  Robert 
Melvill,  Deane  of  Aberdeene,  William  Cliristesone,  minister  at 
Dundie,  Mr  David  Lindsay,  minister  at  Leith,  Mr  Gilbert  Gardin, 
minister  of  Monyfuth,  Mr  Thomas  Makcalzeane  and  Johne  Mar- 
joribanks,  commissioners  of  Edinbm'gh,  were  appointed  to  collect 
the  causes  of  a  pubHct  fast.  They  declared  the  necessitie  of  a  pub- 
lict  fast  in  the  fourth  or  last  sessioun.  Therefore  the  Assemblie 
ordeaned  Mr  Knox  and  Mr  Johne  Craig,  ministers  of  Edinburgh, 
to  sett  doun  the  forme  of  the  exercise  which  was  to  be  used  at  the 
fast,  and  to  caus  Robert  Lickprivick  print  it.  This  treatise  of 
fastine;  is  extant  in  our  Psalme  bookes.  The  causes  mentiouned  at 
that  time  were  these  following : 

First,  Becaus  that,  in  the  beginning,  they  had  not  refused  God's 
graces,  but  contrariwise,  with  such  fervencie  receaved  them,  that 
they  could  beare  with  no  kinde  of  impietie ;  and,  for  suppressing 
of  the  same,  had  neither  respect  to  freind,  possessioun,  land,  nor 
life,  but  putt  all  in  hazard,  that  God's  truthe  might  be  advanced, 
and  idolatrie  suppressed.  But  now,  since  carnall  Avisdome  had  per- 
swaded  them  to  beare  with  manifest  idolatrie,  and  to  suffer  the 
realme,  which  God  had  once  purged,  to  be  polluted  again  with  that 
abominatioun ;  (yea,  some  whom  God  had  sometimes  made  instru- 
ments to  suppresse  that  impietie,  had  beene  cheefe  men  to  conduct 
and  convoy  that  idol  throughout  all  the  quarters  of  the  realme,  yea, 
to  the  houses  of  them  who  sometimes  detested  the  masse  as  the 
devill  and  his  service,)  they  had  found  God's  face  angrie  against 
them.  That,  when  they  followed  God,  and  not  carnall  wisdome, 
God  made  a  few  in  number  fearefuU  to  manie  ;  fooles  before  the 
world  to  confound  the  wise ;  and  suche  as  before  never  had  expe- 
rience in  amies,  to  be  so  bold  and  prosperous  in  all  their  enter- 
prises that  the  expertest  soldiour  feared  the  poore  plew  man. 
Yea,  God  faught  for  them  both  by  sea  and  by  land,  and  moved  the 
hearts  of  strangers  to  support  them,  and  spend  their  lyves  for  their 
releefe.  But  now,  wisdome,  manheid,  strenth,  freinds,  honour,  and 
blood,  joyned  with  godlinesse,  were  fallin  before  their  eyes,  that 
they  might  tume  to  God.     Before,  they  had  some  hope  that  God 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  305 

would  move  the  queen's  Majestie's  heart  to  heare  the  Gospell  of 
Jesus  Christ,  and  so  to  abandoun  idolatrie.  But  now,  she  hath 
answered  in  plaine  words,  she  will  mainteane  and  defend  that  re- 
ligioun  Avherin  she  was  nourished  ;  and,  in  tokin  therof,  there  is 
erected,  of  late  dayes,  a  displayed  banner  against  Jesus  Christ. 
For  knowne  deceavers  of  the  people  are  authorized  to  spew  out 
poysoun  against  Christ,  his  eternall  truthe,  and  tnie  niessingers ; 
the  idol  of  the  masse  now  again,  in  diverse  places,  is  erected ;  the 
best  part  of  our  nobilitie  exiled,  and  the  queene  favoureth  flattering 
friers  and  corrupt  Papists  more  than  pure  preachers. 

Further,  There  is  an  intentioun  to  suppresse,  through  all  Europ, 
all  that  abhorre  Papisticall  impietie,  and  to  raze  them  from  the  face 
of  the  earth,  according  to  the  decree  of  the  Councell  of  Trent, 
which  sail  be  put  in  executioun  first  in  France,  by  the  Catholick 
king,  Philip  of  Spaine,  and  some  of  the  Frenche  nobilitie.  The 
Pop's  armie,  and  the  Dukes  of  Savoy  and  Ferrara  their  forces,  sail 
assault  Geneva,  and  sail  not  leave  it  till  it  be  sacked,  and  no  living 
creature  in  it  be  saved.  Frome  France  they  sail  mak  expeditioun 
against  the  Germans,  to  reduce  them  to  the  obedience  of  the  Apos- 
tolick  See ;  and  so  sail  they  proceed  through  other  natiouns,  never 
ceasing,  till  all  be  rooted  out  who  will  not  make  homage  to  that 
Roman  idol.  Their  practises  alreadie  in  France  make  manifest 
their  crueltie.  The  Pop's  cardinals  and  horned  bishops  offer  the 
greatest  portion  of  their  rents  for  susteaning  of  the  Avarre,  as  may 
appeare  by  these  words  neere  the  end  of  that  decree  :  "  And  to  the 
end  that  the  holie  fathers  for  their  part  appeare  not  to  be  negh- 
gent,  or  unAvilling  to  give  their  aide  and  supporte  to  so  holie  a  Avarre, 
or  to  spaire  their  owne  rents  and  money,  have  added,  that  the  car- 
dinalls  sail  content  themselves  with  the  yeerlie  rent  of  five  or  six 
thowsand  ducats,  and  the  richest  bishop  of  two  or  three  thowsand 
at  most ;  and  to  give  franklie  the  rest  of  their  revenues  to  the  main- 
tenance of  the  warre,  for  extii*pation  of  the  Lutheran  and  Calvin- 
ian  sect,  and  for  the  establishing  of  the  Roman  church,  till  suche 
time  as  the  mater  be  conducted  to  a  good  and  happie  end." 

Farther,  Greater  inobedience  and  ingratitude  was  never  shewed 
VOL.  II.  u 

306  calderwood's  historie  1565. 

to  God's  messingers  than  hath  beene  of  late,  and  yitt  is,  within  this 
realme.  Whoordome  and  adulterie  are  but  pastynies  of  the  flesh  j 
slaughter  and  murther  is  esteemed  a  small  sinne  to  anie  man  hath 
a  freind  in  court ;  feasting  and  ryottous  banketting  in  court,  coun- 
trie,  and  touns ;  increasse  of  the  poore  to  suche  a  number  as  the 
like  hath  not  beene  scene  in  this  land. 

Mr  Knox  was  ordeaned  to  penne  a  comfortable  letter,  in  name 
of  the  Assemblie,  to  incurage  ministers,  exhorters,  and  readers,  to 
continue  in  their  vocatioun,  which  in  all  liklihood  they  were  to 
leave  off  for  laike  of  payment  of  their  stipends ;  and  to  exhort  the 
professors  within  this  realme  to  supplee  their  necessiteis.  He  was 
appointed  likewise  to  visite,  preache,  and  plant  kirks  in  the  south, 
where  there  was  not  a  superintendent,  and  to  remaine  so  long  as 
occasioun  might  suffer.     The  tenor  of  the  letter  foUoweth  : 

"The  Superintendents,  Ministers,  and  Commissioners  of  Kirks 
Reformed  within  the  realme  of  Scotland,  assembled  in 
Edinburgh,  the  25th  day  of  December  1565,  to  the  Mini- 
sters of  Jesus  Christ  within  the  same  realme,  desire  grace 
and  peace  from  God,  the  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
with  the  perpetuall  comfort  of  the  Holie  Spirit. 

"  The  present  miserie,  and  greater  troubles  appearing  shortlie  to 
follow,  crave  (deare  brethrein)  that  everie  one  of  us  exhort  and 
admonish  another,  that  we  recoole  not  backe  in  the  beginning  of 
this  battell  which  is  come  upon  us,  unlooked  for  of  manie.  And 
therefore  it  is  that  we,  your  brethrein,  partakers  with  you  of  the 
afflictions  of  Jesus  Christ,  understanding  the  extremitie  wherin  the 
whole  ministers  within  this  realme  now  stand,  for  want  of  reason- 
able provision  for  themselves  and  their  poore  famileis,  have  thought 
expedient  to  communicat  our  mindes  with  you  by  this  our  letter : 
which  is,  that  first  yee  sail  diligentlie  marke  these  words  of  the 
apostle,  saying,  '  No  man  sail  be  crowned,  unlesse  he  strive  law- 
fuUie ;'  and  also  that  fearefull  sentence  of  our  Maister,  Jesus  Christ, 

1505.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  307 

saying,  '  No  man  putting  his  hand  to  the  pleugh,  and  looking 
backe,  is  apte  for  the  kingdome  of  God.'  We  have  once  professed 
ourselves  warriours  against  Satan,  and  labourers  in  the  husbandrie 
of  the  Lord  our  God,  who  of  his  mcrcie  hath  opened  our  mouths 
to  exhort  others,  to  contemne  this  wicked  world,  and  to  contend  to 
enter  in  at  that  heavenlie  Jerusalem.  God  hath  honoured  us  so 
that  men  have  judged  us  the  messingers  of  the  everlasting  Lord. 
By  us  hath  he  disclosed  idolatrie,  by  us  are  the  Avicked  of  the  world 
rebooked,  and  by  us  hath  our  God  comforted  the  consciences  of 
manie  that  were  oppressed  with  ignorance  and  impietie.  Consider 
then,  deere  brethrein,  what  slaunder  and  offence  sail  we  give  to  the 
weaker,  what  occasioun  of  rejoycing  sail  the  enemeis  have,  and  to 
what  ignominie  sail  we  expone  the  glorious  Evangell  of  Jesus 
Christ,  if  that  we  for  anie  occasioun  sail  desist,  and  ceasse  from 
publick  preaching  of  the  same.  We  that  admonishe  you  are  not 
ignorant,  neither  altogether  without  experience,  how  vehement  a 
dart  povertie  is,  and  what  troublesome  cogitatiouns  it  is  able  to 
raise,  yea,  even  in  men  of  greatest  constancie.  But  yitt,  deere 
brethrein,  we  ought  earnestlie  to  consider  with  what  conditiouns  we 
are  entered  into  this  most  honorable  vocatioun,  and  what  we  cheefe- 
lie  seeke  in  preaching  of  the  blessed  Evangell.  For,  if  we  lay  before 
us  other  conditions  than  Jesus  Christ  laid  before  his  apostles,  when 
he  sent  them  ftirth  first  to  preache  the  glade  tydings  of  his  king- 
dome,  and  if  we  seeke  and  imagine  to  ourselves  better  en  treatment 
of  this  wicked  generatioun  than  we  find  the  deerest  servants  of  God 
have  gottin  in  the  world,  we  ather  deceave  ourselves,  or  elles  de- 
clare ourselves  not  to  be  true  successours  of  these  whose  doctrine 
we  propone  to  the  people.  They  were  sent  ftirth  as  sheepe  amongst 
the  middest  of  Avoolves.  To  them  it  was  pronounced  that  they 
sould  be  hated,  they  sould  be  mocked  ;  men  sould  curse  and  pci'se- 
cute  them  for  the  testimonie  of  the  truthe ;  Avhich  thrcatnings  we 
find  not  to  have  beene  vaine,  but  to  have  fallin  upon  the  cheefe 
members  of  Jesus  Christ,  as  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  l)care  testi- 
monie. And  thinkc  we  that  the  same  Evangell  Avhich  they 
preached  can  have  anie  other  successe  in  our  ministrie  than  it  had 

308  calderwood's  historie  1565. 

in  theirs  ?  In  gifts  we  must  confesse  ourselves  farre  inferiour  to 
these  lights  of  the  world,  in  diligence  and  painfull  travell  we  can- 
not be  compared ;  and  yitt  we  looke  to  be  partakers  of  the  kingdomc 
which  God  hath  prepared  for  suche  as  patientlie  abide  the  againe 
comming  of  our  Lord  Jesus.  And  sail  we  in  nothing  communicat 
with  them  ?  They  were  sometimes  whipped,  sometimes  stoned,  oft 
cast  in  prisoun,  and  the  blood  of  manie  sealed  up  their  doctrine. 
And  sail  we,  for  povertie,  leave  the  flocke  of  Jesus  Christ,  before 
that  it  utterlie  refuse  us  ?  God  forbid,  deere  brethrein :  for  what 
sail  disceme  us  frome  the  mercenereis  and  hyrelings,  if  our  con- 
stancie  in  adversitie  sail  not  doe  it?  The  hyrelings,  in  time  of 
quietnesse,  teache  the  truthe  as  we  doe.  In  gifts  and  utterance 
they  commounlie  exceed.  In  life  and  conversatioun  they  may  for 
a  seasoun  be  irreprehensible.  What  is  it,  then,  that  maketh  them 
hyrelings  ?  Our  Maister  and  Saviour  Christ  Jesus  answereth,  say- 
ing, '  The  mercenarie  seeth  the  woolve  comming,  and  fleeth,  be- 
caus  he  is  a  mercenarie.'  Then,  the  leaving  of  the  flocke  when  the 
woolfe  cometh  to  invade,  proveth  suche  as  were  holdin  pastors  to 
be  nothing  but  hyrelings.  We  denie  not  but  if  in  one  citie  wee  be 
persecuted,  we  may  flee  unto  another ;  yea,  if  one  realme  cast  us 
furth,  we  may  receave  the  benefite  of  another ;  but  ever  still  with 
this  conditioun,  that  we  cast  not  frome  us  the  professioun  that  pub- 
lictlie  we  have  made,  neither  yitt  that  we  ceasse  to  feede  the  flocke 
of  Jesus  Christ,  and  to  gainstand  the  teachers  of  false  doctrine,  so 
farre  furth  as  in  us  lyeth.  But  heerinto  standeth  the  questioun  : 
Whether  may  we,  whom  God  hath  called  unto  this  honour,  that 
he  hath  made  us  ambassaders  of  his  good  will  unto  this  unthankfuU 
generation,  desist  fi'om  our  vocations,  becaus  we  cannot  be  pro- 
vided of  reasonable  livings,  as  God  hath  commanded,  and  our  tra- 
vells  deserve  ?  The  Spirit  of  God  uniformlie  through  the  Scriptures 
will  answere  us,  that  Elias  was  sent  to  be  fed  by  the  ravens ;  Elisfeus 
and  his  fellow  schollars  were  compelled  to  gather  herbes  to  make 
pottage  ;  Paul  did  oft  live  by  the  worke  of  his  owne  hands.  But 
we  never  found  that  they  receaved  dimissioun  frome  their  vo- 
catioun.     Seing,  then,   deere  brethrein,  that  God  hath   not  yitt 

1565.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  309 

tempted  none  of  us  with  the  extremiteis  that  Ave  find  others  be- 
fore us  to  have  suffered  and  overcome,  lett  us  be  ashamed  so  sud- 
danlie  to  faint,  even  in  the  brunt  of  the  battell.  The  price  of  Jesus 
Christ  his  death  and  passioun  is  committed  to  our  charge.  The  eyes 
of  men  are  bent  upon  us,  and  we  must  answere  before  that  Judge 
who  will  not  admitt  everie  excuse  that  pleaseth  us,  but  will  judge 
uprightlie,  as  in  his  Word  before  he  hath  pronounced.  Lett  us 
therefore  stand  fast,  not  onhe  in  the  truthe,  but  also  in  defence  and 
advancing  of  the  same,  which  we  cannot  doe  if  we  ceasse  frome 
our  publict  vocatioun.  Lett  us,  deere  brethrein,  stand  fast  in  the 
same,  and  eommitt  our  bodeis  to  the  care  of  Him  who  feedeth  the 
foules  of  the  aire,  and  hath  pronunced  that  he  knoweth  wherof  we 
have  need,  and  will  provide  for  us.  He  preserved  us  in  the  darke- 
nesse  of  our  mother's  bellie ;  he  provided  om'  foode  in  their  breasts, 
and  instructed  us  to  use  the  same,  Avhen  we  knew  him  not.  He 
hath  nourished  us  in  the  time  of  blindnesse  and  impietie  ;  and  will 
he  now  despise  us,  when  we  call  upon  him,  and  preache  the  glori- 
ous Gospell  of  his  deere  Sonne,  our  Lord  Jesus  ?  Nay,  deere  bre- 
threin ;  he  neither  will  nor  can,  unlesse  that  infidelitie  cutt  us  off 
from  his  mercifuU  providence.  Lett  us  consider  that  the  whole 
earth  is  the  Lord's,  and  all  the  iulnesse  of  the  same :  that  he  is 
able  to  move  the  hearts  of  men  as  best  pleaseth  him.  He  is  able 
to  blesse  and  multiplie  tilings  that  are  nothing  in  the  eyes  of  car- 
naU  men.  It  is  but  povertie  that  is  yitt  threatned  us,  which,  if 
we  be  not  able  to  contemn,  how  saU  Ave  abide  the  furie  and  terrour 
of  death,  which  manie  thoAvsands  before  us  have  suffered,  for  the 
testimonie  of  the  same  truthe  Avhich  Ave  professe  and  teache,  and 
despised  all  Avorldlie  redemption,  as  the  Apostle  speaketh  ?  This 
is  but  a  gentle  triell,  Avhich  ovu'  Father  taketh  of  our  obedience ; 
which  if  Ave  Avillinglie  offer  to  him,  the  bowells  of  his  Fatherlie 
compassioun  wiU  rather  cans  the  heavens,  yea,  the  rocks  and  rivers 
to  minister  unto  us  things  necessarie  to  the  bodie,  than  that  he 
Avill  suffer  us  to  perishe,  if  avc  dedicate  our  Avliole  lives  imto  him. 
Lett  us  be  frequent  in  reading,  Avliich,  alas  !  over  manic  despise  ; 
earnest  in  prayer,  diligent  in  Avatching  over  the  flocke  couuuitted 

310  calderwood's  histoeie  1560. 

to  our  charge  ;  and  lett  our  sobrietie  and  temperat  life  ashame  the 
wicked,  and  be  excmple  to  the  godlie ;  and  then  there  is  no  doubt 
but  the  Eternall  our  God  sail  remedie  this  extremitie.  He  sail 
confound  our  enemeis,  and  sail  shortlie  convert  our  teares  and 
mourning  in  joy,  to  the  glorie  of  his  owne  name,  and  to  the  com- 
fort of  our  posteritie  to  come,  through  the  onHe  merits  and  inter- 
cessioim  of  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord,  whose  Holie  Spirit  comfort  you 
and  us  to  the  end. 

"  At  Edinburgh,  in  our  Generall  Assemblie,  the  25th  day  of 
December,  1565. 

"  JoHNE  Knox. 
"  At  the  command  of  the  publict  Assemblie.'' 


David  Rizio,  commounlie  called  Seigneur  Davie,  having  gottin 
the  court  in  a  maner  solitarie,  at  least  free  of  malcontented  nobles, 
adviseth  the  queene  to  cutt  off  some  of  the  nobilitie,  for  a  terrour 
to  others.  Becaus  the  Scotish  guarde  would  not  be  readie  to  putt 
in  executioun  suche  a  designe,  he  counselled  her  to  send  for  stran- 
gers, namelie  Italians,  becaus  they  were  commounlie  voide  of  all 
sense  of  religioun,  brought  up  under  tyranns,  accustomed  to  mis- 
cheefe  ;  who  being  farre  frome  home  might  be  soone  stirred  up  to 
attempt  anie  thing.  Becaus  they  were  his  owne  countrie  men  he 
thought  he  might  move  them  to  doe  what  he  pleased.  They  come 
out  of  Flanders,  one  by  one,  least  the  purpose  sould  have  beene 
discovered.  There  was  greater  danger  to  offend  one  of  them  than 
to  offend  the  queene  herself.  As  the  Seigneur  his  credite  increassed 
daylie  with  the  qvieene,  so  the  king's  decreassed,  for  soone  after 
the  mariage  she  repented  of  the  matche.  Howbeit  at  the  first 
the  king's  name  Avas  sett  before  the  queene' s,  in  all  then*  writtings 
and  patents,  yitt  soone  after,  the  queene's  name  was  sett  before 
the  king's.     At  lenth,  the  queene  pretended,  that  manie  things 

I5()il  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  311 

were  pretermitted,  or  not  done  in  due  time,  tlirougli  his  absence  at 
hawking  and  luinting,  and  therefore  moved  him  to  be  content  that 
she  subscrive  for  both ;  so  he  might  follow  liis  pleasures  without 
hindrance  of  the  commoun  effaires.  He  was  loath  to  offend  her, 
and  upon  light  occasiouns  was  sent  farre  frome  court,  wherby  his 
favour  became  unprofitable,  and  his  wrathe  not  to  be  feared. 
David  Kizio,  her  secretarie  in  Frenche  and  other  forraine  effiiires, 
was  appointed  to  have  a  stamp  with  the  king's  name,  to  use  when 
need  required.  The  king  is  sent  to  Peebles,  to  hawke  in  sharpe 
winter,  with  a  small  traine,  where  there  was  skarstic  of  good  inter- 
teanment.  The  queene  for  some  moneths  admitted  a  number  to 
her  table,  and  among  the  I'est,  this  Seigneur  ;  at  lenth,  him  onlie, 
and  some  one  other,  sometimes  in  her  cabinet,  sometimes  in  Davie's 
chamber.  lie  excelled  the  king  in  houshold  stuffe,  apparell,  and 
number  of  good  horse.  Secretar  Matlane,  partlie  finding  himself 
prejudged  by  this  Savoyard  in  the  effaires  of  his  office,  partlie  for 
the  favour  he  then  careid  to  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  now  banished, 
laboured  to  perswade  the  Erie  of  Morton  and  Lord  Hereis  to  cutt 
off  this  base  stranger.  The  Erie  of  Morton,  being  als  wise  as  he 
was  wylie,  answered,  he  would  doe  what  he  could  for  restoring  the 
Erie  of  Murrey  with  the  queene's  good  will ;  but  he  knew  it  would 
offend  her  to  putt  hands  in  Seigneur  Davie.  The  secretar  ad- 
dresseth  himself  to  David  Rizio ;  sheweth  to  him  his  office  was 
strange  in  this  countrie,  and  yeelded  little  profite.  He  counselled 
him  to  move  the  queene  to  alienate  her  countenance  frome  the 
Erie  of  IMorton,  presenthe  Chanceller,  and  a  favourer  of  the  Ei'le 
of  Murrey,  and  with  the  king  to  pursue  his  right  to  the  Erledome 
of  Angus,  by  his  mother,  sole  heretrix  to  her  father,  the  Erie  of 
Angus  :  so  Morton  would  be  glade  to  seeke  his  freindship,  and  to 
({uite  the  office  to  him.  But  that  he  might  be  capable  of  it,  the 
queene  must  endemize  him,  and  give  him  some  stile  of  an  erle  in 
Scotland.  David  beganne  to  Avork.  The  queene  charged  for  the 
Castell  of  Tamtallan,  under  pretence  that  Morton  receaved  not  the 
rebells  in  it,  nor  that  they  tak  it.  It  was  randered  to  the  Erie  of 
AthoU.     Some  report  tliat  the  king   was  moved  to  proclamc  his 

312  calderwood's  historie  15(30. 

breeves,  as  heyre  to  Archibald  Erie  of  Angus,  his  grandfather ; 
others  report  they  were  proclamed  before  his  manage.  It  behoved 
the  Seigneur  to  rise  by  degrees.  The  queene  would  have  bought 
to  him  Melvill,  lying  ^vithin  foure  myle  of  Edinburgh,  but  the 
owner  would  not  consent,  wherat  the  queene  and  this  Seigneur 
were  not  a  little  offended.  The  people  beganne  to  speeke  broadlie, 
and  to  call  to  remembrance  the  preferment  of  Cochrane,  a  cour- 
teour,  who  was  hanged  over  Lawder  Bridge,  in  the  dayes  of  King- 
James  the  Thrid.  Upon  a  certane  night,  the  king  hearing  that 
Davie  was  gone  in  to  the  queen's  chamber,  went  to  it,  having  the 
key  to  open  it :  findeth  it  shutt,  and  barred  within,  as  it  wont  not 
to  be.  Wherupon  he  conceaved  high  indignatioun,  and  at  last 
concluded  with  the  Lord  Ruthven,  Patrik  Lord  Lindsay,  brother- 
in-law  to  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  his  owne  father,  and  George  Dowglas, 
called  the  Postulat,  to  slay  him.  Their  purpose  was  to  have  takin 
him  comming  out  of  a  tenise  court,  where  he  haunted ;  but  it  was 
reveeled,  and  fiftie  men  with  halberts  appointed  to  attend  upon  him ; 
for  the  most  part  of  the  king's  servants  were  corrupted  by  the 
queene,  so  that  nothing  was  so  secreitlie  contrived,  but  als  soone  it 
was  discovered.  The  nixt  remedie  was,  to  labour  for  restoring  of 
the  noblemen  then  banished,  who  were  to  be  forfaulted  at  the  par- 
liament which  was  to  be  holdin  in  Marche.  The  Frenche  and 
English  ambassadors  interceeded  for  them.  The  Queene  of  Eng- 
land sent  letters  in  their  favours,  which  our  queene,  knowing  the 
nobilitie  were  not  ignorant  of  the  mater,  read  in  audience  of  manie. 
Davie  interrupted  her  ;  for  he  was  verie  bold  with  her,  and  would 
rebooke  her  often  more  sharplie  than  her  owne  husband.  The  king 
and  his  complices  laboured  to  draw  in  the  Erie  of  Mortoun  with 
them.  The  erle  liad  beene  alienated  somwhat  by  the  king's  insist- 
ing in  his  title  to  the  Erledome  of  Angus.  Tliey  sent  to  him  An- 
drew Ker  of  Fadowuside,  and  Sir  Johne  Bellendine,  Justice-Clerk. 
Through  their  earnest  dealing,  he  is  moved  to  come  to  the  Erie  of 
Lennox  his  chamber,  where  the  king  was.  The  king  and  his  father 
for  themselves,  and  for  his  mother,  quitt  all  the  title  they  had  to 
tlic  Erledome  of  Angus,  in  favour  of  Archibald,  then  erle.     He 

1566.  •  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTL.VND.  313 

consenteth  to  assist  the  king  with  all  his  power,  upon  the  condi- 
tions following :  First,  That  religioun  be  established  and  preserved 
in  the  same  estat  it  was  in  before  the  queen's  arrivall ;  Sccundlie, 
That  the  banished  noblemen  be  restored  ;  Thridlie,  That  the  king 
tak  the  fact  upon  him,  and  warrand  them  from  all  perells.  The 
king  subscrived  these  conditions  most  willinglie. 

The  nobilitie  conveening  to  the  parliament,  Davie  gropped  their 
mindes,  how  they  were  aifected  to  the  banished  lords.     He  as- 
sured them  the  queene  would  needs  have  them  to  be  condemned  ; 
and,  therefore,  whosoever  opponed  would  but  purchase  to  them- 
selves her  indignation.     By  suche  dealing,  he  tried  who  were  best 
affected,  that  either  they  might  be  sett  aside  if  they  were  courage- 
ous or  terrified.     Others  were  baited  with  hope  of  favour.     Whill 
he  was  busie  with  the  Lords  of  the  Articles,  it  was  thought  expe- 
dient to  apprehend  him  with  diligence  :  the  fittest  time,  when  the 
guarde  sould  be  removed  from  him,  and  he  at  the  queen's  table. 
Their  purpose  was  to  bring  him  to  judgement,  and  execute  him  at 
the  Croce  of  Edinburgh.     Whill  Davie  was  v/ith  the  queene  in  her 
cabinet,  and  Avith  them  the  Countesse  of  Argile,  her  base  sister, 
at  supper  in  the  Abbey  of  Halyrudhous,  the  eight  of  Marche,  the 
Erie  of  Morton  came  to  the  Abbey  with  his  freinds  and  depend- 
ents.    First,  he  tooke  the  keyes  from  the  porter,  and  appointed  a 
sufficient  number  of  men  to  attend  the  inner  coiu't,  to  resist,  if  anie 
tumult  were  raised  by  the  contrare  partie  ;  for  the  Erles  of  Huntlie, 
Atholl,  and  Bothwell,  were  in  sindrie  parts   of  the  palace,  in  the 
meane  time.     Morton  went  with  a  number  of  his  freinds  to  the 
chamber  of  presence,  Avhere  he  walked.     The  king  went  up  to  the 
queen's  chamber  from  his  owne,  by  a  privie  staire  or  trap,  which 
was  patent  onlie  to  himself.     Patrik  Lord  Ruthven  accompaneid 
with  the  INIaster  of  Ruthven,  Andrew  Ker  of  Fadownside,  George 
Dowglas,   called  the  Postulat,  followed.     The  queene  was  some- 
what affray ed  at  the  first  sight,  when  she  saw  the  Lord  Ruthven, 
leane,  and  ill-coloured  by  reasoun  of  his  longsome  sickcneswse,  and 
yitt  in  armour.     She  asked  what  the  mater  meant.     Some  stand- 
ing by  said,  he  Avas  raving  through  the  vchemcncie  of  a  fever. 

314  calderwood's  iiistorie  1566. 

He  commandeth  Davie  to  arise,  telling  hiin,  that  place  was  not  for 
him.  The  queene  ariseth  incontinent,  and  steppeth  in  betwixt 
him  and  them.  The  king  biddeth  her  be  of  good  courage,  for  no- 
thing was  intended  against  her.  Davie  grippeth  the  queene  about 
the  waist :  Fadownside  bendeth  backe  his  middle  finger,  so  that 
for  paine  he  was  forced  to  forgoe  his  grippe.  Then  is  he  drawin 
out  to  the  nixt  chambei^,  and  frome  thence  to  the  utter  chamber. 
In  the  meane  time,  the  noise  of  a  fray  rising,  Himtlie  and  Both- 
well  would  have  beene  furth,  to  whom  assembled  the  cookes  with 
speates,  and  some  other  rascalls ;  but  were  soone  drivin  backe  by 
the  Erie  of  Moi'ton's  freinds  and  dependers,  w^ho  were  appointed 
to  attend  upon  the  inner  court,  and  for  feare  fled  out  at  the  backe 
windows.  Lethington  supped  Avith  Atholl,  partlie  that  he  might 
beare  witnesse  to  his  behaviour,  if  the  queene  suspected  him,  part- 
lie  to  reteane  the  erle  in  his  loodgiug,  from  offering  or  suffering 
violence.  He  injoyned  his  attenders  to  be  quiet  till  it  came  to 
actioun,  and  then  to  arme  themselves,  and  to  come  as  it  were  sud- 
danlie  to  the  fray,  but,  indeid,  to  joyne  with  the  Erie  of  Morton. 
These  who  were  bringing  furth  Davie,  hearing  the  noise  of  a  tu- 
mult, but  ignorant  of  the  meaning,  and  fearing  he  might  be  rescued 
out  of  their  hands,  wounded  him  to  death  with  dagers,  in  the  cham- 
ber of  presence.  This  was  done  speciallie  by  the  Lord  of  Morton's 
freinds,  but  farre  by  his  intentioun ;  for  it  was  their  purpose  to 
make  him  a  pubhck  spectacle  to  the  people.  After  the  Lord 
Ruthven  came  out  of  the  cabinet,  being  wearie  of  standing  and 
stirring,  he  satt  doun.  The  queene  called  him  a  perfidious  tratour, 
and  upbraided  him  with  his  contemptuous  behaviour.  He  excused 
himself  with  the  weaknesse  of  his  owne  bodie.  He  exhorted  her, 
to  advise  with  the  nobihtie  in  the  publick  effaires  of  the  realme, 
and  not  to  be  drawin  away  with  vagabound  knaves,  who  had  no- 
thing to  lose  neither  in  credit  nor  in  patrimonie,  and  so  could  not 
give  a  sufficient  pledge  of  their  fidelitie  ;  and  to  take  heed  to  the 
calamiteis  which  had  befallin  kings  of  this  realme  before,  for  their 
governemcnt  without  advice  of  the  nobilitic.  The  queene  being- 
farther  inflammcd  with  these  speeches,  they  departed.     At  the  ru- 

15G0.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  315 

moLiv  of  this  tumult,  the  citicens  of  Edinburgh  rannc  to  their  arnies, 
and  came  doun  straight  to  the  palace.  The  king  spoke  to  them 
out  at  a  window  ;  told  them  that  the  queen  and  he  were  in  safetie ; 
what  was  done  was  done  by  his  dii'ectiouu  ;  what  it  was,  they 
sould  know  in  the  owne  time.     So  they  departed. 

Some  report  that  Johne  Daraiot,  a  Frenche  preest  and  a  sorcerer, 
had  forewarned  Seigneur  Davie  to  bewar  of  the  bastard.  He 
thought  so  to  provide  that  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  whom  he  inter- 
preted to  be  the  bastard,  sould  never  be  restored  to  doe  him  anie 
harme.  But  the  bastard  that  gave  him  the  first  wound  was  George 
Douglas,  base  soune  to  the  Erie  of  Angus,  as  is  reported.  The 
same  preest,  or  (as  others  report)  one  called  Seigneur  Francis,  ad- 
vised him  to  order  liis  bussinesse,  and  to  gett  him  hence.  He  an- 
swered, he  was  not  afFrayed  of  the  noblemen  ;  they  were  but  didics  : 
strike  one  of  them,  all  the  rest  would  ly  in.  He  replyed,  "  Ycc  will 
find  them  geese  :  if  yee  handle  one  of  them,  the  rest  will  flee  upon 
you,  and  plucke  you  so,  that  they  will  not  leave  a  feather  nor  down 
upon  you." 



The  Erie  of  Murrey  and  others  banished,  returned  home  the  day 
after  the  slaughter,  and  the  day  following  compeered  in  the  Tol- 
buith,  readic  to  answerc  if  anie  processe  of  forfaulture  were  led 
against  them.  But  none  were  there  to  persue,  so  they  went  to 
their  loodgmgs.  The  queene  sent  for  the  Erie  of  Murrey,  and  putt 
him  in  hope  she  would  be  directed  heerafter  by  the  nobilitie,  where- 
by she  obteaned  greater  libertie.  But  als  soone  as  she  had  caused 
assemble  her  guarde,  she  escaped  by  a  posterne  doore  in  the  night. 
The  Lord  Seton^  accompaneid  with  two  hundreth  horse,  was  at- 
tending upon  her.  Frome  thence  she  was  convoyed,  first  to  Seton, 
and  then  to  Dumbar,  and  the  king  compelled  with  threats  to  goe 
with  her.  When  she  is  at  Dumbar  she  gathereth  her  forces,  and 
pretendcth  that  she  is  reconciled  with  the  banished  lords,  that  she 

316  calderwood's  iiistorie  15GG. 

may  find  the  lesse  resistance  in  persuing  the  committers  of  the  last 
fact.  They  give  place  to  the  time  and  fled,  some  to  England ;  the 
Erie  of  Morton,  the  Lord  Ruthven,  the  Master  of  Ruthven,  the 
Laii-ds  of  Fadownside,  Elphingston,  Whittinghame  ;  some  to  the 
Higlilands,  to  ku'ke  there  for  a  seasoun.  Then-  goods  were  confis- 
cated, their  offices  dispouned,  their  friends  wairded  or  confyned. 
Howbeit  some  of  them  were  no  complices  at  the  fact,  as  Sii"  David 
Hmiie  of  Wedderbm^ne.  He  was  committed,  first  to  Dumbar,  and 
then  to  Kenmure,  in  Galloway.  Thomas  Scot,  Shirefi'-Depute  of 
Perth,  and  Sir  Henrie  Yair,  a  preest,  servant  to  the  Lord  Ruthven, 
were  hanged  and  quartered,  and  their  heads  sett  upon  a  pricke, 
the  one  upon  the  towre  in  the  Abbey,  the  other  upon  the  Nether 
Bow,  becaus  they  were  suspected  guiltie  of  the  murther.  All  men 
were  discharged  by  proclamatioun  to  affirme  that  the  king  was 
partaker  or  privie  to  the  last  fact ;  wherat  manie  smiled. 


After  the  flight  of  the  noblemen,  the  queene  caused  to  tak  up 
in  the  night  Seigneur  Davie  his  corps,  which  had  beene  buried  be- 
fore the  Abbey  kirk  doore,  and  lay  it  neere  to  Queene  Magdalene  ; 
which  ministered  no  small  occasioun  to  the  people  of  bad  construc- 


In  Aprilc,  the  queene  sent  for  the  Erles  of  Argile  and  JMurrey, 
and  reconciled  them  with  the  Erles  of  Huntley,  Botliwell,  and 


About  the  beginning  of  May,  the  queene  sent  Mi-  Joline  Thorn- 
toun  to  England  and  France,  to  crave  that  her  rebells  be  not  in- 
tertcancd  in  their  realmes.     The  Queene  of  England  sent  Henrie 


Killegrew  to  our  queene,  and  promised  to  caus  them  depart.  She 
sent  likewise  to  themselves,  to  wame  them  to  depart  before  mid- 
sommer.  But  the  reporter  said  to  them,  England  was  long  and 
braid.  They  went  out  of  Newcastell,  but  lurked  not  farre  from 
Anwicke.  Before  their  departure  frome  Newcastell,  the  Lord 
Ruthven  departed  this  life.  He  made  a  Christian  end,  thanking 
God  for  the  leasure  sjranted  to  him  to  call  for  mercie. 


The  first  and  secund  Lord's  day  of  May  was  celebrated  univer- 
sallie  the  first  publick  fast  which  we  had  after  the  Reformation, 
which  exercise  became  frequent  afterwards.  The  causes  are 
tuiched  before.  Earnest  prayer  was  made  at  this  fast  for  a  safe 
deliverie  of  the  queen's  birth. 


This  moneth  Mr  Knox  foi'med  the  preface  to  the  Fourth  Booke 
of  his  Historic,  by  which  we  may  understand  the  state  of  the  pre- 
sent time  ;  the  tenor  wherof  folloAveth  : 

"  In  the  former  Bookes,  gentle  reader,  thow  may  cleerelie  see 
how  potentlie  God  hath  performed  in  these  our  last  and  wicked 
dayes,  als  weill  as  in  the  ages  that  have  past  before  us,  the  promise 
that  is  made  to  the  servants  of  God,  by  the  Prophet  Isay,  in  these 
words  : — '  They  that  waite  upon  the  Lord  sail  renue  their  strcnth  : 
they  sail  lift  up  their  Avings  as  the  eagles ;  they  sail  runne  and  not 
wearie,  they  sail  walke  and  not  faint.'  This  promise,  we  say, 
suche  as  Satan  hath  not  utterlie  blinded  may  see  performed  in  us, 
the  professours  of  Christ  Jesus  within  the  realme  of  Scotland,  with 
no  lesse  evidence  than  it  was  in  anie  age  that  ever  past  before  us. 
For  what  was  our  force,  what  was  our  number,  yea,  what  wisdome 
or  worldlie  policie  was  into  us,  to  have  brought  to  an  end  so  great 
an  interprise,  our  verie  enemcis  can  bcare  witnessc.  And  yitt,  in 
how  great  puritie  did  God  establishe  amongst  us  his  true  religioun, 


als  Aveill  in  doctrine  as  in  ceremoneis,  to  what  confusioun  were  idol- 
aters, adulterers,  and  aU  publick  transgressors  of  God's  commande- 
ments  within  short  time  brought,  the  publick  order  of  the  kirk,  yitt 
by  the  mercie  of  God  preserved,  and  the  pimishments  executed 
against  malefactors,  can  testifie  to  the  world.  For  as  tuiching  the 
doctrine  taught  by  oiu"  ministers,  and  tuiching  the  administratioun 
of  the  sacraments  used  in  our  kirks,  we  are  bold  to  affirme,  that 
there  is  no  realme  this  day  upon  the  face  of  the  earth  that  hath 
them  in  greater  puritie.  Yea,  we  must  speeke  the  truthe,  (whom- 
soever we  oifend,)  there  is  none  (no  realme  we  meane)  that  hath 
them  in  the  like  puritie.  For  all  others  (how  sincere  soever  the 
doctrine  be  that  by  some  is  taught)  reteane  in  their  churches,  and 
the  ministers  therof,  some  footsteps  of  the  Antichrist  and  dregges 
of  Papistrie.  But  we  (all  praise  to  God  alone)  have  nothing  with- 
in our  churches  that  ever  flowed  from  that  Man  of  Sinne.  And 
this  we  acknowledge  to  be  the  strenth  givin  unto  us  of  God,  becaus 
we  esteemed  not  ourselves  wise  in  our  owne  eyes ;  but  understanding 
our  owne  wisdome  to  be  but  meere  foolishnesse  before  our  God, 
layed  it  aside,  and  followed  onlie  that  which  we  found  approved  by 


"  In  this  point  could  never  om'  enemeis  cans  us  to  faint.  For 
our  first  petition  was,  that  the  reverend  face  of  the  primitive  and 
apostolick  kirk  sould  be  reduced  againe  to  the  eyes  and  knowledge 
of  men.  And  in  that  point  we  say,  our  God  hath  strenthened  us, 
till  that  the  worke  was  finished,  as  the  world  may  see.  And  as 
concerning  suppressing  of  vice,  yea,  and  abohshing  of  all  suche 
things  as  might  nourishe  impietie  within  this  realme,  the  acts  and 
statuts  of  the  principall  towns  reformed  will  yitt  testifie.  For  what 
adulterer,  what  fornicator,  what  knowne  massemongei',  or  pestilent 
Papist,  durst  have  beene  scene  in  publick,  within  anic  reformed 
town  Avithin  this  realme,  before  that  the  qucene  arrived  ?  And  this 
victorie  to  his  AVord,  and  ten'our  to  all  filthic  livers,  did  God  worke 

15G().  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  310 

by  suche  as  yitt  live  and  remaine  witnesses,  whether  they  will  or 
not,  of  the  foresaids  works  of  God.  We  say,  our  God  suffered  none 
of  these  whom  he  first  called  to  the  battell  to  perishe  or  to  fall,  till 
that  he  made  them  victors  of  their  enemeis.  For  even  as  God 
suffered  none  of  these  whome  he  called  fronie  Egypt  to  perishe  in 
the  Reid  Sea,  how  fearfull  that  ever  the  danger  appeared,  so  suf- 
fered he  none  of  us  to  be  oppressed,  nor  yitt  to  be  takin  from  this 
life,  till  that  moe  Pharaocs  than  one  were  drowned,  and  we  sett  at 
freedome,  Avithout  all  danger  of  our  enemeis ;  to  lett  both  us  and 
our  posteritie  understand  that  suche  as  follow  the  conducting  of 
God  can  not  pei-ishe,  albeit  they  walked  in  the  verie  shadoAV  of 
death.  But  from  whence,  alas !  cometh  this  miserable  dispersioun 
of  God's  people  within  this  realme  this  day,  in  May  1566?  Good 
men  are  banished ;  murtherers  and  suche  as  are  knoAvne  unAvorthie 
of  commoun  societie,  (if  just  laAves  Avcre  putt  in  due  executioun,) 
beare  the  AA^hole  regiment  and  swino-  within  this  realme." 


"  We  answere,  becaus  that  suddanlic  the  most  part  of  us  declyned 
from  the  puritie  of  God's  Word,  and  bcganne  to  folloAv  the  Avorld, 
and  so  asain  shooke  hands  Avith  the  devill  and  Avith  idolatrie,  as  in  this 
Fourth  Booke  Ave  Avill  heare.  For  Avhill  that  Papists  Avere  so  con- 
founded, that  none  within  the  realme  durst  more  avow  the  hearing 
or  saying  of  masse,  nor  the  theeves  of  LiddisdaQl  durst  avoAv  their 
stouth,  in  the  presence  of  an  upright  judge,  there  Avcre  Protestants 
found,  that  ashamed  not  at  tables  and  other  open  places  to  askc, 
'  Why  may  not  the  queene  haA'C  her  masse,  and  the  foi'mc  of  her 
relifrioun  ?  What  can  that  hurt  us  and  our  religioun  ?'  And  from 
these  tAvo,  WJijj  and  What,  at  lenth  sprang  out  this  affirmative, 
'  The  queen's  masse  and  her  preests  avc  Avill  mainteanc  :  this  hand 
and  this  rapper  sail  fight  in  their  defence.'  The  inconveniences 
were  showin  both  by  tongue  and  by  pcnne.     But  the  adversareis 

320  calderwood's  historie  156G. 

were  judged  men  of  unquiet  spirits;  their  credite  was  defaced  at 
the  hands  of  suche  as  before  were  not  ashamed  to  use  their  coun- 
sell  in  maters  of  greater  importance  than  to  have  refused  the 
masse.  But  then — '  my  lord,  my  maister,  may  not  be  thus  used 
— he  liath  that  honour  to  be  the  queen's  brother.  And,  therefore, 
we  will,  that  all  men  sail  understand  that  he  must  tender  her  as  his 
sister ;  and  whosoever  will  counsell  him  to  displease  her,  and  the 
least  that  apperteaneth  to  her,  sail  not  find  him  their  freind  ;  yea, 
they  are  Avorthie  to  be  hanged  that  would  counsell  him,'  &c. 
These,  and  the  like  reasons,  tooke  suche  deepe  root  in  flesh  and 
blood,  that  the  truthe  of  God  was  almost  forgott.  And  from  this 
fountaine  (to  vntt,  that  flesh  and  blood  was,  and  yitt,  alas  !  is  pre- 
ferred to  God  and  to  his  messingers,  rebooking  vice  and  vanitie) 
have  aU  our  misereis  proceeded." 



"  For  as  before,  so  even  yitt,  although  the  ministers  be  sett  to 
beg,  the  guard  and  the  men  of  warre  must  be  served.  Though  the 
blood  of  the  ministers  be  spilt,  it  is  the  queen's  servant  that  did  it. 
Although  masse  be  multiplied  in  all  quarters  of  the  realme,  who 
can  stoppe  the  queen's  subjects  to  live  in  the  queen's  religioun  ? 
Although  innocent  men  be  imprisouned,  it  is  the  queen's  pleasure  : 
she  is  offended  at  suche  men.  Although  under  pretence  of  justice 
innocents  sail  be  murthered,  the  lords  sail  weepe,  but  the  queen's 
raindc  must  be  satisfeid.  Nobles  of  the  realme,  barons,  and  coun- 
sellers,  are  banished,  then-  escheats  dispouned,  and  their  lives  most 
unjustlie  persued.^  The  queene  hath  lost  her  trustie  servant  Davie  : 
he  was  deere  unto  hei',  and,  therefore,  for  her  honour's  sake,  she 
must  show  rigour  to  revenge  his  death.  And  yitt,  farther,  albeit 
that  some  know  that  she  is  plainlie  puqiosed  to  wracke  religioun 
■within  this  realme,  (for  to  that  Roman  Antichrist  she  hath  made 

'  When  two  ranks  of  the  lords  were  banished,  anno   1366,  was  this  writtin. 

Note  in  the  Original. 


1566.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  321 

her  promise,  and  from  him  she  hath  takin  money  to  uphold  his 
pompe  within  this  reahne,)  yitt  will  they  lett  the  people  understand, 
that  the  queene  will  establishe  religioun,  and  provide  all  things  or- 
derhe,  if  she  were  once  delivered.  If  suche  dealing  (which  is  com- 
moun  among  Protestants)  be  not  to  prefere  flesh  and  blood  to  God, 
to  his  truthe,  to  justice,  to  religioun,  and  to  the  libertie  of  this  op- 
pi'cssed  realme,  lett  the  world  judge.  The  plagues  have  beene, 
and  some  part  are  present,  that  were  before  threatned  ;  the  rest 
approache.  And  yitt,  who  frome  the  heart  cried,  *  I  have  offended  !' 
the  Lord  knoweth.  In  Thee  onlie  is  the  trust  of  the  oppressed,  for 
vaine  is  the  helpe  of  man." 


In  the  moneth  of  June,  the  time  of  the  queen's  child-bii*th  ap- 
proaching, she  wrote  to  the  cheefe  of  the  nobilitie  to  come  to  Edin- 
burgh ;  and  upon  the  19th  day,  betwixt  elleven  and  ten  of  the 
clock,  was  delivered  of  a  male  childe,  who  after  raigned  in  her 
place.  The  lords  and  people  came  to  the  Great  Kirk  of  Edinburgh, 
to  give  thanks  to  God,  and  to  pray  for  gifts  and  graces  to  him. 
The  artillerie  was  shott  off,  and  fires  of  joy  sett  furth. 


The  Generall  Asserablie  was  holdin  at  Edinburgh,  in  the  coun- 
sell  hous,  the  25th  day  of  June,  where  were  present  the  Erie  of 
Huntlie,  Chancellor,  Archibald  Erie  of  Argile,  Alexander  Bishop 
of  Galloway,  Adam  IJishop  of  Orkney,  Johnc  Commendatarc  of 
Lindores,  James  Balfour  of  Pittendreigh,  knight,  all  of  the  Privio 
Counsell,  beside  superintendents,  commissioners  of  touns  and  kirks, 
and  ministers.  Johne  Areskine  of  Dun,  knight,  Superintendent  of 
Angus  and  Memes,  was  continued  Moderator. 

VOL.  II. 

322  calderwood's  historie  1566. 


In  the  triell  of  superintendents,  the  Superintendent  of  Fife  con- 
fessed his  owne  inabilitie  to  discharge  his  office,  and  desired  the 
Assemblie  to  denude  him  of  it. 


The  lords  present  were  requeisted  to  sute  for  a  gracious  answere 
to  the  reply es  made  to  her  Majestie's  answeres  at  the  last  Assem- 
blie. Some  brethrein  were  appointed  to  requeist  the  Lords  of  the 
Secreit  Counsell,  Sessioun,  Justice,  that  no  excommunicat  person 
have  libertie  of  anie  processe  before  their  honours,  till  they  be  re- 
conciled to  the  kirk ;  cheefelie  where  excommunication  is  notore, 
and  objected  against  them.  It  was  ordeaned  that  a  letter  sould  be 
wi'ittin  and  sent  to  the  noblemen,  in  whose  bounds  some  Popish 
preests  haunted  or  remained,  and  abused  the  sacraments,  and  cele- 
brated mariage  for  lucre,  sould  be  takin  order  with. 


Paul  Methven  requested  to  be  receaved,  as  a  poore  sheepe,  in 
the  bosome  of  the  Kirk.  He  compeei'eth  personallie  at  the  ordi- 
nance of  the  Assemblie,  and  prostrat  himself  before  the  whole  bre- 
threin, with  weeping  and  yowling.  Being  commanded  to  rise,  he 
could  not  expi'esse  his  minde  for  greefe  and  sorrow.  He  is  biddin 
goe  to  his  loodging,  tiU  his  sujjplicatioun  were  considered.  Some 
brethrein  were  appointed  to  sett  doun  the  order  of  his  repentance 
and  publick  satisfactioun,  and  to  report  to  the  Assemblie,  which 
they  did,  and  the  tenor  followeth  : — 

"  The  commissioners  appointed  by  the  Generall  Assemblie  for 
ordering  of  Paul  Methven  his  repentance,  &c.,  in  consideratioun 
of  the  said  Paul  his  lamentable  supj)licatioun  to  the  Assemblie, 

1566.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  323 

humble  submissloun  of  himself  to  the  same,  and  absence  out  of  the 
realme  the  space  of  two  yeeres  or  more,  ordeane  and  appoint  the 
minister  of  Edinburgh  to  notifie  to  the  people  upon  the  Lord's 
day,  after  sermoun,  the  said  Paul  his  supplicatioun ;  and  how  the 
Generall  AssembHe  hath  ordeaned  to  receave  him  to  repentance, 
upon  the  conditions  underwrittin.  And,  therefore,  to  admonish  all 
faithfull  brethrein,  that  within  the  nixt  eight  dayes  they  notifie  to 
him,  if  they  know,  or.  be  surelie  informed  of  the  said  Paul  his  con- 
versatioun  and  behaviour  since  his  departure  out  of  this  realme, 
which  might  impede  receaving  of  him  to  repentance,  which  sail  be 
in  this  maner :  to  witt,  the  said  Paul,  upon  the  said  two  preaching 
dayes,  betwixt  the  Sondayes,  sail  come  to  the  kirk  doore  of  Edin- 
burgh, when  the  secund  bell  ringeth,  clothed  in  sackloth,  bare- 
headed and  bare-footed,  and  there  remaine  till  he  be  brought  in  to 
the  sermoun,  and  placed  in  the  place  of  publick  spectacle,  above  the 
people,  in  time  of  everie  sermoun  during  the  said  two  dayes  ;  and 
the  nixt  Lord's  Day  theraffcer,  sail  compeere  in  like  maner ;  and, 
after  sermon,  sail  show  signes  of  his  inward  repentance  to  the 
people,  humblie  requiring  the  congregatioun  forgivenesse.  Wliich 
being  done,  he  sail  be  clothed  in  his  owne  apparell,  and  receaved 
into  the  societie  of  the  kirk,  as  a  livelie  member  therof.  And  that 
the  same  order  be  observed  in  Dundie  and  Jedburgh,  alwise  se- 
cluding him  from  all  fimctioun  in  the  ministrie  in  the  ku'k,  and  also 
from  participation  of  the  Lord's  Table,  till  the  25th  of  December 
nixt  to  come,  when  the  Generall  Assemblie  sail  convcene  ;  to  Avhich 
they  ordeane  the  said  Paul  to  come,  and  bring  with  him  sufficient 
testimoniall  from  authentick  persons  in  these  places  where  he,  in 
the  meane  time,  sail  chance  to  remaine,  anent  his  conversation  and 
behaviour,  at  which  time  the  AssembUe  sail  tak  farther  order." 


Mr  Johne  Dowglas,  rector  of  the  Universitic  of  St  Andrewes, 
Mr  George  Hay,  minister  of  Ruthven,  Mr  George  Buchanan,  ISIr 

324  calderwood's  historie  1566. 

Robert  Pont,  and  Mr  Robert  Hamilton,  were  appointed  to  sltt 
apart  at  sett  times,  to  receave  and  decide  questiouns,  and  to  report 
their  decisions  to  the  Assemblie.     They  decided  as  foUoweth  : — 

First,  That  a  woman  may  not  joyne  herself  to  another  husband, 
without  a  sufficient  testimonial!  of  the  death  of  her  former  hus- 
band, howbeit  he  hath  beene  absent  out  of  the  countrie  nyne  or  ten 

Secimdarilie,  That  a  minister  ought  to  travell  in  the  Word  where 
he  injoyeth  a  benefice,  or  receaveth  sustentation,  unlesse  the  Kirk 
appoint  otherwise. 

Thridlie,  That  none  seeking  donatioun  or  confinnation  of  bene- 
fices frome  the  Popish  church  be  admitted  to  the  ministrie. 


It  was  appointed  a  publick  fast  sould  be  holdin  the  Uvo  last 
Sabbotli  dayes  of  Julie,  in  respect  of  the  dangers  imminent  where- 
with the  Kirk  is  like  to  be  assaulted  ;  and  that  the  Lord's  Supper 
be  ministred  upon  the  same  day,  if  it  can  be  done  convenientlie. 



The  queene,  after  the  deliverie  of  her  birth,  receaved  humanelie 
all  visiters.  Onlie  the  poore  king,  her  husband,  could  find  no  gra- 
tious  countenance  in  her,  or  her  traine.  Bothwell  was  the  cheefe 
guider  of  the  court.  About  the  beginning  of  August,  she  went  out 
to  Newhaven,  beside  Leith,  and  entered  in  a  boat  prepaired  for  her 
by  foure  notable  pyrants,  the  Erie  of  Bothwel's  dependers.  She 
arrived  at  Alloway,  where  she  remained  certane  dayes.  Her  hus- 
band followed  with  speed  by  land,  but  had  no  sooner  refreshed 
himself,  when  he  was  commanded  to  retume.     She  returneth  to 

1566.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  325 

Edinburgh  within  few  dayes,  but  loodged  not  in  the  palace,  but 
in  a  privat  man's  hous,  named  Johne  Balfoure.  Fromc  thence  she 
removed  to  another  loodging,  where  the  exchecker  held,  beside  Da- 
vid Chalmers'  loodging,  a  depender  of  the  Erie  of  Bothwel's,  which 
had  a  backe  passage  to  the  orchards  and  gardens  belonging  to  the 
queen's  loodging.  Bothwel  had  accesse  when  he  pleased  to  the 
queene.  The  king  her  husband,  by  reasoun  of  her  chyding  and 
frowning,  was  constrained  to  lurke  solitarie  in  Stirline.^ 


About  the  beginning  of  October,  the  queene  intended  to  hold  a 
justice  court  at  Jedburgh.  Bothwell  was  sent  to  Liddisdail,  to 
apprehend  some  theeves,  to  be  presented  to  court.  But  he  was 
wounded  by  a  base  theefe  whom  he  hurt  after  he  was  takin,  not 
expecting  anie  injurie.  He  was  caried  to  Hermitage.  The  queene 
being  then  in  the  castell  of  Borthwicke,  hasted  with  all  speed  to 
Jedbm-gh,  and  frome  thence  to  Hermitage,  notwithstanding  the 
seasoun  of  the  yeere,  the  difficulteis  and  dangers  of  the  way,  with 
a  small  traine.  She  retumeth  to  Jedburgh,  and  prepareth  all  things 
needful  for  transporting  him  thither.  At  this  time  she  fell  greev- 
ouslie  sicke.  Of  this  her  sickenesse  mention  is  made  in  the  treatise 
of  Fasting  in  our  Psalme  bookes,  and  of  Whoordorae  and  Murther 
raigning  in  the  Court.  It  was  said  at  court,  notwithstanding  Both- 
well  was  beaten  by  a  base  theefe  yeelding  up  the  ghost,  yitt  was 
he  abler  to  ly  oftener  in  carnall  dealing  with  a  woman  than  anie 
other  in  the  court.  He  is  brought  to  Jedbm'gh.  The  king  hear- 
ing of  the  queen's  sickenesse,  posted  with  speed  to  Jedburgh,  hop- 
ing that,  in  this  time  of  her  humiliatioun,  her  heart  might  be  bowed. 

'  "  The  queene  and  her  husband  (says  the  Earl  of  Bedford,  then  at  the  Scottish 
court,  in  a  letter  to  Cecil)  agree  after  thold  raaner,  or  rather  worse :  she  eateth  but 
verie  seldome  with  him,  but  lyeth  not,  nor  kepeth  no  companie  with  him,  nor  loveth 
anie  suche  as  love  him.  He  is  so  farre  out  of  her  bookes,  as,  at  her  going  from  the 
castell  of  Edenboroughe  to  remove  abrode,  he  knew  nothing  thereof.  It  cannot  for 
raodestic,  nor  with  the  honour  of  a  queene,  be  reported  what  she  said  of  hinv" 

326  calderwood's  historie  1566. 

But  the  queene  provided  that  no  man  sould  rise  to  salute  him,  nor 
give  him  loodging.  Suspecting  the  Erie  of  Murray  his  courteous 
nature,  she  moved  his  ladie  to  faine  herself  sicke,  that  he  might  be 
disappointed  of  anie  loodging  there. ^  He  had  beene  destitute  that 
night,  if  one  of  the  Humes  had  not  fained  some  pretence  of  hastie 
departure  out  of  the  toun,  to  the  end  he  might  leave  him  his  loodg- 
ing. The  king  returneth  the  day  following  towards  Stirline.  The 
same  day,  Bothwell  was  caried  out  of  his  owne  loodging  to  the 
queen's,  when  neither  the  queen  Avas  weill  recovered  of  her  sicke- 
nesse,  nor  he  of  his  wounds  and  strokes. 


About  the  beginning  of  November,  they  came  from  Jedburgh 
to  Kelso,  where  the  queen  receaved  letters  from  her  husband. 
When  she  had  read  them  before  the  Erie  of  Murray,  the  Erie  of 
Huntlie,  and  the  secretar,  she  professed  plainlie,  that  unlesse  she 
was  freed  of  him  some  way,  she  could  have  no  pleasure  to  live ; 
and,  if  she  could  find  no  other  remedie,  she  sould  putt  hand 
into  herself.  About  the  end  of  November,  they  came  to  the 
place  of  Craigmillar.  There  she  renued  her  former  speeches  be- 
fore Huntlie,  Argile,  Murrey,  and  the  secretar,  and  showed  what 
way  she  might  be  freed  of  her  husband  ;  to  witt,  by  divorcement, 
in  respect  they  were  so  neere  of  kin,  that  they  could  not  marie  to- 
gether according  to  the  canon  law,  which  might  be  easilie  brought 
to  passe,  as  she  supposed,  the  Popish  dispensatioun  being  destroyed. 
But  one  moved  a  scruple,  that  so  her  sonne  sould  be  reputed  a  bas- 

*  Mary's  hatred  of  her  husband  sorely  lacked  in  many  instances  that  dignity  which 
we  generally  attach  to  her  character.  The  following  instance,  related  by  Bedford  in 
a  letter  to  Cecil,  is  a  curious  illustration  of  her  temper  on  this  point : 

"  One  Hickeman,  an  English  mcrehaunt  there,  having  a  water  spangell  that  was 
vcrie  good,  gave  him  to  James  Melvyn,  who  afterward,  for  tlie  pleasure  that  he  sawe 
that  the  king  had  in  suche  kind  of  dogges,  gave  him  to  the  king.  The  queene  ther- 
upon  fell  mervelouslic  out  with  Melvyn,  and  called  him  dissembler  and  flatterer,  and 
sayed,  she  could  not  trust  him  who  would  give  any  thing  to  such  one  as  she  loved 

1566.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  327 

tard,  as  one  not  borne  in  lawfull  matrimonle.  So  this  project  suc- 
ceeded not.  The  king  cometh  fi-om  StirUne  to  Craigmillar,  hoping 
to  find  her  somwhat  changed ;  but  is  threatned  with  want  of  all 
kinde  of  maintenance,  unlesse  he  retume  and  stay  at  Stirline. 


About  the  beginning  of  December  the  prince  was  baptized. 
The  English  ambassader,  the  Ei-le  of  Bedford,  brought  with  him  a 
font  of  gold  curiouslie  wrought,  and  enambled,  weyghing  three  hun- 
dreth,  threttie-three  unces.  The  poore  king  was  forbiddin  to  come 
furth  in  publick,  under  pretence  that  his  apparrell  was  not  answer- 
able, neither  to  his  estate,  nor  to  the  celebritie  of  the  time.  The 
blame  was  layed  upon  merchants  and  craftsmen.  The  nobilitie 
were  forbiddin  to  convoy  him  out  or  in.  The  ambassaders  were 
forbiddin  to  hold  conference  with  him,  howbeit  they  were  all  to- 
gether in  one  castell.  Bothwel,  in  the  meane  time,  wanted  nothing 
to  beare  out  a  great  port.  It  is  reported  by  persons  worthie  of  cre- 
dite,  that  that  day  the  prince  was  baptized,  there  was  sitting  in  the 
entrie  of  the  casteU  a  poore  man  asking  almous,  having  a  young 
childe  upon  his  knee,  whose  head  Avas  so  great,  that  the  bodie  of 
the  childe  coidd  skarse  beare  it  up.  A  certane  gentleman  perceav- 
ing,  could  not  refraine  himself  from  teares,  for  feare  of  the  evills  he 
judged  to  be  portended.* 

'  Amidst  the  daily  banquets,  dances,  and  triumphs,  on  this  joyful  occasion,  Melvil 
describes  a  pageant  that  gives  us  a  poor  idea  of  the  taste  of  Mary's  Frenchified  court. 
"  At  the  principal  banquet  there  fell  out  a  great  grudge  among  the  Englishmen  :  for, 
a  Frenchman  called  Bastian,  (perhaps  Sebastian,  on  the  night  of  whose  marriage, 
soon  after,  Darnley  was  murdered,)  devised  a  number  of  men  formed  like  Satyrs, 
with  long  tails,  and  whips  in  their  hands,  running  before  the  meat,  which  was  brought 
through  the  great  hall  upon  a  machine  or  engine,  marching,  as  appeared,  alone,  with 
musicians  clothed  like  maids,  singing  and  playing  upon  all  sorts  of  instruments.  But 
the  Satyrs  were  not  content  only  to  make  way  or  room,  but  put  their  hands  behind 
them  to  their  tails,  which  they  wagged  with  their  hands,  in  such  sort,  as  the  English- 
men supposed  it  had  been  devised  and  done  in  derision  of  them  ;  weakly  ajjprchond- 
ing  that  which  they  should  not  have  appeared  to  understand." — Melvil' s  Memoirs,  p. 
152.  Another  exhibition  given  by  the  queen  to  the  French  ambassador,  on  Darn- 
ley's  being  invested  with  the  order  of  St  Michael,  was  still  more  indecorous.     "  Upon 



The  king,  despairing  of  favour,  and  finding  himself  so  farre  con- 
temned, resolved  to  goe  to  Glasgow,  to  his  father,  the  Erie  of  Len- 
nox. At  his  departure  frome  Stirline,  the  queene  caused  tak  all 
the  silver  plait  frome  him,  and  give  him  tinne  insteid  therof.  He 
had  not  riddin  a  myle  frome  Stirline,  when  he  was  tormented  with 
great  paine  through  all  his  bodie.  It  is  easilie  appeai*ed  to  pro- 
ceed not  frome  anie  ordinarie  or  naturaU  disease.  When  he  come 
to  Glasgow,  his  bodie  brake  out  in  foule  spots,  and  his  torments 
waxed  so  greevous,  that  small  hope  there  was  of  his  recoverie. 
James  Abernethie,  physician,  being  sent  for,  and  demanded  what 
was  his  judgement,  said  plainlie,  he  had  gottin  poysoun.  The 
queen's  owne  physician  was  sent  for,  but  was  forbiddin  to  goe. 


The  ceremoneis  of  the  baptisme  being  finished,  the  Erie  of  Mur- 
rey accompaneid  the  Erie  of  Bedford  to  Sanct  Andrewes ;  Both- 
well  accompaneid  the  queene  to  Drummenie  and  TuUibardin.  She 
returned  to  Stirline  within  eight  dayes,  about  the  beginning  of 


The  Generall  Assemblie  was  lioldin  at  Edinburgh,  in  the  coun- 
seU  house,  and  beganne  the  25th  day  of  December.  The  Super- 
intendent of  Angus  and  Memes  was  continued  Moderator. 

the  ellevint  day  of  the  said  moneth,  (says  the  Diurnal,)  the  king  and  queene  in  lyik 
manner  bankettit  the  samin  ambassatour ;  and  at  euin  our  soveranis  maid  the  maskrie 
and  mumschanee,  in  the  quhilk  the  quenis  Grace  and  all  her  Maries  and  ladies  were 
all  cled  in  men's  apperell ;  and  everie  ane  of  thame  presentit  ane  quhinger,  biavelie 
and  maist  artificiallie  made  and  embroiderit  with  gold,  to  the  said  ambassatour  and 
liis  gentilmon,  everie  ane  of  thame  according  to  his  estate."  Was  it  strange  that  the 
Reformers  scowled  at  these  doings,  and  condemned  them  as  foolish  and  flagitious  ?  Or 
was  Knox  devoid  of  taste,  who  wishi'd  to  supersede  them  by  sciiools  and  colleges? 

1566.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  329 


Assignation  of  money  and  victualls  being  offered  by  the  queene 
and  her  coiinsell,  the  Assemblie  thanked  the  lords  who  had  takin 
paines  to  pui'chase  the  said  assignatioun,  requeisting  them  to  con- 
tinue, till  they  brought  that  worke  to  some  perfectioun.  They 
protested,  notwithstanding,  that  this  acceptatioun  of  the  forsaid  as- 
signatioun prejudge  not  the  libertie  of  the  kirk  to  sute  for  that 
which  justhe  perteaneth  to  the  patrimonie  of  the  same,  in  time  and 
place  convenient,  at  anie  time  heerafter.  The  Assemblie  appointed 
the  Bishop  of  Galloway,  the  Superintendent  of  Lothiane,  the  Lairds 
of  Garden  and  Ken-,  to  goe  to  Stirline  and  seeke  the  extract  of  the 
said  assignation  from  the  Comptroller  and  Clerk  of  Register,  that 
letters  may  be  raised  therupon  ;  and  to  report  their  answere  to  the 
church-sessioun  of  Edinburgh,  that  the  commissioners  which  are  to 
be  appointed  for  divisioun  of  the  said  assignatioun  may  be  adver- 
tised. The  commissioners  were  chosin  and  appointed  to  conveene 
at  Edinburgh,  within  tenne  dayes  after  advertisement,  to  divide 
the  said  assignatioun  of  money  and  victuals  among  ministers,  ex- 
horters,  and  readers,  according  to  their  discretioun.  This  offer 
was  made  onlie  to  gull  the  ministers,  for  there  were  other  purposes 
in  brewing. 


It  was  asked,  whether  if  the  tithes  perteane  properlie  to  the  kirk ; 
and  sould  be  applyed  onlie  to  the  sustentatioun  of  the  ministrie, 
the  poore,  and  the  schooles,  and  reparation  of  kirks,  and  other  god- 
lie  uses,  at  the  discretioun  of  the  kirk  ?  It  was  answered  aflfirma- 
tivelie,  without  contradiction.  Nixt,  it  was  asked,  if  so  be,  whether 
the  ministers,  which  are  the  mouth  of  the  kirk,  may,  Avith  safe  con- 
science, keepe  silence,  seing  the  patrimonie  of  the  kirk  unjustHc 

330  calderwood's  historie  1566. 

takln  up,  and  waisted  in  vaine  uses,  by  suche  persons  as  beare  no 
office  in  the  kirk  ;  the  ministrie  in  the  meane  time  ceasing  frome 
exercise  of  their  office  through  necessitie,  the  poore  perishing 
through  hunger,  the  soules  of  people  perishing,  and  kirks  falling 
down  to  the  ground  ?  It  was  answered,  that  they  ought  not  to 
keepe  silence,  but  to  admonishe  everie  man  of  his  duetie,  and  de- 
sire everie  man  to  seeke  that  which  justlie  perteaneth  to  the  susten- 
tatioun  of  the  forsaids.  It  was  asked,  whether  the  kirk  might  re- 
quire of  all  possessors  the  tithes  to  be  payed  onlie  to  the  kirk,  and 
inhibite  all  others  to  intromett  therewith  ;  and  in  case  of  disobedi- 
ence, what  order  sail  be  takin  ?  It  was  answered,  that  after  due 
admonitioun,  and  denyall  of  obedience,  the  censures  of  the  kirk 
sould  be  used. 


The  Bishops  of  Galloway  and  Orkney,  the  Justice-Clerk,  Mais- 
ters  Robert  Pont,  David  Lindsay,  William  Christesone,  George 
Leslie,  William  Ramsey,  and  David  Forest,  were  appointed  to  re- 
ceave  and  decide  questions.  They  reported  their  decisiouns  as  fol- 
loweth : — 

That  the  woman  lying  now  two  yeeres  in  whoordome  with  an- 
other man,  her  husband  having  past  to  Denmarke  foure  yeeres 
since,  but  now  deceased,  may  not  marie  the  other  man,  till  it  be 
tryed  by  the  sessioun  of  the  kirk,  if,  in  her  husband's  time,  or  be- 
fore the  knowledge  of  his  deceasse,  she  had  anie  carnall  copulation 
with  the  man. 

2.  That  the  man  forwarned  not  to  marie  his  father's  brother's 
wife,  and  yitt  mareing,  he  and  she  sould  be  delated,  both  to  the 
Justice-Clerk  and  the  kirk. 

3.  That  suche  as  have  communicat  at  the  Lord's  Table,  and 
after  become  witnesses  at  the  baptisme  baptised  by  a  Papisticall 
preest,  in  a  privat  place,  sail,  after  admonitioun,  underly  the  cen- 
sures of  the  kirk. 

1566.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  331 

4.  That  superintendents  admonishe  that  none  within  their  juris- 
dictions joyne  in  mariage  anie  partie  offending,  severed  for  adul- 
terie,  under  the  paine  of  depositioun. 


The  reader  of  Bathket  (Avas)  censured  for  baptising  of  childrein, 
and  solemnizing  of  mariage,  he  being  but  a  simple  reader,  and  tak- 
ing silver  for  the  same,  frome  persons  that  were  without  the  pa- 


The  Assemblie  appointed  the  Bishops  of  Galloway  and  Orkney, 
the  Justice-Clerk,  David  Forrest,  Mr  John  Row,  David  Lindsay, 
Robert  Pont,  William  Christesone,  to  revise  the  answere  made  by 
Mr  William  Ramsay,  one  of  the  Masters  of  Sanct  Salvator's  Col- 
ledge,  to  Henrie  Bullinger,  tuiching  the  apparell  of  preachers  in 


The  Assemblie  being  advised  with  the  interpretatioun  of  the 
Confessioun  of  the  Tigurine  kirk  made  by  Mr  Robert  Pont,  or- 
deaneth  the  same  to  be  printed,  together  with  the  epistle  sent  by 
the  Assemblie,  allowing  the  same,  providing  a  note  be  putt  in  the 
margin  of  the  said  Confessioun,  where  mentioun  is  made  of  the 
remembrance  of  some  holie  dayes,  etc.  In  this  Confessioun,  su- 
perioritie  of  ministers  above  ministers  is  called  an  humane  appoint- 
ment ;  confirmatioun,  a  device  of  man ;  baptisme  by  Aveomen  is 
condemned  ;  prolixe  prayers,  hindering  the  preaching  of  the  Word ; 
canonicall  hourcs,  that  is,  prayers  to  be  chanted,  and  often  rejieated 
at  sett  times,  as  the  Popish  maner  is,  heaping  up  of  ceremoncis  to 
the  prejudice  of  Christian  libertie,  observation  of  sancts'  dayes. 
But  this  Assemblie  would  not  allow  the  davcs  dedicated  to  Christ, 

332  calderwood's  historie  1566. 

but  tooke  exception  against  that  part  of  the  Confessioun  ;  yea,  our 
Assembleis  meete  often  upon  the  25th  of  December,  so  that  raanie 
6f  the  ministrie  could  not  be  at  home  in  their  owne  parishes,  to 
teache  upon  Christ's  nativitie.  This  Confessioun,^called  commoun- 
lie  the  Latter  Confessioun  of  Helvetia,  was  allowed  not  onlie  by 
the  Kirk  of  Scotland,  but  also  Geneve,  Savoy,  Pole,  Hungarie  ; 
but  not  the  Kirk  of  England,  becaus  of  the  manie  corruptions 
mainteaned  by  them,  which  are  condemned  in  it. 

The  Assemblie  ordeaned  a  letter  to  be  directed  to  the  bishops  of 
England,  to  entreate  them  to  deale  genthe  with  the  preachers, 
their  brethrein,  about  the  surplice  and  other  apparell.  Mr  Knox 
penned  the  letter  at  the  desire  of  the  Assemblie,  the  tenor  wherof 
folio  weth : — 

"  The  Superintendents,  Ministers,  and  Commissioners  of  Kirks 
within  the  realme  of  Scotland,  to  their  Brethrein,  the 
Bishops  and  Pastors  in  England,  who  have  renounced  the 
Roman  Antichrist,  and  doe  professe  with  them  the  Lord 
Jesus  in  sinceritie,  desire  the  perpetuaU  increasse  of  the 
Holie  Spirit. 

"  By  word  and  writt  it  is  come  to  our  knowledge,  reverend  pastors, 
that  diverse  of  our  deerest  brethrein,  amongst  whom  are  some  of  the 
best  learned  within  that  realme,  are  deprived  from  ecclesiasticall 
functioun,  and  forbiddin  to  preache  ;  and  so  by  you  are  stayed  to 
promote  the  kingdome  of  Jesus  Christ,  becaus  their  conscience  will 
not  suffer  them  to  putt  on,  at  the  commandement  of  authoritie,  suche 
ffannents  as  idolaters  in  time  of  blindnesse  have  used  in  their  idol- 
atrie.  Which  bruite  cannot  be  but  most  dolorous  to  our  heart, 
mindfuU  of  that  sentence  of  the  apostle,  '  If  yee  byte  and  devoure 
one  another,  tak  heed  least  yee  be  consumed  one  of  another.' 
We  purpose  not  at  this  present  to  enter  into  the  ground  which  avc 
heare,  by  either  partie,  to  be  agitated  with  greater  vehemencie 
than  Weill  liketh  us :    to  witt,    whether  suche   apparell  is  to  be 

1566.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLA.ND.  333 

counted  among  things  which  are  simplie  indifferent  or  not.  But  in 
the  bowells  of  Jesus  Christ  we  crave,  that  Christian  charitie  may 
so  prevaile  in  you,  (in  you,  we  say,  the  pastors  and  leaders  of  the 
flocke  in  that  realme,)  that  yee  doe  not  to  others  that  which  yee  would 
not  others  to  doe  to  you.  Yee  cannot  be  ignorant  how  tender  a 
thing  the  conscience  of  man  is.  All  that  have  knowledge  are  not 
alike  perswaded.  Your  conscience  reclameth  not  at  the  wearing 
of  suche  garments.  But  manie  thowsands,  both  godlie  and  learned, 
are  otherwise  perswaded,  whose  consciences  are  continuallie  stricken 
with  these  sentences,  '  What  hath  Christ  Jesus  to  doe  with  Be- 
liall  ?'  '  What  fellowship  is  there  betwixt  darknesse  and  light  ?'  If 
suirclothes,  comer-cap,  and  tippet,  have  beene  the  badges  of  idola- 
ters in  the  verie  act  of  their  idolatrie,  what  hath  the  preacher  of 
Christian  libertie,  and  open  rebooker  of  all  superstitioun,  to  doe  with 
the  dregges  of  that  Romish  beast ;  yea,  what  is  he  that  ought  not 
to  feare  either  to  tak  in  his  hand,  or  his  forehead,  the  print  and 
marke  of  that  odious  beast  ?  Our  brethrein  who  refuse  of  con- 
science that  unprofitable  apparell,  doe  neither  damne  nor  molest 
you  that  use  suche  vaine  trifles.  If  yee  sail  doe  the  like  to  them, 
we  doubt  not  but  therin  yee  sail  please  God,  and  comfort  the 
hearts  of  manie  who  are  wounded  with  the  extremitie  which  is 
used  against  these  godlie,  and  our  beloved  brethrein.  Colour  of  rhe- 
torick  or  manlie  perswasioun  we  will  use  none ;  but  chaiitablie  we 
desire  you  to  call  that  sentence  of  Peter  to  minde  :  '  Feede  the 
flocke  of  God  which  is  committed  to  your  charge,  cairing  for  it, 
not  by  constraint,  but  willinglie ;  not  as  though  yee  were  lords  over 
God's  heritage,  but  that  yee  maybe  exemples  to  the  flocke.'  Further, 
we  desire  you  to  meditat  upon  that  sentence  of  the  apostle, '  Give  no 
offence  neither  to  Jew,  nor  to  Grecian,  nor  to  the  Kirk  of  God.' 

"  In  what  conditioun  of  time  yee  and  we  both  travell  in  pro- 
moting of  Christ's  kingdome,  we  suppose  yee  be  not  ignorant. 
Therefore,  we  are  the  more  bold  to  exhort  you  to  walke  more  cir- 
cumspcctllc,  than  to  trouble  the  godlie  for  suche  vaniteis :  for  all 
things  Avhich  may  seemc  lawfull  edifie  not.  If  the  commandement 
of  the  authoritie  urge  the  consciences  of  you  and  your  brethrein. 

334  calderwood's  historie  1566. 

with  further  than  they  can  beare,  we  unfainedlie  crave  of  you  that 
yee  remember,  that  yee  are  called  the  '  light  of  the  world,'  and  the 
*  salt  of  the  earth.'  All  that  are  in  civill  authoritie  have  not  the 
light  of  God  shining  before  their  eyes,  in  their  statuts  and  com- 
mandements,  but  their  affectiouns  savour  over  muche  of  the  earth, 
and  of  worldlie  wisdome  ;  and  therefore  we  thinke  yee  sould  bold- 
lie  oppone  your  self  not  onhe  to  all  that  power  that  will  or  darre 
extoll  the  self  against  God,  but  also  against  all  suche  as  darre  bur- 
thein  the  consciences  of  the  faithfuU,  farther  than  God  hath  bur- 
thenned  them  by  his  owne  Word.  But  heerin  we  may  confesse 
our  offence,  that  we  have  entered  in  reasouning  farther  than  we 
purposed  and  promised  at  the  beginning.  And,  therefore,  we 
shortlie  returne  to  our  former  humble  supplicatioun,  which  is,  that 
our  brethrein  Avho  among  you  refuse  the  Romish  rags  may  find  of 
you,  the  prelats,  suche  favour,  as  our  Head  and  Maister  com- 
mandeth  everie  one  of  his  members  to  show  one  to  another ;  which 
we  looke  to  receave  of  your  gentlenesse,  not  onlie  for  that  yee  feare 
to  offend  God's  Majestic  in  troubling  of  your  brethrein  for  suche 
vaine  triffles,  but  also,  becaus  yee  will  not  refuse  the  humble  re- 
queist  of  us,  your  brethrein  and  fellow-preachers  of  Christ  Jesus, 
in  whom,  albeit  there  appeareth  no  great  worldlie  pompe,  yitt,  we 
suppose,  yee  will  not  so  farre  despise  us,  but  that  yee  will  esteeme 
us  to  be  of  the  number  of  these  that  fight  against  that  Roman  An- 
tichrist, and  travell  that  the  kingdome  of  Christ  Jesus  may  be 
univei'sallie  advanced.  The  dayes  are  evill,  iniquitie  aboundeth. 
Christian  charitie  groAveth  cold.  Therefore,  we  ouglit  the  more 
diligentlie  to  watche,  for  the  houre  is  uncertan  when  the  Lord 
Jesus  sail  appeare,  before  whom  yee,  your  brethrein,  and  we,  must 
give  acompt  of  om'  administration.  And  thus,  in  conclusioun,  Ave 
once  again  crave  favour  to  our  brethrein  ;  Avhich  granted,  yee,  in 
the  Lord,  sail  command  us  in  things  of  double  more  importance. 
The  Lord  Jesus  rule  your  hearts  in  his  true  feare  to  the  end,  and 
give  to  you  and  to  us  victorie  over  that  conjured  enemie  to  all  true 
religioun,  to  witt,  over  that  Roman  Antichrist,  Avhose  Avounded 
head  Satan  by  all  meanes  laboureth  to   cure  again.     But  to  de- 

1566.  OF   THE   KIRK   OF   SCOTLAND.  335 

struction  sail  he  and  his  mainteaners  goe,  by  the  poAver  of  the 
Lord  Jesus,  to  whose  mightie  protectioun  we  heartilie  committ 
you.  From  Edinburgh,  out  of  our  Generall  Assemblie,  and  thrid 
sessioun  therof,  the  27th  of  December,  1566. 

"  Your  loving  brethrein  and  fellow-preachers  in  Christ  Jesus  : — 

"  Johne  Craig.  James  Melvill. 

"  Robert  Pont.  William  Christesone. 

"  Nicol  Spittell.  Johne  liow. 

"  David  Lindsay.  Johne  Areskine. 

"  Johne  Wynrame.  Johne  Spotswod." 


It  was  ordeaned,  that  humble  supplicatioun  sould  be  made  to 
the  Lords  of  Secreit  Counsell,  tuiching  the  commissioun  of  juris- 
dictioun  supponned,  granted  to  the  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  to 
the  effect  their  honours  may  stay  the  same,  in  respect  that  the 
causes  for  the  most  part  judged  by  his  usurped  authoritie  perteane 
to  the  true  ku'k.  And  howbeit  for  hope  of  good  things,  the  As- 
semblie did  oversee  the  queen's  commissioun  givin  to  suche  as  were 
for  the  most  part  brethrein,  yitt  can  they  no  wise  be  content  that 
the  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  a  conjured  enemie  to  Christ,  use 
that  jurisdictioun,  and  als,  because  in  respect  of  that  coloured  com- 
missioun, he  might  usurpe  again  his  old  usiu-ped  authoritie ;  and 
the  same  might  be  the  meane  to  oppresse  the  Avhole  kirk,  by  his 
corrupt  judgement.     The  tenor  of  the  supplicatioun  followeth  : — 

"  The  Generall  Assemblie  of  the  Kirk  of  Scotland,  convcened 
at  Edinburgh,  the  25th  of  December,  1566,  to  the  Nobilitie 
of  this  realme  that  professe  the  Lord  Jesus  with  them,  and 
hath  renounced  that  Koman  Antichrist,  desire  constancie 
in  faith,  and  the  spirit  of  righteous  judgement. 

"  Seing  that  Satan  by  all  our  negligences  (right  honorable)  hath 

336  calderwood's  historie  1566. 

so  farre  prevailed  within  this  realme  of  late  dayes,  that  we  doe 
stand  in  extreme  danger  not  onlie  to  lose  our  temporall  possessiouns, 
but  also  to  be  deprived  of  the  glorious  Evangell  of  Jesus  Christ, 
and  so  we,  and  our  posteritie,  to  be  left  in  damnable  darknesse ; 
we  could  no  longer  conteane  ourselves,  nor  keepe  silence,  least,  in 
so  doing,  we  might  be  accused  as  guiltie  of  the  blood  of  suche  as 
sail  perishe  for  laike  of  admonitioun,  as  the  prophet  threatneth. 
We,  therefore,  in  the  feare  of  our  God,  and  with  greef  and  anguish 
of  our  heart,  compleane  unto  your  honours :  yea,  we  must  com- 
pleane  unto  God,  and  to  all  his  obedient  creatures,  that  that  con- 
jured enemie  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  cruell  murtherer  of  our  deare 
brethrein,  most  falslie  stiled  Archbishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  is  re- 
poned  and  restored  by  signature  past  to  his  former  tyrannic :  for 
not  onlie  are  liis  ancient  jurisdictions,  as  they  are  termed,  of  the 
whole  Bishoprick  of  Sanct  Andrewes  granted  unto  him,  but  also 
the  executioun  of  judgement,  confirmatioun  of  testaments,  and 
donatioun  of  benefices,  as  more  amplie  in  his  signature  is  expressed. 
If  this  be  not  to  cure  the  head  of  the  venemous  beast,  which  once 
within  this  realme,  by  the  potent  hand  of  God,  was  so  brokin  doun 
and  banished,  that  by  tyrannic  it  could  not  have  hurt  the  faithfull, 
judge  yee.  His  ancient  jurisdiction  was,  that  he,  with  certan  col- 
legues,  collaterals,  might  have  damned  of  heresie  upon  probation, 
as  pleased  him  and  them  ;  to  tak  all  that  were  suspected  of  heresie. 
What  they  have  judged  to  be  heresie  heertofore,  yee  cannot  be 
ignorant,  and  whether  they  remaine  in  their  former  malice  or 
not,  their  fruicts  and  travells  openlie  declare.  '  The  danger  may 
be  feared,'  say  yee  ;  '  but  what  remedie  ?'  It  is  easie  and  at  hand, 
right  honorable,  if  yee  will  not  betray  the  cans  of  God,  and  leave 
your  brethi-ein,  which  will  never  be  more  subject  to  that  usurped 
tyrannic,  than  they  will  to  the  devUl  himself.  Our  queene,  belike, 
is  not  Weill  informed.  She  ought  not,  nor  justlie  may  not,  break 
the  lawes  of  this  realme ;  and  so,  consequentlie,  she  may  not  sett 
up  against  us,  without  our  consents,  that  Roman  Antichrist  againe. 
For  in  a  lawfull  and  most  free  parHament  that  ever  was  in  this 
realme  before,  was  that  odious  beast  deprived  of  all  jurisdiction. 

1506.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  3?)7 

office,  and  authoritie  within  the  realnie.  Her  Majestie,  at  her  first 
arrivall,  and  by  diverse  proclamations  sensync,  hath  expresslie  for- 
biddin  anie  other  fomnc  and  face  of  religion  than  that  which  she 
found  publictlie  established  at  her  arrivall.  Therefore  she  may  not 
bring  us  (the  greatest  part  of  the  subjects  of  this  realme)  backe 
againe  to  boundage,  till  that  als  lawfull  and  als  free  a  parliament 
as  justlie  damned  that  Antichrist  and  his  usurped  tyrannic,  have 
givin  decisioun  betAvixt  us  and  him.  If  lieerof,  and  of  other  things 
which  no  lesse  concerne  yourselves  than  us,  yee  plainlie  and  boldlie 
admonishe  our  soveran,  and  without  tumult  onlie  crave  justice,  the 
tyrans  darre  no  more  be  scene  in  lawfull  judgement,  than  darre 
the  owles  in  the  day  light.  Weygh  this  mater  as  it  is,  and  yee 
will  find  it  more  weyghtie  than  to  manic  it  appeareth.  Farther, 
at  this  present,  we  compleane  not,  but  humblie  crave  of  your  Hon- 
ours a  reasonable  ansAvere,  what  yee  will  doe  in  cace  suche  tyranns 
and  devourino;  woolves  beo-inne  to  invade  the  flocke  of  Jesus  Christ 
within  this  realme,  under  what  title  soever  it  be ;  for  this  we  bold- 
lie  professe,  that  we  Avill  never  acknowledge  suche,  either  pastors  to 
our  soules,  or  yitt  judges  to  our  causes.  And  if  for  denyaU  therof 
we  suffer  either  in  bodie  or  in  goods,  we  doubt  not  but  we  have 
not  onlie  a  Judge  to  punishe  them  that  unjustlic  trouble  us,  but 
also  an  Advocat  and  strong  Champion  in  heaven,  to  recompense 
them  who  for  his  name's  sake  suffer  persecution  ;  Avhose  Holie  Spirit 
rule  your  hearts  in  his  tnie  feare  to  the  end.  Your  Lordships' 
answere  yitt  againe  we  crave.  Givin  in  the  Generall  Assemblie, 
and  thrid  sessioun  therof,  at  Edinburgh,  the  27th  of  December." 

Mr  Knox  wrote  another  letter,  wherin  he  advertised  what  was 
the  danger  which  might  ensue  of  the  gift  and  power  granted  to  the 
bastard  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  as  followeth  : — 

"  The  Lord  cometh,   and  sail  not  tarie.     Blessed  sail  he   be 
whom  he  sail  find  fighting  against  impletie. 

"  To  deplore  the  misereis  of  these  our  most  wicked  dayes,  (be- 
loved brethrein,)  can  neither  greatlie  profite  us,  nather  yitt  releeve 
us  of  our  present  calamiteis  ;    and  yitt  utterlie  to  keepe  silence 
VOL.  II.  T 

888  caldeuwood's  histoeie  1566. 

cannot  laike  the  suspicioun  of  apostasie,  and  plaine  def'ectioun  frome 
God,  and  frome  his  truthe  once  by  us  pubhcklie  professed.  For 
now  are  maters  that  in  yeeres  hypast  have  beene  denyed  so  farre 
discovered,  that  lie  who  seeth  not  the  plaine  subversioun  of  all  true 
religioun  within  this  realme  to  be  concluded,  and  decreed  in  the 
hearts  of  some,  must  either  confesse  himself  blind,  or  elles  an  ene- 
mie  to  the  religioun  which  we  professe.  For  besides  the  open 
erecting  of  idolatrie  in  diverse  parts  of  this  realme,  and  besides  the 
extreme  povertie  wherin  our  ministers  are  brought,  by  reasoun  that 
idle  belleis  are  fed  upon  that  ivhich  justlie  apperteaneth  to  suche 
as  truelie  preache  Christ  Jesus,  and  rightlie  and  by  order  minister 
his  blessed  sacraments,  that  cruell  murtherer  of  our  brethrein, 
falselie  called  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  most  unjustlie,  and  against 
all  law,  hath  presumed  to  his  former  tyrannic,  as  a  signature  past 
for  his  restitutioun  to  his  ancient  jurisdiction  (as  it  is  termed)  more 
fuUie  doth  proport.  What  end  may  be  looked  for  of  suche  begin- 
nings, the  halfe  blind  may  see,  as  we  suppose.  And  yitt,  Ave  have 
heard,  that  a  certan  summe  of  money  and  victuals  sould  be  assign- 
ed by  the  queen e's  Majestic,  for  sustentatioun  of  our  ministrie. 
But  how  that  anie  suche  assignatioun,  or  anie  promise  made  therof, 
can  stand  in  anie  stable  assurance,  when  that  Roman  Antichrist,  by 
just  lawes  once  banished  frome  this  realme,  sail  be  intrused  above 
us,  we  can  no  wise  understand.  Yea,  farther,  we  cannot  see  what 
assurance  can  anie  within  this  realme  that  hath  professed  the  Lord 
Jesus  have,  of  life  or  inheritance,  if  the  head  of  that  odious  beast 
be  cured  among  us.  And,  therefore,  w^e  yitt  again,  in  the  bowells 
of  Christ  Jesus,  crave  of  you  to  looke  unto  this  mater,  and  to  ad- 
vertise us  againe  with  reasonable  expeditioun  of  your  judgements, 
that  in  the  feare  of  God,  and  with  unitie  of  mindes,  we  may  pro- 
ceed to  crave  justice,  and  oppone  ourselves  to  suche  tyrannic  as 
most  unjustlie  is  intended  ngainst  us  :  for,  if  we  thinke  not  that 
this  last  erecting  of  that  wicked  man  is  the  verie  setting  up  againe 
of  that  Roman  Antichrist  within  this  realme,  we  are  deprived  of 
all  right  judgement.  And  what  is  that  dies  but  to  separat  us  and 
our  posteritie  frome  God  ;  yea,  and  to  cutt  ourselves  frome  the 
freedomc  of  this  realme?    AVc  desire,  therefore,  that   the  wisest 

loGC).  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  839 

among  you  consider  the  weight  of  this  cans,  which  long  hath  beenc 
neglected,  partlie  by  our  sleuth,  and  partlie  by  beleeving  faire  pro- 
mises, by  which,  to  this  houre,  we  have  beene  deceaved.  And, 
therefore,  we  ought  to  be  the  more  vigilent  and  circumspect,  espe- 
ciallie  seing  that  a  parliament  is  proclamed. 

"  We  have  sent  to  you  the  forme  of  a  Supplicatioun  and  Arti- 
cles, which  we  would  have  presented  to  the  queene's  Majestic.  If 
it  please  you,  we  Avould  yee  sould  approve  it  by  your  subscriptions  ; 
or  if  yee  would  alter  it,  we  desire  you  so  to  doe,  and  we  sail  allow 
whatsoever  yee  sail  propone,  not  repugnant  to  God.  If  it  sail  be 
thought  expedient  that  commissioners  of  countreis  sail  conveene, 
to  reasoun  upon  the  most  weightie  maters  that  now  occurre,  the 
time  and  place  appointed  by  you,  and  due  advertisement  givin  unto 
us,  by  God's  grace  there  sail  no  fault  be  found  in  us ;  but  as  frome 
the  beginning  we  have  nather  spaired  substance  nor  life,  so  minde 
we  not  to  faint  unto  the  end,  to  mainteane  the  same,  so  long  as  we 
can  find  the  concurrence  of  brethrein ;  of  whome  (as  God  forbid) 
if  we  be  destitvite,  yitt  are  we  determined  never  to  be  subject  to 
that  Roman  Antichrist,  nather  yitt  to  his  usurped  tyrannic.  But 
Avhen  that  we  can  doe  no  farther  to  suppresse  that  odious  beast, 
we  minde  to  scale  with  our  blood  to  our  posteritie,  that  the  bright 
knoAvledge  of  Jesus  Christ  hath  banished  that  man  of  sinne,  and 
his  venemous  doctrine,  fi*ome  our  hearts  and  consciences.  Lett 
this  our  letter  and  requeist  beare  witnesse  before  God,  before  his 
angells,  before  the  world,  and  before  your  owne  conscience,  that 
we  require  you  that  have  professed  the  Lord  Jesus  within  this 
realme,  als  weill  nobilitie  as  gentlemen,  burgesses,  and  commouns, 
to  deliberat  upon  the  estat  of  things  present  ;  and  speciallie,  whe- 
ther that  this  usurped  tyrannic  of  that  Roman  Antichrist  sail  be 
anie  longer  suffered  within  this  realme,  seing,  that  by  just  law  it 
is  alreadie  abolished. 

"  2.  Whether  that  we  sail  be  bound  to  feed  idle  belleis  upon  the 
patrimonie  of  the  kirk,  which  justlie  apperteaneth  to  ministers. 

"3.  Whether  that  idolatric,  and  other  abominations  which  now  are 
more  than  evident,  sail  by  us  anie  longer  be  inaintcancd  and  defended. 

340  calderavood's  histopje  1567. 

"  Answere  us  as  yee  will  answere  unto  God,  in  whose  feare  we 
send  these  our  letters  unto  you,  least  that  our  silence  sould  be 
compted  for  consent  unto  suche  impietie.  God  take  frome  our 
hearts  the  blind  love  of  oui'selves,  and  all  ungodlie  feare.  Amen. 
Lett  us  know  your  mindes  with  expeditioun." 


Mr  Knox  obteaned  licence  frome  the  Assemblie  to  passe  to  Eng- 
land, upon  conditioun  he  returne  before  the  25th  of  Junie  nixt  fol- 
lowing. It  appeareth  by  the  former  Assemblie,  that  by  some  oc- 
casioun,  the  exercise  of  his  ministrie  in  Edinburgh  was  suspended 
for  a  w^hile.  For  there  we  find,  that  Mr  Johne  Craig,  minister  of 
Edinburgh,  desired  that  Johne  Cairns,  exhorter,  might  be  joyned 
with  him  as  collegue,  in  respect  he  was  alone.  This  hath  come, 
belike,  through  the  malice  of  the  court,  displeased  with  his  free  re- 
booke  of  sinne.' 

Superintendents  were  injoyned  to  warne,  or  cause  to  be  warned, 
all  bishops,  abbots,  priours,  and  other  beneficed  persons  lifting  up 
tithes  within  their  jurisdiction,  to  compeere  at  the  nixt  Generall 


Whill  everle  man  looked  that  the  king  sould  have  ended  his 
dayes,  the  queene  pretended  everie  day  she  was  to  ryde  to  Glas- 
gow. But  being  uncertan  of  the  event  of  things,  her  first  care 
was,  to  have  her  young  sonne  transported  out  of  Stirline  to  Edin- 

'  The  following  brief  entry  in  the  Diurnal  of  Occurrents,  for  the  year  1 565,  ex- 
plains the  cause  of  this  suspension  : — "  Upoun  the  xix.  day  of  August  the  king  came 
to  Sanctgellis'  kirk,  and  .Tohne  Knox  preachit ;  quhairat  he  was  crabbit,  and  causit 
discharge  the  said  Johne  of  liis  prcitching."  This  perhaps  was  Darnley's  greatest 
exertion  of  influence  during  the  heyday  of  his  very  short-lived  favour  with  the  queen, 
and  a  part  of  the  nobility. 

15G7.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  341 

burgh  Castell.  She  pretended  the  wackenesse'  and  coldnesse  of 
the  aire  ;  but  the  lilce  was  no  lesse  incommodious  in  Edinburg-h  Cas- 
tell.     He  is  transported  frome  Stirliue  in  Januar. 


The  king  is  like  to  overcome  the  force  of  the  poysoun,  by  the 
vigour  of  his  youtli,  and  to  recover  his  health.  The  quecnc  hear- 
eth,  that  he  had  intentioun  to  passe  to  France  or  Spaine,  and  had 
some  dealing  with  the  English  men  for  that  eiFect,  Avho  had  a  shippe 
lying  into  Clyde  Firth.  This  bruit  was  spread  by  his  enemeis ; 
yea,  some  offered  to  kill  him,  if,  when  the  queene  sent  for  him,  he 
refused  to  come.  The  queene,  after  she  had  sent  sundrie  letters, 
to  purge  herself  of  her  unkindenesse,  went  to  GlasgoAV,  and  tookc 
with  her  the  Hammiltons,  the  cheefe  enemeis  of  his  father's  hous, 
and  among  the  rest,  the  bastard  bishop,  who  had  beene  latelie  re- 
conciled to  her.  What  Avas  the  maner  of  her  visitation  she  herself 
sheweth,  in  a  letter  writtin  to  Bothwell,  Avhom  she  left  behind,  to 
prepare  a  loodging  for  him  in  Edinburgh.  In  this  letter,  she  telleth 
him  that  the  king  had  sent  for  one  of  her  servants,  Joacliin,  and 
inquired  if  she  Avere  come  for  reconciliation  or  not ;  and  whether 
BotliAvell  was  come,  and  whether  she  had  takin  Paris  and  Gilbert 
in  service  :  how  that  when  she  come  to  him,  he  said,  that  the  sight 
of  her  was  so  joyfull  to  him,  that  he  thought  he  sould  dee  for  verie 
joy,  and  was  sorie  that  she  was  so  sad  ;  how  that  he  requeisted  her 
to  come  to  him  after  supper  againe,  which  she  did  :  that  he  imputed 
the  caus  of  his  sicknesse  to  her  strangeness  :  that  he  would  make 
no  other  testament,  but  leave  all  to  her :  that  he  confessed  that  he 
had  offended  her,  but  not  in  that  which  he  had  constantlie  denyed  : 
that  he  had  offended  some  of  her  subjects,  but  the  fault  was  for- 
givin  by  her,  and  promised  never  to  committ  the  like  offences 
againe :  that  he  sought  no  other  thing  of  her  but  fellowship  at  bed 
and  boord,  otherwise  he  sould  never  rise  out  of  that  bed  :  that  he 
suffered  mceklc  painc  becaus  he  had  made  her  a  God  :   that  the 

'  Dampness. 

342  calderwood's  histokie  1567. 

caus  wherefore  he  offended  her  is,  becaus  when  he  is  offended,  he 
can  find  no  comfort  nor  assistance  at  her  hands,  Avhich  greeved 
him :  that  he  denyed  constantlie  he  had  anie  iutentioun  to  flee 
away  in  an  EngHsh  sliip,  but  denyed  not  he  had  conference  with 
some  English  men  :  that  Minto  tokl  him,  that  one  of  the  comisell 
had  brought  to  her  a  warrant  to  subscrive,  to  command  him  either 
to  enter  in  waird,  or,  if  he  obeyed  not,  to  slay  him  :  that  he  was  de- 
sirous to  have  her  loodge  beside  him,  but  that  she  refused,  and  ad- 
vised him  to  take  purgatioun  :  that  she  said  to  him,  that  she  would 
tak  him  for  that  effect  to  Craigmillar,  where  he  might  have  physi- 
cians neere  at  hand,  and  she  herself  might  visite  him :  that  she  never 
saw  him  in  better  health,  nor  ever  heard  him  speeke  with  greater 
submissioun :  that  his  father  bled  at  the  nose  and  mouth  that  day, 
which  she  willed  him  to  conjecture  what  that  did  presage :  that 
she  did  what  she  could  to  exeme  all  feare  and  doubts  out  of  his 
minde  :  that  he  was  not  greatlie  deformed,  yitt  had  gottin  muche  : 
that  he  had  almost  killed  her  with  his  breathe,  but  that  she  satt 
not  before  him,  but  in  a  chaire,  at  his  bed  end :  that  he  feared  his 
owne  Hfe,  and  that  which  was  in  working,  but  with  two  or  three 
faire  words  was  made  againe  free  of  suspicioun :  that  he  goeth 
wood  when  Lethington  is  named  :  that  she  was  working  late  at 
night  upon  a  bracelett,  which  she  was  to  send  to  him,  and  Avilleth 
Bothwell  to  remember  of  the  loodging  at  Edinbiu'gh,  Manie  love 
words  she  useth  to  Bothwell  in  this  letter,  and  willetli  him  not  to  be 
miscarreid  with  his  owne  wive's  fained  teares,  or  her  brother  the  Erie 
of  Huntlie  his  speeches,  and  refereth  sundrie  things  to  the  bearer. 
She  wrote  other  two  letters  also  to  Bothwell  at  the  same  time. 


When  the  queenc  Avith  great  difficultie  had,  partlic  by  upbraid- 
ing and  compleaning,  partlie  by  flatterie,  perswaded  the  king  her 
husband  of  her  renewed  affectioun,  he  was  content  to  be  transported 
to  Edinburgh,  howbeit  he  had  not  yitt  fuUie  recovered  his  health. 
lie  was  careid  in  a  litter,  and  brought  to  a  loodging  a[)pointed  for 

]5()7.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  343 

him  in  Edinburgh,  in  the  Kirk  of  Feild,  neere  the  town,  wall,  the 
most  desert  j'lace  of"  the  toun.  Manie  of  his  servants  forsmelHng 
danger,  left  him.  The  few  that  remained  could  by  no  meanes  gett 
the  keyes  of  the  loodging.  The  pretence  of  choosing  this  loodging 
was,  the  wholesomnesse  of  the  aire.  A  posterne  gate  was  made  in 
the  toun  wall,  that  he  might  goe  furth  to  the  feilds,  when  he  pleased, 
to  refreshe  himselfe,  as  was  pretended.  The  time  was  no  lesse 
fitting  than  the  place,  for  Argile,  Atholl,  Iluntlie,  Bothwell,  Flee- 
ming,  Glames,  Livingston,  Arbi'othe,  the  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes, 
and  sindrie  others  of  the  nobihtie,  Avere  in  the  toun,  in  the  meane 
time,  so  that  others  might  have  beene  brought  under  suspicioun  as 
Weill  as  the  guiltie.  Whill  as  he  was  writting  to  his  father,  and 
assm'ing  him,  by  manie  evidences,  of  the  queene's  sincei'c  love,  the 
queene  cometh  in,  and  after  she  had  read  his  letters,  kisseth  him, 
embraceth  him  often,  and  sheweth,  that  she  now  perceaved  there 
rested  no  scruple  or  suspicioun  in  liis  heart.  The  Erie  of  Murrey 
addresseth  himself  to  his  journey  toward  Sanct  Andrewes,  to  visite 
his  ladie  lying  neere  the  point  of  death.  The  queene  deteaneth 
him  to  dismisse  honorablie,  as  she  pretended,  the  Duke  of  Savoye's 
ambassader,  who  Avas  sent  to  the  baptisme  of  her  sonnc,  but  came 
too  late.  He  stayed,  howbeit  the  cans  was  not  so  weiglitie,  as  to 
stay  him  frome  visiting  his  Avife  lying  in  childbed.  The  queene 
visiteth  the  king  daylie,  and  reconcileth  him  and  Bothwell.  The 
queene's  base  brother.  Lord  Robert,  reveeled  to  him  secreitlie  Avhat 
was  intended  against  him,  and  Avilled  him  to  provide  for  the  safetie 
of  his  life,  als  Aveill  as  he  mio;ht.  But  he  could  conceale  nothinir 
frome  the  queene.  Lord  Robert  is  called  for,  and  denyeth  that  he 
had  spokin  anie  suche  thing.  After  they  had  givin  other  the  lee, 
they  putt  their  hands  to  their  Aveapons.  The  queene  calleth  for 
the  Erie  of  Murrey  to  ridde  them.  None  other  Avas  present  but 
BothAvell,  who  Avas  readie  to  have  dispatched  either  the  one  or  the 
other,  as  he  sould  be  found  inferiour.  The  queene  caused  carie  her 
bed  out  of  the  palace  to  the  king's  loodging,  to  the  chamber  be- 
neath the  chamber  where  the  king  lay.  She  made  more  travell 
nor  she  needed  ;  for  the  king  might  have  lyin  in  the  palace  neere 

344  calderwood's  histokie  1567. 

herself,  where  the  aire  was  more  wholesome.  Upon  the  Lord's 
day,  the  ninth  of  Februar,  the  Erie  of  Mm-rey  being  advertised  that 
his  ladie  had  parted  with  her  birth,  would  not  be  stayed  at  the 
queene's  requeist  one  day  longer,  but  tooke  journey  presentlie  be- 
fore sermoun. 

That  day  was  Sebastian,  one  of  the  queene's  minstrellers,  mareid. 
The  queene  passed  over  the  day  at  the  briddell,  in  the  palace. 
After  supper,  she  went  up  frome  the  palace  to  the  Kirk  of  Feild, 
to  the  king's  loodging.  She  shewed  not  suche  kindnesse  to  him 
seven  moneths  before  as  then.  She  kissed  him,  and  gave  him  a 
ring.  Among  other  speeches,  she  said,  that  about  the  same  time 
bygane  a  yeere,  David  Rizio  was  slaine.  As  soone  as  Paris,  a 
Frenche  man,  one  of  the  partakers  of  the  murther,  came  in  her 
sight,  when  she  was  in  the  king's  chamber,  she  would  needs  he 
gone,  for  she  had  forgo ttin  a  peece  of  duetie,  and  had  not  daunced 
after  supper,  and  convoyed  Sebastian's  bride  to  her  bed,  according 
to  the  fashioun.  The  queene's  bed  had  beene  brought  out  of  the 
loodging,  and  a  courser  placed  in  the  roome  of  it.  The  king,  after 
her  departm'c,  beganne  to  recount  to  his  servants  manie  speeches 
which  passed  that  day,  which  might  cherishe  his  hope  of  restitutioun 
to  his  former  place  in  the  queene's  affectioun ;  yitt  the  mentioun  of 
Seigneur  Davie's  slaughter  seemed  unseasonable,  and  marred  all 
the  pleasure  he  could  otherwise  reape  of  anie  thing  she  had  done 
or  spokin.  After  the  queene  returned  to  the  palace,  accompaneid 
with  the  Erles  of  Argile,  Huntlie,  and  Cassils,  she  had  conference 
a  long  time  with  Bothwell.  When  he  came  to  his  owne  chamber, 
he  changed  his  apparell,  and  came  to  the  toun,  accompaneid  with 
some  of  his  complices.  Two  other  companeis  came  sindrie  wayes 
to  the  place  appointed.  Some  went  into  his  chamber,  and  strangled 
him,  and  another  servant,  lying  in  another  bed  beside,  when  they 
were  sound  sleeping.  After  that,  they  careid  them  by  a  posterne 
gate  to  the  yards  nixt  adjacent :  then  was  the  hous  blowin  up  in 
the  aire.  The  loodgings  ncere  hand  did  shake,  and  these  who  Avere 
sleeping  in  the  toun  Avere  wakened  with  astonishment.  Bothwell 
returneth  another  way  than  he  went.     The  queene  calleth  for  the 

1567.  OF  THE  KlllK  OF  SCOTLAND.  345 

noblemen  that  were  in  the  palace,  and  sent  some  to  leanie  what 
the  noise  and  tumult  meant.  BothweU  was  sent  for  among  the 
rest.  These  Avho  were  sent  found  the  Idng  lying  naked  in  a  yaird, 
with  the  shirt  upon  him,  and  his  clothes  and  shoes  lying  apart  be- 
side him,  neither  burnt  nor  singed.  Everie  man  concluded  in  his 
owne  minde  that  he  was  not  blowne  up,  as  Bothwell  imagined  they 
would  conceave.  His  bodie  was  nather  bruised  nor  brokin.  Both- 
well  relateth  to  the  queene  what  he  had  heard  and  scene,  as  one 
ignorant,  and  woundering  at  the  mater.  The  queene  went  to  bed, 
and  sleeped,  till  a  great  part  of  the  day  was  spent. 

In  the  meane  time  the  bruite  was  spread,  and  the  report  careid  to 
England- before  the  nixt  day,  that  the  king  was  murthered  by  the 
Erles  of  Murrey  and  Morton's  device.  But  if  they  had  beene  the 
authors  of  this  vile  murther,  why  Avere  they  not  apprehended,  or 
charged  to  underly  triell  ?  It  is  true  that  Morton,  in  Junie  before, 
obteaned  libertie  to  retunie  home  by  Bothwell  his  procm'cment, 
upon  conditioun  he  came  not  within  a  mile  to  court.  Bothwell  was 
carefull  to  gaiue  freinds,  at  least  to  avert  enemeis,  by  some  bene- 
fite.  Howbeit  Morton  understood  what  was  in  Avorkmg,  yitt  durst 
he  not  reveele  it  to  the  king,  for  he  saw  by  experience  his  futilitie, 
in  reveeling  to  the  queene  Avhat  Lord  Kobert  had  discovered  to 
him.  His  persuing  of  BothweU  after  may  cleare  him  sufficicntlie 
of  the  vile  imputation  of  art,  part,  or  counsell  of  Bothwell.  Farre 
lesse  could  this  imputation  be  fastened  upon  the  Erie  of  MuiTcy. 
The  commouns  of  the  countrie  spaired  not  to  affirme  that  Both- 
well,  with  knowledge  and  consent  of  the  ([uccne,  together  with  his 
complices,  were  the  authors  and  actors  of  this  vile'murther.  The 
bastard  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes  loodged  that  night  in  the  Erie 
of  Ai-ran's  loodging,  the  neerest  loodging  to  the  hous  which  was 
blowin  up  in  the  aire  ;  where  as  before,  he  Avount  to  loodge  in  some 
conspicuous  part  of  the  toun,  where  there  Avas  greatest  repaire  to 
hunt  for  salutatiouns.  Light  Avas  scene  in  his  loodging  till  the 
hous  Avas  bloAvin  up  ;  and  then  the  lights  Avere  putt  out,  and  his  ser- 
vants and  dependers,  Avho  had  beene  Avatching  till  that  time  in  their 
armour,  forbiddin  to  goe  furth.     Is  it  likelie  the  Erles  of  Murrey 

346  calderwood's  historie  1567. 

and  Morton  would  have  made  this  bastard  bishop  privie  to  the  con- 
spiracie,  if  they  had  contrived  anie  ?  Thus  have  yee  heard  the 
maner  of  miu'thering  King  Heni'ie,  upon  the  tenth  of  Februar,  as 
Buchanan  hath  sett  it  doun  in  his  Detectioun  and  his  Historie. 
Manie  particulars  were  discovered  after,  which  we  reserve  to  their 
owne  places.  The  circumstances  alreadie  mentioned  may  serve 
for  an  apologie  for  the  Erles  of  Murrey  and  Morton.  They  brought 
him  not  to  Edinburgh,  they  appointed  him  not  his  loodging.  If 
the  Erie  of  Murrey  had  aspired  to  the  crowne,  he  would  have 
caused  blow  up  the  hous  some  night  when  the  queene  lay  there. 


When  manie  of  the  commoun  people  had  gazed  long  upon  the 
king's  corps,  the  queene  caused  it  to  be  brought  doun  to  the  palace 
by  some  pyoners.  She  beheld  the  corps  without  anie  outward 
signe  of  joy  or  sorrow.  When  the  lords  had  concluded  among 
themselves  that  he  sould  be  honorablie  bureid,  the  queene  caused 
his  corps  to  be  careid  by  some  pyoners  in  the  niglit,  without  so- 
lemnitie,  and  to  be  layed  beside  the  sepulchre  of  David  Rizio.  If 
there  had  beene  anie  solemne  buriall,  Buchanan  had  wanted 
witt  to  relate  otherwise,  seing  there  would  have  beene  so  manie 
witnesses  to  testifie  the  contrare  ;  tlierefore  the  contriver  of  the  late 
Historie  of  Queene  Marie  wanted  policie  lieere  to  convoy  a  lee. 


The  nixt  night  after  the  murther,  the  palace  being  watched,  as  the 
maner  is  in  time  of  tumult,  with  armed  men,  the  Erie  of  Atholl's 
servants  heare,  as  it  were,  some  undermyning  the  wall  of  his  cham- 
ber without ;  wherupon  his  servants  watched  all  that  night.  The 
day  following,  he  went  to  the  toun,  and  soon  after  conveyed  him- 
self away  secreitlie  out  of  the  toun.  He  was  most  greeved,  becaus 
he  was  neerc  of  kin  to  the  king,  and  the  clicefe  procurer  of  the 

1567.  OF  THE  KlUK  OF  SCOTLAND.  o47 


When  the  Eric  of  Murrey  returneth  from  Sanct  Andrewes  to 
court,  armed  men  were  scene  about  his  loodging.  But,  becaus  his 
domesticks  watched  all  the  night,  by  reasoun  he  was  sore  vexed 
with  tlie  gutt,  his  enemeis  were  disappointed.  Upon  another  night, 
Bothwell  pretending  he  would  goe  visite  him,  becaus  he  was  dis- 
eased with  the  gutt,  intended  to  cutt  him  off  with  his  owne  hand. 
But,  by  the  way,  he  was  advertised  that  he  was  removed  to  Lord 
Robert's  loodging,  to  be  free  of  the  noise  and  dinne  of  the  palace. 


The  queene,  according  to  an  ancient  custome,  sould  have  keeped 
herself  fourtie  dayes  within,  and  the  doores  and  windowes  sould 
have  beene  closed,  in  tokin  of  mourning ;  but  the  windowes  were 
opened,  to  lett  in  light,  within  the  fourth  day.  Before  the  twelth 
day,  she  went  furth  to  Seton,  not  regarding  what  the  people  either 
thought  or  said ;  Bothwell  never  parting  from  her  side.  There  she 
went  out  to  the  feilds,  to  behold  games  and  pastymes.  In  the 
meane  time  cometh  Monsieur  le  Crocke,  who  had  beene  sent  di- 
verse times  before  out  of  France.  He  showed  how  odious  the  fact 
was  in  forraine  countreis.  The  queene  returneth  to  Edinburgh, 
but,  within  few  dayes,  went  furth  again  to  Seton.  The  king's 
armour,  horse,  and  houshold  stufFe,  were  bestowed  upon  the  mur- 
therers.  A  certane  tailyeour,  when  he  Avas  to  reforme  the  king's 
apparrell  to  Bothwell,  said,  jesting,  he  acknowledged  heere  the  cus- 
tome of  the  countric,  by  which  the  clothes  of  the  dead  fall  to  the 

Soone   after  the  nuu-ther,  Bothwell  and  some  of  his   comi)lices 

348  calderwood's  histokie  1567. 

went  to  the  Erie  of  Ai-gile,  Lord  Cheefe  Justice,  aud  craved  inqui- 
sitioun  to  be  made,  as  if  they  had  beene  ignorant  and  innocent  them- 
selves. Some  sillie  poore  weomen  were  examined.  They  tem- 
pered their  language  as  they  could ;  yitt  some  words  escaped  which 
the  inquisitors  expected  not.  They  were  dismissed  as  rash  and 
foolish.  The  king's  servants,  so  manie  as  escaped  the  danger,  were 
demanded  how  the  murtherers  could  gett  entrance  ?  It  was  an- 
swered, They  had  not  the  keyes.  It  was  asked,  "  Who  had  them  ?" 
They  answered,  "  The  queene."  Farther  inquisitioun  was  in  shew 
delayed,  but  in  effect  suppressed.  Least  the  triell  sould  seeme  al- 
together to  be  deserted,  a  summe  of  money  was  offered,  by  publick 
proclamatioun,  to  anie  would  detect  the  murtherers.  No  man  durst 
accuse  Bothwell,  yitt  the  people  spaired  not  to  speeke  freelie.  Li- 
bells  and  pictures  were  affixed  on  conspicuous  places :  sundrie, 
walking  through  the  streets  in  the  darke  night,  proclamed  the 
names  of  the  guiltie.  Sharper  inquirie  was  made  to  find  out  the 
authors  of  these  libells,  pictures,  and  night  proclamatiouns,  than  to 
find  out  the  murtherers  :  no  paines,  no  expenses  were  spaired.  All 
who  could  write  faire,  or  draw  pictures  within  the  toun,  were  tried. 
An  edict  was  published  by  open  proclamatioun,  that  no  man  sett 
furth,  or  read  anie  of  these  libells,  under  the  paine  of  death. 


The  queene  dealeth  with  the  Erie  of  Marr's  freinds  for  the  cas- 
tell  of  Edinburgh,  for  the  erle  himself  was  lying  sicke  at  Stirline. 
It  was  agreed,  at  lenth,  that  her  sonne  sould  be  delivered  to  him 
at  Stirline,  providing  some  of  his  speciall  freinds  were  delivered  as 
pledges  in  the  meane  time.  So  the  castell  was  delivered  to  the 
queene,  Avhich  ought  not  to  have  beene  done  without  [consent]  of  the 
estats ;  for  upon  that  condition  it  was  committed  to  his  custodie. 


The  Erie  of  Lennox  not  darring  come  ncere  the  court,  urgctli, 

1567.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  849 

notwithstanding,  by  missives,  tlmt  tlie  queene  would  cans  Bothwell 
be  committed  to  waird,  and  deteaned  therin  till  he  suffered  triell. 
Seing  it  could  not  be  longer  shifted,  it  was  hastened  before  the 
parliament,  which  was  to  be  holdin  the  13th  of  Aprile.  The  Erie 
of  Lennox,  his  mother,  and  neerest  kinsmen,  ought  to  have  beene 
summouned  to  compeere  within  fourtie  dayes,  to  accuse  either  by 
themselves,  or  by  some  procurators.  But  the  erle  himself  onlie  is 
summouned  to  compeere  the  13tli  day  of  Aprile,  and  discharged  to 
come  accompaneid  otherwise  than  with  his  domestick  servants. 
Bothwell,  in  the  meane  time,  jetteth  up  and  doun  the  street  with 
great  companeis  of  men.  The  Erie  of  Lennox,  fearing  to  come 
among  his  foes  without  his  freinds,  and  looking  for  no  sincere  deal- 
ing, compeered  not ;  so  Bothwell  was  both  defender  and  accuser. 
Robert  Cunninghame,  a  gentleman  of  the  hous  of  Lennox,  took  in- 
struments and  documents,  that  they  proceeded  not  according  to  order 
of  law  and  justice  :  that  the  defender  had  strenthened  himself  against 
all  feare  of  punishment ;  and  the  accuser  durst  not  compeere  to  ac- 
cuse, for  feare  of  his  life.  He  protested,  whatsoever  sentence  sould 
be  pronounced  in  favour  of  the  defender,  it  soidd  be  null,  and  of  no 
force.  They  proceed  notwithstanding ;  and,  least  it  sould  be 
thought  that  they  had  committed  wilfull  errour,  they  protested 
that  thev  absolved  him  for  laike  of  an  accuser.  Some  alledo-ed, 
that  they  were  appointed  judges  of  a  mui'ther  committed  the  9th  of 
Februar,  when  as  the  murther  wherof  he  was  accused  was  com- 
mitted the  10th  of  Februar.  By  suche  trickes  he  Avas  not  clenged, 
but  the  slaunder  augmented.  BetAvixt  the  summoning  of  the  assise 
and  the  day  ajipointed  for  triell,  thei*e  was  a  libell  affixed  in  pub- 
lick,  wherin  the  cheefe  that  were  upon  the  assise  were  published 
as  guiltie  of  the  same  murther.  Notwithstanding  of  the  murmur- 
ing of  the  people,  of  libells,  of  protestations,  and  instruments  takin, 
he  was  absolved  by  five  cries,  five  lords,  five  barons,  a  great  num- 
ber of  them  being  his  freinds  and  favourers.  Then  another  libell 
was  affixed  publicklie,  accusing  the  lords  of  wilfull  manswearing,  to 
colour  knaverie  ;  and  want  of  all  regarde  of  the  crodito  of  the  coun- 

350  calderavood's  historie  1567. 

trie.'  Some  of  tlie  lords  flattered  Bothwell,  withovit  anie  regard  to 
conscience  or  credit  of  the  countrie ;  others  Avere  in  feare,  becans 
Bothwell  was  great  in  court. 

botha\t:ll's  challenge  to  a  single  combat. 

Howbeit  Bothwell  was  absolved  by  the  assise,  when  he  came 
fm'th  out  of  the  tolbuith,  he  caused  sett  up  a  cartell  subscrived  Avith 
his  OAvne  hand,  wherin  he  offered  to  fight  in  singular  combat  with 
anie  gentle  man  undefamed,  that  durst  say  he  was  author  of 
the  king's  murther.  No  man  durst  answere  him  apertlie  at  this 
time ;  yitt  an  honorable  gentleman,  Avhose  name  was  then  lui- 
knowne,  affixed  upon  the  Croce  an  answere,  and  oflTered  to  proA^e, 

'  Both  of  these  libels  are  contained  in  Ca.lderwood's  lai'ger  History.  We  copy  the 
first  as  a  specimen  of  the  pasquinades  of  this  period. 

I  hold  it  best  ye  give  him  assise 

Of  them  that  wrought  the  interprise  ; 

And  consented  to  thatfoule  band, 

And  did  subscrive  it  with  their  hand  ; 

And  other  sillie,  simple  lords, 

Who  feare  their  hanging  into  cords. 

God  is  not  glee'd  thogh  ye  him  clenge  ; 

Beleeve  me,  weill  He  will  revenge 

The  slaughter  of  that  innocent  lambe  : 

Mihi  vindictam,  et  ego  retribnnm. 

Ye  wold  faine  clenge ;  I  love  it  the  war  ; 

It  makes  it  the  more  suspect  by  farre. 

The  farther  in  filth  ye  stampe,  but  doubt, 

The  fouller  sail  your  shoes  come  out. 

Ye,  being  chiftan  of  that  tryst, 

Ye  braid*  of  him  that  speired  at  Christ, 

"  An  sum  ego,  Jesu  Christe?" 

Who  answered,  "  Juda,  (u  dixisti" 

Here  I  advertise  yow  in  time, 

If  that  ye  clenge  him  of  that  crime, 

Ather  for  love,  or  yitt  for  terrour, 

I  sail  protest  for  wilfull  errour. 

*  Have  resemblnnoo. 


by  the  law  of  armcs,  that  he  was  the  cheefe  author  of  that  foule  and 
horrible  niurther,  howbeit  an  inqueist,  for  feare  of  then-  lives,  had 
slightlie  quitt  him.  Becaus  the  King  of  France  and  the  Queenc  of 
England  had,  by  their  ambassaders,  craved  a  triell  and  condigne 
punishment,  he  humblie  craved  of  their  Majesteis,  that  they  would 
desire  of  our  queene  a  day  might  be  appointed  with  her  consent, 
and  some  place  in  their  dominiouns,  where  the  same  may  be  tried 
by  the  law  of  amies,  in  their  Highnesse  presence,  or  their  deputeis. 
He  promised,  upon  the  faith  of  a  gentleman,  to  keepe  the  day  and 
the  place,  providing  safe  conduct  be  granted  by  their  Majesteis. 
He  promised  likewise,  that  the  rest  of  the  murtherers  sould  have 
the  like  oifer  made  to  them. 


At  this  time  a  parliament  was  holdin  at  Edinburgh,  wherin  no- 
thing was  done,  but  the  Erie  of  Huntlie  restored  to  his  father's 
lands.  Howbeit  the  queene  had  promised  to  abrogat  Popish  lawes, 
and  to  establishe  the  authoritie  of  the  reformed  kirk,  she  denyeth 
now  that  she  promised  anie  suche  thing.  When  two  proclama- 
tions, made  since  her  arrivall,  were  alledged,  she  biddeth  the  com- 
missioners of  the  kirk  come  again  another  day ;  but  it  was  not  her 
purpose  to  grant  them  audience. 


About  the  same  time,  Bothwell  invited  the  nobilitie  to  supper. 
When  they  were  weill  cheered,  he  presented  to  them  a  writt,  to  be 
subscrived.  That  they  might  be  the  more  Avilling,  he  thanked 
them  for  their  bygane  favours,  and  Ictteth  them  know,  that  by  giv- 
ing their  consents,  they  might  winnc  to  themselves  the  queen's  fa- 
vour. They  wei'e  astonished  with  such  an  iinexjiccted  petition  ; 
yitt  some  made  for  the  purjiosc,  putt  to  their  hand.  The  rest  not 
knowing  what  number  there  were  of  flatterers,  and  evcrie  one  sus- 

352  calderwood's  historie  1567. 

pecthig  another,  all  followed  and  subscrived.  The  day  following, 
calling  to  remembrance  what  they  had  done,  they  protested  inge- 
nnonslie,  they  would  not  have  subscrived,  if  they  had  not  thought 
it  would  have  beene  acceptable  to  the  queene  :  for  it  might  be  not 
onlie  prejudiciall  to  the  commoim  Aveale,  but  also  might  be  layed 
to  their  owne  charge,  that  they  had  betrayed  the  queene,  and,  in 
a  maner,  driven  her  to  a  base  manage,  in  cace  discord  sould  arise 
betwixt  her  and  Both  well ;  and  that  she  reject  him  as  she  did 
her  first  husband.  Therefore,  it  Avas  thought  expedient  now  in 
time  to  seeke  a  ratificatioun  of  that  which  they  had  done,  sub- 
scrived with  her  owne  hand.  It  was  easilie  obteaned,  and  with 
commoun  consent  committed  to  the  custodie  of  the  Erie  of  Ar- 
gile.     The  tenor  of  the  band  foUoweth  : — 


"  Wee,  under-subscriving,  understanding  that  the  noble  and 
mightie  Lord  James  Erie  of  Both  well,  Lord  Hales,  Crichton,  and 
Liddisdaill,  Great  Admirall  of  Scotland,  and  Lieutenant  to  our 
Soverane  Ladie  over  all  the  marches  therof,  being  not  onlie  bruited 
and  calumniated  by  placats  presentlie  affixed  on  publick  places  of 
the  burgh  of  Edinburgh,  and  otherwise  slaundered  by  his  evillwillers 
and  privie  enemeis,  as  art  and  part  of  the  haynous  murther  of  the 
king,  the  queen's  Majestie's  late  husband,  but  als  being  delated  of 
the  same,  by  speciall  letters  sent  to  her  Highnesse  by  the  Erie  of 
Lennox,  who  thereby  earnestlie  craved  and  desired  the  said  Erie 
BotliAvell  to  be  tried  of  the  said  murther,  is  by  condigne  inqueist, 
and  assise  of  diverse  noblemen,  his  peeres  and  others,  barons  of 
good  reputatioun,  found  innocent  and  guiltlesse  of  the  odious 
crime  objected  to  him,  and  acquitt  therof,  conforme  to  the  lawes 
of  this  reahne  :  who,  also,  for  farther  triell  of  his  part,  hath  offered 
him  readie  to  defend  and  mainteane  his  innocencie  against  all  that 
will  impugne  the  same,  by  the  law  of  armes  ;  and  so,  hath  omitted 
nothing  for  the  perfyte  triell  of  his  accusatioun,  that  anie  noble 
man  of  honour,  by  the  lawes,  ought  to  underly  and  accomplishe. 

1567.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  i^O'^ 

And  we,  considering  the  ancietie  and  noblenesse  of  his  hous,  the 
honorable  and  good  service  done  by  his  predecessors,  and  himself 
in  speciall,  to  our  soverane  ladie,  and  for  defence  of  this  her  High- 
nesse'  realme  against  the  enemeis  therof,  and  the  amitie  and  freind- 
ship  which  so  long  hatli  persevered  betwixt  his  hous  and  forbeares, 
and  everie  one  of  us,  and  our  predecessors  in  particular ;  and  on 
the  other  part,  seing  how  all  noblemen  standing  in  the  reputatioun, 
honour,  and  credit,  of  their  soverane,  arc  commounlie  subject  to 
susteane,  als  weill  the  vaine  bruites  of  the  unconstant  people,  as 
the  accusatiouns  and  caluraneis  of  their  latent  adversareis,  invyfull 
of  their  place  and  vocatioun  ;  which  both  being  practised  against 
the  said  Erie  Bothwell,  we  acknowledge  ourselves  of  freindship 
oblished  and  astricted  to  withstand  and  represse  ;  and  therefore 
to  be  bound  and  oblished,  and  by  the  tenor  heerof,  upon  our  hon- 
ours, faith,  and  truthe,  in  our  bodeis,  and  as  we  are  noblemen,  and 
wiU  answere  to  God,  oblishe  us  and  promitt,  that  in  cace  heerafter 
anie  maner  of  person  or  persons  in  whatsomever  maner  sail  happin 
to  slaunder,  backbyte,  or  calumniat  the  said  erle,  as  participant  art 
or  part  of  the  said  haynous  murther,  whei'of  ordinarie  justice  hath 
acquitt  him,  and  for  which  he  hath  offered  to  doe  his  devoire,  by 
the  law  of  armes,  in  maner  before  expreemed :  Wee,  and  everie 
one  of  us,  by  ourselves,  kin,  freinds,  and  assisters,  partakers,  and 
all  that  Avill  doe  for  us,  sail  tak  effald,^  plaine,  and  upright  part 
with  him,  to  his  defence  and  maintenance  of  his  querrell,  with  our 
bodeis  and  goods,  against  all  his  privie  or  patent  calumniators,  by- 
past  or  to  come,  or  anie  others  whatsomever,  presiuning  anie  thing 
in  word  or  deid  to  his  reproche,  dishonour,  or  infamie.  Moreover, 
weighing  and  considering  the  time  present,  and  how  the  queen's 
Majestic,  our  soverane,  is  now  at  God's  pleasure  destitut  of  an 
husband,  in  which  solitarie  estate  the  commoun  weale  of  this  our 
native  countrie  may  not  permitt  licr  Highnesse  alwaycs  to  continue, 
but  at  some  time  her  Majestic,  in  apparcncc,  for  the  commoditie  of 
her  realme,  must  yeeld  imto  a  manage :  And,  therefore,  in  cace  the 
former  affcctionat  and  lieartlie  service  of  the  said  erle  done  to  her 
^Injostio  fromc  time  to  time,  and  his  other  good  qualitcis  and  beha- 

'  Sincpro. 
VOL.   n.  Z 

354  cai^derwood's  nrsTORiE  1567. 

viour,  may  move  her  Majestic  so  farrc  to  humble  her  self",  as  prefer- 
ring one  of  her  ovv^ne  subjects  unto  all  forraine  princes,  to  tak  to  hus- 
band the  said  erle,  we,  and  everie  one  of  us,  under-subscriving,  upon 
our  honours,  truthe,  and  fidelitie,  as  said  is,  oblishe  us,  and  promitt, 
not  onlie  to  fortifie,  advance,  and  sett  fordward  the  mariage,  to  be 
compleit  and  solemnized  betwixt  her  Highnesse  and  the  said  noble 
erle,  with  ova'  votes,  counsell,  fortification,  and  assistance,  in  word 
and  deid,  at  suche  time  as  it  sail  please  her  Majestic  to  think  it  con- 
venient, and  how  soone  the  lawes  sail  leave  it  to  be  done  ;  but  in  cace 
anie  would  presume  directlie  or  indirectlie,  openlie,  or  under  what- 
somever  colour  or  pretence,  to  hinder,  hold  back,  disturbe,  or  impede 
the  same  mariage,  we  sail  in  that  behalf  esteeme,  hold,  and  reput 
the  hinderers,  disturbers,  and  adversaries  therof,  our  commoun 
enemeis,  and  evill  willers  ;  and,  not^vithstanding,  sail  advance,  for- 
tifie, and  sett  fordward  the  said  erle  thereto,  so  farre  as  it  may 
please  our  soverane  ladie  to  allow  :  and  in  that  querrell,  sail  spend 
and  bestow  our  lives  and  goods,  against  all  that  live  or  dee  may, 
as  we  sail  answere  to  God,  and  upon  our  honom-s  and  fidehtie  : 
And  in  case  we  doe  in  the  contrare,  never  to  have  reputatioun, 
honestie,  nor  credit,  in  time  heerafter ;  but  to  be  accompted 
unworthie  and  faithlesse  creatures.  In  witnesse  of  which  things, 
we  have  subscrived  thu-  presents  with  our  hands,  as  followeth  : — 
At  Edinburgh,  the  20th  day  of  Aprile,  the  yeere  of  God  1567 
yeeres.     Before  thir  witnesses, 

George  Erie  of  Huntlie.  Sanct  Andrewes.    (This  subscrip- 

Ai'chibald  Erie  of  Argile.  tion  is   counterfoote  in   the 

ArroU.  principall.) 

Crawfurd.  Joannes  Episcopus  Eosensis. 

Cassils.  William  Bishop  of  Aberdeen. 

Morton.  Alexander  Candidie  Cas^e. 

Sutherland.  William  Bishop  of  Dumblane. 

Cathnesse.  Alexander  Episcopus  Brechinen- 

Johne  Lord  Glames.  sis. 

Kobcrt  Lord  Boyd.  Johne  Bishop  of  the  Isles. 

James  Lord  Ogilvie. 

1 '»')7.  oi'  rii::  kiuk  of  Scotland.  .").").'» 

13  Mensis  Maij,  Anno  Domini  1567. 

"  Having  seene  .and  considered  the  band  above  writtin,  promit- 
teth  in  the  word  of  a  prince,  that  she  nor  her  successours,  sail  never 
impute  crime  nor  offence  to  *  *  in  caus  therof  their  subscriptioun 
or  consent  givin  to  the  mater  conteaned,  *  *  or  their  heyres  sail 
never  be  called  nor  accused  therefore ;  nor  yitt  *  *  subscriving  be 
anie  deragation  or  spott  to  their  honours,  or  they  esteemed  #  *  of 
*  *  notwithstanding  whatsomever  things  may  tend  or  *  *  In  wit- 
nesse  wherof,  her  Majestie  hath  subscrived  the  samine  *  *  ." 


Katharine  Gordonn  is  compelled  by  the  Erie  of  Bothwell,  her 
husband,  to  intend  an  actioun  of  divorcement  before  the  commis- 
sars. She  accuseth  him  of  adulterie,  and  obteaneth  divorcement. 
She  persueth  him  likewise  before  the  judges  delegat  by  the  bastard 
bishop  of  Sanct  Andrewes,  alledging  that  he  had  camall  copula- 
tioun  with  a  neere  kinswoman  of  his  before  their  mariage,  and, 
therefore,  she  could  not  be  his  laAvfull  wife.  Lett  the  reader  judge 
upon  what  intentioun  this  commissioun  of  jurisdictioun  was  givin 
to  the  bastard  bishop  before  the  murther  of  the  king,  and  before 
the  last  Generall  Assemblie.  By  the  lawes  of  the  realme  he  had 
no  power  to  constitut  judges,  for  anie  suche  causes.  This  actioun 
was  intended  and  ended  within  tenne  dayes.  She  Avas  moved  to 
persue  for  divorcement,  partlie  for  feare  of  her  life,  partlie,  that  the 
restitutioun  of  her  brother  to  his  father's  lands  might  not  be  hin- 
dered.    So  it  appeareth  this  processe  Avas  led  before  the  Parliament. 



After  that  the  Lords  had  consented  to  the  matche,  the  queene 
went  to  Stirline,  of  purpose  to  bring  her  sonne  with  her  to  Kdin- 

351)  calderwood's  historte  1567. 

burgh.  Johne  Erie  of  Marr  admitted  her  to  the  sight  of  her  sonne ; 
but  suspecting  her  intentioun,  had  so  provided  that  he  was  master 
and  connnander.  The  queene  dissembleth  her  purpose,  and  return- 
eth.  A  greevous  paine  seazed  upon  her  within  foure  myle  to  Stir- 
line.  Whether  it  proceeded  of  her  ti"avell,  or  greefe  becaus  she 
was  disappointed,  it  is  uncertane.  After  she  recovered  of  liei- 
paine,  she  cometh  fordward  to  Linlitliquo. 



When  the  queene  came  to  Linlithquo,  she  sent  Paris,  her  ser- 
vant, Avith  a  letter  to  Bothwell.  Bothwell  cometh  soone  after,  to 
witt,  upon  the  24th  of  Aprile,  accompanied  with  six  hundreth  horse  ; 
and  stayeth  at  Almond  bridge  till  the  queene  came  fordward  out 
of  Linlithquo :  taketh  her,  and  leadeth  her,  as  it  were,  captive  to 
Dumbar.  This  fact  was  thought  a  device  of  Johne  Leslie,  Bishop 
of  Rosse ;  for  it  being  the  order  of  our  countrie,  when  a  man  gett- 
eth  his  remissioun,  the  most  haynous  crimes  are  expressed  by  name, 
and  the  other  crimes  included  in  generall  termes,  the  conspirators 
ashamed  to  expresse  the  king's  murther,  committed  this  fained  rapt, 
a  crime  of  lese-majestie,  in  shew  wherof,  they  doubted  not  to  gett 
a  remissioun  suppose  it  were  expressed  ;  and  so,  the  murther  might 
be  included  in  this,  or  the  like  generall  claus,  "  And  for  all  other 
unlawfull  deeds."  The  sounder  part  of  the  nobilitie  conveened  at 
Stirline,  sent  to  the  queene,  to  understand  whether  she  was  takiu 
and  holdin  captive  against  her  will.  If  against  her  will,  they  offer  to 
sett  her  at  libertie.  She  answered,  she  was  takin  against  her  will ; 
hut  Imtli  beene  sensyne  so  courteouslie  used,  that  she  had  no  great 
cans  to  compleane.  The  lords  tooke  this  confessioun  as  a  ground 
of  their  interprise,  which  they  keeped  cldssc  till  a  fitt  opjiortunitic. 

1567.  OF'l'IlK  KlUK  OF  SCOTLAND.  3o7 


The  shew  of  the  queen's  captivitie  Avas  a  stay  to  the  finishing-  of 
the  mariage ;  therefore  Both  well  convoyeth  the  queene  to  Edin- 
biu'gh,  that  the  queen  being  sett  at  libertie  nothing  soulcl  be  al- 
ledged  to  be  extorted.  But  few  or  none  suspected  anie  constraint. 
By  the  way  his  freinds  and  dcpenders  cast  fi-oni  them  their  speares 
and  lances,  least  that  maner  of  convoy  might  argue  against  them 
that  ?he  Avas  captive.  They  convoy  her  up  to  the  castell,  which 
then  Avas  in  the  Erie  of  Botlnvell  his  custodie.  The  day  foUoAving, 
she  comcth  doun  frome  the  -castell,  presenteth  herself  before  the 
lords,  and  declareth  herself  to  be  free,  and  at  libertie. 


The  reader  of  the  kirk,  Johne  Cairns,  obstinatlie  reftising  to  pro- 
clame  the  bannes  of  mariage,  the  elders  and  deacons  layed  the  bur- 
thein  upon  Mr  Johne  Craig,  minister.  He  yeelded,  but  Avithal 
professed  he  Avould  declare  some  impediment  to  stay  the  mariage. 
The  queene  and  BothAvell  could  by  no  meanes  drive  him  from  his 
alledgance  ;  yitt  make  they  })reparatioun  for  the  solenmitie.  Upon 
the  12th  day  of  May,  BotliAvell  Avas  created  Duke  of  Orkney. 
Upon  the  16th  day,  James  Hepburne,  Lord  Hales,  Erie  of  Both- 
Avell, Duke  of  Orkney,  and  Marie  Stewart,  Queene  of  Scotland, 
Avere  joyned  in  the  band  of  matrimonie,  by  the  Bishop  of  Orkney, 
Avho  accepted  this  peece  of  service  Avhen  all  others  had  refused. 
Others  alledged  just  impediments  ;  speciallie  that  he  had  yitt  tAvo 
Avives  alive,  and  the  thrid  he  had  separat  from  him,  alledging  or 
confessing  adulterie  to  his  oAvne  turpitude.  Manic  of  the  nobihtie 
Averc  gone  out  of  the  toun.  Some  fcAv  of  Botlnvell  his  freinds  and 
favourers  staying  behind,  Avere  invited  to  the  l)ridell.  The  Frcncho 
ambatssadcr,  La  Crockc,  dcnycd  his  presence,  h()\vl»cit  he  was  one 
ol'  ihe  GAvise's  factioun,  becaus  her  oavuc  freinds  ;uid  the  King  of 

358  caldekwood's  historie  1567. 

France  mislyked,  and  the  people  abhorred  her  manage.  The  Bi- 
shop of  Orkney,  at  the  mariage,  made  a  deelaratioun  of  the  Erie  of 
Both  well  his  repentance  for  his  former  offensive  life ;  how  he  had 
joyned  himself  to  the  Kirk,  and  embraced  the  reformed  religioim  : 
but  they  were  maried  the  same  day,  in  the  morning,  with  a  masse, 
as  Avas  reported  by  men  of  credite.  What  doctrine  sounded  in  the 
pulpits  in  these  times,  may  be  easilie  considered,  by  the  chapters 
chosin  for  tlie  fast,  Avhich  Avas  celebi'ated  the  secund  and  thrid 
Lord's  day  of  May.  The  note  of  the  chapters  is  extant  in  our 
Psalme-bookes,  at  the  end  of  the  treatise  of  Fasting.^ 


The  queene,  knowing  verie  weill  Avhat  evill  opinioun  the  King  of 
France  and  the  Gwises  would  couceave  of  this  mariage,  sent  Wil- 
liam Bishop  of  Dumblane  to  them,  Avith  instructions  hoAV  to  excuse 
her,  and  to  grace  the  mater  it  self.  The  instructions  are  prolixe, 
sett  doun  at  large  by  Buchanan,  and  translated  by  Holinshed. 
The  instructions  are  forged,  and  full  of  lees,  as  the  reader  may  per- 
ceaye,  if  he  Avill  read  and  examine  them. 



The  cpieene  and  BotliAvell  convocated  a  number  of  the  nobilitie, 
and  presented  unto  them  a  band,  to  be  subscrived  and  sAVome 
unto  ;  viz.,  to  defend  the  queene  and  BothAveU,  and  all  their  deeds ; 
wherin  they,  on  the  other  part,  Avcre  bound  to  favour  and  protect 
the  confederats.  The  most  part  being  induced  before,  subscrived ; 
the  rest  foUoAved  for  feare.  The  Erie  of  Murrey  was  sent  for  to 
Seton.     Courteours  directed  by  the  queene  to  him,  asked,  if  he 

'  These  chapters  were,  Ezek.  iii.  ;  Zepli.  i.  ;  Numbers  xvi.  and  xxv.  ;  Josh.  vii.  ; 
1  Sam.  iv-vii.  and  xv.  ;  1  Kings  xv.  ;  2  Chreii.  xxvi ;  !sa.  iii, ;  Jcrcm.  xxxi\ .  ;  Hos. 
iv. ;  Amos  vi.  ;  Obad.  ;  Mich.  ii.  ;  Zachar.  v.  ;  Ezra  iv. ;  Nehcm.  ix. 

1567.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND.  .359 

woiild  subscrive  the  band.  He  answered,  he  couhl  not,  witli  ho- 
uestie  subscrive  a  band  with  the  queene,  whom  he  ought  otherwise 
to  obey  in  all  things  lawfull.  At  her  requeist  he  was  content  to 
be  reconciled  Avith  BotliAvell,  and  to  stand  to  anie  thing  he  had 
promised ;  but  to  make  a  band  with  him,  or  anie  other  subject,  he 
thought  it  prejudiciall  to  the  conunoun  wcale.  The  queene  spake 
to  him  faii*e  manic  dayes :  Bothwell  himself  assayed  what  !ie  could 
procure  at  his  hands.  After  manic  purposes,  he  said,  "  I  com- 
mitted not  that  fact  of  my  owne  motive,  or  for  my  self  alone." 
The  other  frowned  Avith  his  countenance.  Bothwell  seeketh  occa- 
sioun  of  a  plea,  and  skarse  absteaneth  from  opprobrious  speeches  :  the 
other  answered  coldlie  and  calmlie,  but  upon  no  conditioun  Avould 
subscrive  the  band.  When  he  perceaved  that  troubles  Avere  like  to 
arise,  he  craved  licence  frome  the  queene  to  goe  to  Sanct  Aiidrewes, 
or  if  it  pleased  her,  to  Murrey.  At  lenth  he  purchased  licence  to 
goe  to  France,  upon  conditioun  he  stayed  not  long  in  England. 


"When  the  queene  and  Bothwell  were  rid  of  the  Erie  of  Murrey, 
whom  they  muche  feared,  becaus  he  was  popular,  they  sett  them- 
selves against  others  Avho  had  not  subscrived,  namelie,  these  who 
had  banded  together  for  the  prince ;  to  witt,  the  Erles  of  Argile, 
Atholl,  Glencarne,  Marr,  Lord  Lindsay,  and  Lord  Boyd.  But 
Ai-gile,  the  day  after  he  joyned  with  them,  reveeled  all  their  de- 
signes  to  the  queene.  Boyd  was  allured  Avith  manic  faire  promises 
to  her  factioun.  There  Avere  also  others  no  Icssc  suspected  by  the 
queene  and  Bothwell ;  Alexander  Lord  Hume,  Walter  Ker,  Lau-d 
of  Cesfurd,  Walter  Scot  of  Balcleughe,  becaus  they  lay  neere  to 
Liddisdaill  or  Lothiane,  Avhere  BotliAvell  had  heritage  or  frcind- 
ship.  BotliAvcll  being  minded  to  make  a  road  into  Liddisdaill  to 
repaire  his  discredit  he  had  receaved  the  yeere  before,'  the  chcefc 

'  IJotliwcU's  misadventure  amoiifj  tlie  tliievcs  of  Liddisdalo,  excited  so  imicli  nur- 
riinout  and  scorn,  and  is  so  frccjuently  alluded   to  by  coteniporary  writers,  tliat  tliu 

o(50  calderwood's  historie  1567. 

of  the  claus  were  commanded  to  enter  in  the  castell  of  Edinbm'gh, 
to  remain  for  a  seasoun,  least,  as  was  pretended,  they  sould  hinder 
the  successe  of  his  expeditioun  ;  and  that,  in  their  absence,  their 
dependers  might  be  acquainted  with  the  commandement  of  others. 
But  they,  suspecting  some  other  thing,  went  home  in  the  night,  all 
except  Sir  Andrew  Ker  of  Phairnihirst,  who  was  judged  not  igno- 
rant of  the  murther  of  the  king,  and  Walter  Ker,  Laird  of  Cesfurde, 
a  weiU  meaning  man,  suspecting  nothing.  The  Lord  Hume  re- 
fused to  come  in.  All  men  were  charged  by  proclamation  to  pre- 
pare themselves  against  the  12tli  of  June,  to  ryde  with  Both  well 
to  LiddisdaiU.  The  queen  and  Bothwell  went  to  Borthwicke  cas- 
tell, which  is  distant  from  Edinburgh  seven  myle,  upon  the  (ith  of 
June,  with  artillerie  and  men  of  warre. 

following  particular  account  of  it  from  the  Diurnal  may  perhaps  not  improperly  be 
introduced  here  : 

"  Upoun  the  samyn  day,  James  Erie  Bothwell,  Lord  Hailis  of  Cryghtoun,  being 
send  be  our  soveranis  to  bring  in  certane  thevis  and  malefactouris  of  LiddisdaiU,  to 
the  Justice  Air,  to  be  puneist  for  their  demeritis,  and  he  being  serchand  the  feildis 
about  the  Hermitage,  efter  that  he  had  takin  certane  of  the  saidis  thevis,  and  had  put 
thame  in  the  place  of  the  said  Hermitage  in  presoun,  chancit  upon  ane  theif  callit 
Johne  Elvat  of  the  Park.  And  efter  he  had  takIn  him,  the  said  Johne  speirit  gif  he 
wald  saif  his  lyff ;  the  said  Erie  Bothwill  said  gif  ane  assyiss  wald  mak  him  clene,  he 
was  hertlie  contentit ;  bot  he  behuvit  to  pas  to  the  queenis  Grace.  The  said  Johne 
heirand  thaj  wordis,  slipis  fra  his  horse  to  have  rune  away  ;  bot  in  the  lychting,  the 
said  erle  schot  him  with  ane  dag  in  the  body,  and  lichtit  doun  to  have  taken  him  agane  ; 
and  followand  feirselie  u2)oua  the  said  theif,  the  said  erle  slipit  ower  ane  souch,  and 
tomblit  doun  the  same,  quhair  throw  he  was  sa  hurt  that  he  swounit.  The  said 
Johne  persaveand  himself  schot,  and  the  erle  fallin,  he  geid  to  him  quhair  he  lay,  and 
gaif  him  thrie  vvoundis,  ane  in  the  bodie,  ane  in  the  held,  and  ane  in  the  hand  ;  and 
my  lord  gaif  him  tvva  straikis  with  ane  quhingar  at  the  paip,  and  the  said  theif  de- 
pairtit ;  and  my  lord  lay  in  swoun  quhill  his  servantis  come  and  carijt  him  to  the 
Hermitage.  At  his  coming  thairto,  the  saidis  thevis  quhilk  was  in  presoune  in  the 
Hermitage  had  gottin  furth  thalrof,  and  wes  maisteris  of  the  said  place,  and  wald 
not  let  my  Lord  Bothwell  in  the  said  place,  quhill  aue  callit  Robert  Eliot  of  the 
Schaw  come  and  said,  that  gif  thaj  wald  let  in  my  Lord  Bothwell,  he  wald  saif  all 
tliair  ly  vis,  and  let  thame  gang  haine  ;  and  sua  thaj  let  my  lord  in  ;  and  gif  he  had 
not  gottin  in  at  that  time,  he  and  all  his  companie  had  been  slane.  And  the 
said  theif  that  hurt  ray  Lord  Bothwell,  deceissit  within  ane  myle,  upone  ane  hill,  of 
the  woundis  gottin  fra  my  Lord  Bothwell  of  befoir" 

1567.  OF  THE  KIKK  OF  SCOTLAND.  361 


When  the  queene  was  staying  at  Borthwicke  castell  the  lords 
of  the  other  factiouu  gather  together  two  thowsand  men,  before 
the  queene  understood  of  their  gathering.  The  lords  sould  have 
mett  at  Libberton.  JNIorton  came  to  the  appointed  place.  The 
Lord  Hume  came  to  the  castell  of  Borthwicke,  accompaneid  with 
eight  hundrethmen  armed  Avithjacke  and  speere,  of  which  number 
an  hundreth  gentlemen  came  with  young  Cesfurde,  to  assist  him. 
The  Lord  Hume  not  having  a  sufficient  number  to  keepe  all  pass- 
ages about  the  castell,  and  being  withall  somewhat  negligent,  be- 
caus  he  feared  the  Lord  had  deserted  the  cause,  Bothwell  first  es- 
caped, and  then  the  queene,  disguised  in  man's  apparrell,  followed 
to  Dumbar.  The  lords  sould  have  met  together  at  Libberton  ; 
but  the  Erie  of  Atholl,  either  his  fearefulnesse  or  sleuth,  stayed 
them  at  Stirline  longer  than  the  appointed  tune.  Howbeit  the 
diett  was  not  keeped,  yitt  they  came  fordward  with  the  greatest 
part  of  their  armie  to  Edinburgh.  When  the  Lord  Hume  heard 
that  Bothwell  had  escaped,  he  returueth  from  Borthwick  castell, 
and  mett  the  lords  upon  the  elleventh  of  June. 


When  the  lords  were  conveened  at  Edinburgh,  they  proclaimed 
the  Erie  of  Bothwell  to  be  the  cheefe  author  of  the  murther  of  the 
king,  and  that  their  intentioun  was  to  be  avenged  upon  him  for 
that  murther.' 


Sir  James  Balfour  had  the  custodie  of  the  castell  of  Edinburgli 
couunittcd  to  him  by  the  Erie  Bothwell.     He  was  a  cheefe  actor 
in  the  murther ;  yitt   not   being  recompensed   as  he  wished,  and 
'    For  this  Act  of  the  Lords,  see  Appuiulix,  letter  H. 

362  caldekwood's  histokie  1567. 

Bothwell  baviiig  attempted  to  remove  him,  he  removed  so  manle 
as  favoured  the  queen's  factioun,  and  beganne  to  transact  with  the 
lords  about  the  randering  of  the  castell.  In  time  of  this  transac- 
tioun,  he  lett  out  at  a  posterne  gate  the  Erie  of  Huntlie,  the  Bi- 
shop of  Sanct  Andrewes,  the  Bishop  of  Rosse,  Avhom  he  had  re- 
ceaved  in  when  the  lords  came  to  Edinburgh. 


The  lords  found  not  suche  concurrence  out  of  all  quarters  as  they 
expected,  and  suche  worthie  enterprise  required ;  for  manie  fa- 
voured the  other  pai'tie,  or  suspended  their  aide,  till  they  saw  far- 
ther. They  wanted  likewise  ax'tiUerie  and  munitioun  necessarle  for 
the  siege.  When  they  beganne  to  deliberat  upon  dissolving  their 
armie,  the  queen  cometh  fordward  with  her  forces.  She  had  two 
hundrcth  harquebusiers,  under  the  conduct  of  Captan  Anstruther. 
Her  forces  consisted  of  two  thowsand  five  hundreth  men,  but  the 
most  part  were  commouns.  The  Lords  Seton,  Yester,  Borth- 
■\vicke ;  the  Lairds  of  Basse,  Waughton,  Ormeston  in  Tiviotdaill, 
Wedderburne,  Langton,  Blanerne,  and  Sii*  Andrew  Ker  of  Hirsill, 
were  the  cheefe.  If  she  had  stayed  her  forces  had  encreassed  ; 
but  she  being  confident  in  this  number,  determined  to  marche  to 
Leith.  Mr  Edmund  Hay,  the  Erie  Bothwel's  procurator,  made 
her  beleeve  that  at  the  verie  bruite  of  her  comming  the  confe- 
derat  lords  would  take  the  flight.  When  they  came  througli 
Glaidsmure,  an  hundreth  pund  land  of  old  extent  was  promised, 
by  open  proclamatioun,  to  him  that  sould  slay  an  erle  or  lord  ; 
fourtie  pund  land  to  him  that  sould  slay  a  baron,  ten  pund  land  to 
him  that  sould  slay  a  gentleman,  the  escheat  of  a  yeaman  to  him 
that  slayeth  a  yeaman. 

The  lords  being  advertised,  a  little  before  midnight,  of  their 
comming,  the  trumpets  were  blowin,  the  commoun  bell  kneUed. 
They  went  out  on  footc,  till  they  came  to  the  Stoods,  to  the  num- 
ber of  two  thowsand  men.  There  were  no  harqucl)usicrs  among 
them,  except  some  voluntary  ul'  Edinburgh.    The  Erics  of  Morton, 

15G7.  OF  THE  KlllK  OF  SCOTLAND.  36:5 

AthoU,  MtiiT,  Glencarne,  the  Maister  of  Montrose,  Lords  Hume, 
Kuthven,  Lindsay,  Senipill,  Sanquhair,  Lairds  Tullibardin,  Ces- 
furde,  Dumlanrig,  Grange,  were  the  cheete  leaders.  They  went 
furth  at  two  houres  of  the  morning,  stayed  till  five,  and  sent  furtli 
in  the  mean  time  to  trie  where  the  other  partie  was.  AVhen  they 
heard  they  were  at  Seton,  they  sent  for  their  horse,  and  marched 
till  they  came  to  Mussilburgh  bridge,  where  they  refreshed  them- 
selves a  httle,  till  seven  hom'es.  About  this  time,  the  queene  came 
furth  of  Seton  to  Fawside,  or  Carbarrie  Hill,  above  Mussilbm'gh. 
The  lords  marching  toward  Preston,  perceaving  the  queen's  armie 
standing  upon  the  top  of  Carbarrie  Plill,  arrayed,  returne,  and  cast 
about  to  ascend  where  the  hill  was  not  steepe,  but  not  till  after 
noone,  that  the  sunne  might  shine  u})on  their  backes.  Foure 
hundreth  men  were  allowed  to  young  Dumlanrig,  Manderston,  and 
Huttonhall,  to  disturbe  and  breake  the  array  of  their  gunners. 
The  Erie  of  Morton  and  Lord  Hume  were  conductors  of  the  avant- 
guarde ;  the  Erles  of  Marr,  AthoU,  Glencarne,  Lindsay,  Sempill, 
Sanquhare,  Ruthven,  &c.,  conducted  the  rere-guarde.  Monsieur  Ic 
Crocke  desii'ed  the  mater  to  be  takin  up  without  blood,  and  pro- 
mised to  procure  pardoun  for  all  offences  bypast,  and  that  they 
sould  incurre  no  danger  for  taking  armes  against  her  for  that  day. 
jMorton  answered.  They  tooke  not  armes  against  the  queen,  but 
against  the  nuirtherer  of  the  king.  If  the  queene  woidd  deliver 
him  to  be  punished,  or  seperat  herself  frome  him,  they  would  con- 
tinue in  due  obedience ;  otherwise,  there  could  be  no  reconcilia- 
tioun.  Glencarne  said.  They  came  not  in  armes  to  (.-rave  pardoun 
for  anie  offence,  but  rather  to  give  pardoun  to  suche  as  had  ottended. 
The  ambassader,  knowing  the  equitie  of  their  cans,  left  them,  and 
went  unto  Edinburgh. 

The  queen's  armie  stood  upon  Carbarrie-hill,  Avherc  the  English 
armie  camped  some  yeeres  before  :  the  lords'  armie  stood  over 
against  them,  on  the  north  side  of  Cowsland.  J3othwell  came  furtli 
Weill  mounted  before  the  armie,  and  by  a  cryer,  offered  the  singular 
combat,  for  triell  of  his  innocencie.  James  Murrey  of  Tullibardin, 
the  man  wlio  before  had  affixed  upon  the  Croce  of  Edinburgh  an 

3(j4  caldeewood's  historie  1567. 

answere  to  his  challenge,  accepted  the  ofter :  the  other  refused, 
pretending  he  was  not  his  equal!  in  degree  of  honour.  Then  his 
brother,  William  Murrey,  Laird  of  TuUibardin,  offered  to  fight, 
and  alledged  his  hous  to  be  more  ancient  than  his.  He  still  refused, 
and  craved  an  erle ;  specialUe,  he  provoked  the  Erie  of  Morton. 
He  accepteth  the  offer,  and  craveth  to  fight  on  foote,  with  two- 
handed  swords.  But  Patrik  Lord  Lindsay  besought  the  lords  of 
courtesie,  and  in  recompence  of  all  the  service  he  had  done,  or 
could  doe,  to  honour  him  with  that  combat,  claiming  it  also  as  due 
to  him,  in  respect  of  his  kindred  with  the  defunct  king.  It  was 
granted.  The  Erie  of  Morton  gave  him  Archibald  Erie  of  Angus, 
called  Bell-the-Cat  his  sword,  which  frome  that  time  furth,  the 
Lord  Lindsay  caried  about  with  him  continuallie.  When  he  was 
in  readinesse,  the  queene  called  for  Bothwell,  and  said  he  was  her 
husband  ;  he  sail  not  fight  with  anie  of  them.  She  perswaded  him 
to  withdraw  himself  secreitlie  out  of  the  feild  ;  for  she  had  tried, 
that  few  except  his  owne  freinds  and  dependers  were  willing  to 
fight ;  at  least,  were  desirous  the  battell  might  be  delayed  till  the 
nixt  day,  that  Huntlie  and  the  Bishop  of  Sanct  Andi'ewes  come 
Avith  new  forces,  if  Bothwell,  in  the  meane  time,  would  not  decide 
the  questioun  by  single  combat.  She  weeped,  fretted,  upbraided 
the  barons  and  lairds  :  then  she  sent  to  the  lords,  desiring  them  to 
send  to  her  W^illiam  Kirkaldie  of  Grange,  pretending  she  Avould 
conferre  with  him  upon  conditiouns.  He  is  sent,  and  they  stay  in 
a  lower  place,  to  avoide  the  shott  of  her  artillerie  and  feild  peeces. 
Whill  the  queen  was  conferring  with  Grange,  Bothwell  conveyed 
himself  sccreetlie  from  the  armie,  and  hasted  with  speed  to  Dum- 
bar,  himself  alone,  becaus  he  would  trust  none ;  yitt  others  report 
with  seven  or  eight.  After  he  had  takin  the  flight,  sindrie  shrinked 
away  by  hundrcths,  fourteis,  and  threttcis.  One  was  sent  frome 
the  queen's  armie  with  a  long  picke,  and  cast  it  doun  before  the 
horsemen  of  the  other  armie,  in  tokin  the  victorie  was  theirs.  The 
queen  comcth  with  Grange  to  the  lords,  in  a  short  [litticoate,  little 
syder  than  her  knees.  She  was  reccaved  with  respect  by  INIorton 
and  Hume,  leaders  of  the  avant-guardc.     She  desired  libcrtic  to 

15(17.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  SCOTLAND,  .JGo 

goe  to  the  Hammiltons,  who  were  said  to  be  neere  hand  at  Cor- 
storpliine,  to  give  them  thanks  for  their  wilHngnesse  to  serve  her, 
promising  faithfullie  to  returne,  and  desired  the  Erie  of  Morton  to 
be  cautioner.  He  refuseth,  seing  Both  well  was  fled,  and  their  ene- 
meis  wanted  her  to  be  a  head,  which  was  a  great  advantage.  Then 
she  upbraided  them  with  benefites  which  she  had  bestowed  upon 
them.  When  she  came  to  the  rere-guarde,  all  cried  out,  to  burne  the 
whoore  and  murtherer  of  her  husband.  An  ensigne  was  caried 
before  her  wheresoever  she  went,  by  two  men,  stented  betwixt  two 
speeres,  whcrin  Avas  painted  her  husband  lying  dead  under  a  tree, 
and  beside  him  her  young  sonne  at  his  head,  heaving  up  his  hands, 
and  above  his  head  these  words,  "  Judge  and  revenge  my  cause,  O 
Lord  I"  She  could  skarse  be  holdin  upon  horsebacke,  for  greefe 
and  faintnesse.  So  soone  as  she  recovered,  she  burst  furth  in 
teares,  threats,  reproaches,  as  her  discontentment  moved.  All  the 
way  she  lingered,  looking  for  some  helpe.  She  came  to  Edinburgh 
about  ten  houres  at  night,  her  face  all  disfigured  with  dust  and 
teares.  The  throng  of  the  people  was  so  thicke,  that  it  behoved 
the  armie  to  marche  single,  man  by  man. 


The  day  following,  that  is  the  1  (5th  of  .Time,  a  discord  arising 
betwixt  tAvo  men,  the  one  cried,  "  A  Hume !"  wherupon  the  Lord 
Hume  went  to  the  street  with  his  freinds,  and  would  suffer  none 
to  come  to  the  street  for  the  space  of  three  houres.  A  great  tu- 
mult there  Avas  at  the  knelling  of  the  bell ;  evene  man  mervelled 
what  the  mater  meant.  It  was  supposed  afterward  that  this  tu- 
nnilt  Avas  devised  piu-poslic,  tlint  tlio  quoeno  might  escape. 


The  ensigne  Avas  again  displcyed  over  against  her  AvindoAV,  Avhich, 
when  slie  perceaved,  she  dosed  herself  againe.  Tier  sj)irit  Avas  not 
yitt  tliroiighlie  dauntoned  ;   for  wlicn  she   cntei-cd   in   her  lnodging 


a  certan  woman  spaired  not  iinprecatiouns  against  her:  she  turned, 
and  threatned  to  cans  bnrnc  the  tonn,  and  then  slocken  the  fire 
with  the  blood  of  (its)  pei"fidious  inhabitants. 


Great  diversitie  of  opinions  there  was  among  the  lords  what 
sould  nixt  be  done.  Mortoun  would  have  her  life  spaired,  with 
provisioun  of  securitie  to  religioun.  It  was  answered,  so  long  as 
she  was  alive  some  would  attempt  her  libertie  ;  and  then,  if  she 
escaped,  all  promises  would  be  eluded,  and  imputed  to  feare  or 
compulsioun  :  yea,  some  said,  that  as  he  was  a  stayer  of  justice  he 
sould  feele  the  justice  of  God  striking  him  with  the  sword.  If  it 
be  unlawfuU  to  execute  her,  then  her  deteaning  sail  be  unlawfull, 
and  all  that  they  had  done  might  be  called  in  questioun.  It  was, 
notwithstanding  concluded,  that  she  sould  be  sent  to  Lochlevin, 
and  committed  to  the  custodie  of  William  Dowglas,  Laird  of  Loch- 
levin.    The  Lords  Ruthven  and  Lindsay  convoyed  her. 


The  lords  went  doun  to  the  Palace  of  Halyrudhous,  and  tooke 
up  an  inventar  of  the  plait,  Jewells,  and  other  movables.  Upon 
the  24th  day  of  June  they  threw  doun  sindrie  things  in  the  queen's 
chappell,  where  the  queene  had  her  masse. 


About  this  time  Captan  Clerk  went  to  the  seas,  and  brought  in 
Captan  Blacadcr,  and  some  others,  guiltie  of  the  murthcv  of  tlio 
king.     They  were  convicted,  but  denied  obstinatlie. 

The  Bishop  of  Dumblane,  sent,  as  yee  have  heard  before,  to 

1567.  OF  THE  KIRK  OF  S^JTLAND.  367 

France,  craved  a  day  to  be  sett,  for  hearing  his  instructions  and 
messnffe.  When  he  beo-anne  to  mak  his  harangf  before  the  kinij 
and  his  mother  the  queene ;  to  cxtoll  Bothwell,  to  excuse  the  con- 
tracting and  finishing  of  the  mariage  without  their  knowledge,  the 
queene  interrupted  him,  and  produced  the  letters  which  she  had 
reccavcd  out  of  Scotland,  wherin  was  declared,  that  Bothwell  had 
takin  the  flight,  and  the  queen  was  takin  captive.  lie,  astonished 
with  suche  unexpected  newes,  held  his  peace.  Some  girned,  some 
laughed :  no  man  thought  anie  thing  had  befallin  which  she  had 
not  deserved.  The  king  and  queene  had  receaved  letters  from  Le 
Croeke  and  Captan  Cockburne. 


About  the  same  time  Bothwell  sent  to  the  Castell  of  Edinburgh 
for  a  silver  casket,  which  belonged  sometime  to  the  King  of  France, 
as  the  letters  upon  it  testified.  In  it  were  conteaned  the  queen's 
letters  to  Bothwell,  contracts,  songs,  &c.,  which  Bothwell  keeped, 
fearing  her  inconstancie,  to  be  a  testimonie  against  her,  howbeit 
she  had  desired  him  to  burne  the  letters  after  he  had  read  them. 
Sir  James  Balfour  delivered  the  casket  to  the  messinger,  but  with- 
aU  advertised  some  of  the  lords  what  he  Avas  careing  to  Bothwell. 
The  casket  is  intercepted,  wherin  were  found  the  letters  and  songs, 
whereby  manie  secreits  of  the  conspiracic  against  the  king  were 
farther  detected,  and  the  whole  proceeding  represented  almost  in  a 
livelie  maner  to  men's  eyes.  I  find  in  a  certane  manuscript,  that 
the  messinger  was  Mr  Thomas  Hepbume,  Parson  of  Aldham- 


Upon  the  26th  day  of  June  the  Erie  BothweU  was  declared 
by  open  proclamation,  not  onlie  the  cheefe  author  of  the  niurthcr, 
but  also  the  committer  of  it  witli  his  owne  hands,  and  a  thowsand 
crownes  were  offered  to  anie  that  would  bring  him  in. 

oGS  calderwood's  historie  1567. 


The  Generall  Assemblie  was  holdin  at  Edinl^iirgh  in  the  neather 
Tolbuith,  the  25th  day  of  June. 


Another  Assemblie  was  indicted  to  be  holdin  the  20th  day  of 
the  nixt  moneth.  It  was  ordeaned,  that  missives  sould  be  sent  to 
erles,  lords,  barouns,  and  commendatars  of  abbeyes,  to  require  their 
presence  at  the  nixt  Assemblie,  and  assistance  to  suche  maters  as 
are  conteaned  in  the  missive.  Commissioners  were  appointed  to 
direct  or  deliver  the  missives  to  the  persons  nominated  to  them. 
The  tenor  of  the  missive  followeth  : — 

"  My  Lord,  (or  Worship  full  Sir,) — After  our  most  heartlie  com- 
mendatiouns  of  service  in  the  Lord  Jesus  ;  having  now  of  long  time 
travelled  both  in  publick  and  privat  Avith  all  estats,  continuallie  crav- 
ing of  them,  and  of  your  Honour  in  speciall,  that  the  course  of  the 
Evangell,  now  once  by  the  liberall  mercie  of  God  restored  to 
this  realme,  might  continue  to  your  and  your  posteriteis  comfort ; 
and  that,  for  the  furtherance  and  maintenance  therof,  a  perfyte  po- 
licie  and  foil  libertie  might  be  granted  to  this  reformed  kirk  within 
Scotland,  the  ministrie  and  poore  provided  for  sufficientlie,  as  God 
and  all  other  policie  and  civill  lawes  ordeane  and  require,  and  that 
all  superstitioun,  idolatrie,  and  monuments  therof  might  be  utterlie 
removed  and  banished  out  of  this  realme,  which  God  of  his  infinite 
mercie  liath  so  lovinglie  and  willinglie  called  from  darknesse  to 
light ;  this  mater,  indeid,  was  liked  by  all  men.  But  suche  impedi- 
ments made  the  enemie  of  the  kirk  in  his  members,  to  stay  the 
good  work  of  God,  that  moyen  could  there  none  bo  had ;  but  by 
the  conti'arc,  at  everie  liglit  occasioun,  the  ministrie  frustrated  of 
all  livelihood  and  sustentatioun,  tlie  lame  and  impotent  members  of 
Christ  lying  in  the  street  as  doung,  perishing  for  hunger  and  cold. 

15G7.  OF  THE  KIRK  OP  SCOTL^VND.  369 

yea,  and  the  whole  flocke  of  Christ  Jesus  within  this  reahne  con- 
tinuallie  threatned  Avith  the  execntioun  of  that  most  cruell  decreet 
of  the  last  Councell  of  Trent,  wherin  was  determined  and  decreed 
to  make  a  sacrifice  of  all  the  professors  in  Europ,  by  the  tyrannic 
of  that  Roman  Antichrist.  We  are  not  ignorant  how  farre  the 
samine  was  attempted  by  way  of  dei